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Box plot (Box and whisker plot)

Categorical data

Data

Dot plot

A graphic way to display the median, quartiles, and extremes…

The statistical data type consisting of categorical variables…

A collection of facts, such as numbers, words, measurements,…

A statistical chart consisting of data points plotted on a fa…

Box plot (Box and whisker plot)

A graphic way to display the median, quartiles, and extremes…

Categorical data

The statistical data type consisting of categorical variables…

distribution of data

frequency

frequency distribution

relative frequency

values of the variable and how frequently the values are obse…

count; number of times that a category or value appears in th…

a table or graph that presents the categories or numerical va…

frequency divided by the total number of data

distribution of data

values of the variable and how frequently the values are obse…

frequency

count; number of times that a category or value appears in th…

Scientific Notation

Exponents

like terms

Accuracy

Used for either really large or small numbers, often used whe…

In order to add or subtract scientific notations, the _______…

To multiply or divide scientific notation, you multiply the _…

closeness of measurements to the largest value

Scientific Notation

Used for either really large or small numbers, often used whe…

Exponents

In order to add or subtract scientific notations, the _______…

data

Interview method

Direct observation:

Indirect observation

value assigned to a physical object, behavior, or concept ... -f…

data derived directly from individuals by the researcher; dir…

actual observation of behavior

observation of physical traces of behavior; observing evidenc…

data

value assigned to a physical object, behavior, or concept ... -f…

Interview method

data derived directly from individuals by the researcher; dir…

Descriptive statistics

Histogram

Scatterplot

Median

Summarizes variables in a data set and examine how the variab…

A graphic presentation of a frequency distribution.

Ideal for visualizing the relationship between quantitative v…

The middle point in a set of numbers that has been arranged i…

Descriptive statistics

Summarizes variables in a data set and examine how the variab…

Histogram

A graphic presentation of a frequency distribution.

Constants

Variables

independent/control variable

dependent/responding variable

physical quantities whose value remains the same every time i…

physical quantities whose value changes ... ex: speed of a car,…

the variable that controls the other

the variable that depends on the other

Constants

physical quantities whose value remains the same every time i…

Variables

physical quantities whose value changes ... ex: speed of a car,…

Tests of significance tell us if our r…

Measures of association

Measures of association help social sc…

The relationship between measures of a…

d. measures of association

d. Both A and C.... c. enhance our ability to predict from one v…

d. prediction and understanding causation

b. association does not prove causation

Tests of significance tell us if our r…

d. measures of association

Measures of association

d. Both A and C.... c. enhance our ability to predict from one v…

biased question

biased sample

central tendency

data

a question that leads individuals toward a certain answer.

a sample not representative of the entire population.

ways to describe or summarize data.

information

biased question

a question that leads individuals toward a certain answer.

biased sample

a sample not representative of the entire population.

statistic

parameter

descriptive statistics

inferential statistics

a quantity computed from a sample

a quantity computed from a population

describe central tendency and variability of a sample

allow us to draw conclusions about a population from a sample

statistic

a quantity computed from a sample

parameter

a quantity computed from a population

Cross tabulations

Analysis of variance

Regression

Factor analysis

Looking for specific attitudes or behaviors that occur more o…

Looking for averages that differ well beyond what their varia…

Dividing variables into predictors and outcomes to estimate h…

Groups highly correlated variables and groups them into facto…

Cross tabulations

Looking for specific attitudes or behaviors that occur more o…

Analysis of variance

Looking for averages that differ well beyond what their varia…

Statistics

Data

Quantitative Data

Qualitative Data

the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of…

facts or figures from which conclusions can be drawn

expressing a certain quantity, amount or range. Usually, ther…

is a categorical measurement expressed not in terms of number…

Statistics

the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of…

Data

facts or figures from which conclusions can be drawn

Positive Relationship

Negative Relationship

S

Sigma (o with line across top)

When two sets of data correlates upwards and downwards together

When two sets of data correlates upwards and downwards in opp…

Symbol for sample standard deviation

Symbol for population standard deviation

Positive Relationship

When two sets of data correlates upwards and downwards together

Negative Relationship

When two sets of data correlates upwards and downwards in opp…

Mean

Median

Mode

Range

The average value of all scores, calculated by adding all the…

The middle value when all scores are placed in rank order.

The value that occurs most frequently.

Measure of dispersion. The difference between the smallest an…

Mean

The average value of all scores, calculated by adding all the…

Median

The middle value when all scores are placed in rank order.

Acurate

Precise

Error Precent

Significant Figure

Refers to the closeness of the true value or accepted value

A set of measurements done the same way and they are close in…

Error=|accepted value - exact precise value| ... Error=|(accept…

The number that consists of two parts

Acurate

Refers to the closeness of the true value or accepted value

Precise

A set of measurements done the same way and they are close in…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Measures of Central Tendency

Mean

Numbers used to describe the levels and associations found in…

Numbers used to estimate the probability that levels and asso…

Also known as an average; mean, median, mode

Sum of a set of scores divided by the number of scores; Inter…

Descriptive Statistics

Numbers used to describe the levels and associations found in…

Inferential Statistics

Numbers used to estimate the probability that levels and asso…

The Nature of Data:

Data Builds toward Theory:

Analytic Induction:

Strauss and Corbin's Coding Paradigm:

Almost anything written or seen can be qualitative data ... Tran…

Basic question we want answered is: What's going on here? ... Ea…

beginning with a single observation, every observation is com…

The phenomenon... The conditions... Actions/interactions... The conseq…

The Nature of Data:

Almost anything written or seen can be qualitative data ... Tran…

Data Builds toward Theory:

Basic question we want answered is: What's going on here? ... Ea…

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of Dispersion (Spread)

Mean

Median

The mean, median and mode are considered the measures of cent…

The range and interquartile range are considered the measures…

The average of the numbers in the set. It is obtained by addi…

The middle number in a data set with an odd number of data. T…

Measures of Central Tendency

The mean, median and mode are considered the measures of cent…

Measures of Dispersion (Spread)

The range and interquartile range are considered the measures…

__ - used for separation of mixtures

___ - stationary phase is a thin layer…

___ - used for drug screening

___ - mobile phase, inert gas carries…

chromatography

TLC (thin layer chromatography)

chromatography

gas chromatography

__ - used for separation of mixtures

chromatography

___ - stationary phase is a thin layer…

TLC (thin layer chromatography)

structured reference

logical condition

type: custom

type- text length

actual table name/column header

an expression that returns either a TRUE value or a FALSE value

acceptable values: values based on the results of a logical f…

acceptable value- text limited to a specified number of chara…

structured reference

actual table name/column header

logical condition

an expression that returns either a TRUE value or a FALSE value

Accuracy

base unit

conversion factor

density

refers to how close a measured value is to an accepted value.

A defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an…

A ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantit…

A ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume

Accuracy

refers to how close a measured value is to an accepted value.

base unit

A defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an…

Statistics

Raw data

Variable

Continuous variable

The branch of mathematics that deals with the gathering, orga…

Unprocessed information collected

The quantity being measured

Can have an infinite number of possible values within a given…

Statistics

The branch of mathematics that deals with the gathering, orga…

Raw data

Unprocessed information collected

Measures of Variation

Measures of Variation include

Range

Interquartile Range (IQR)

Give information on the spread or variability of the data val…

Range, interquartile range, variance, standard deviation, and…

Simplest measure of variation - difference between largest an…

IQR is a resistant summary measure. Eliminates outlier proble…

Measures of Variation

Give information on the spread or variability of the data val…

Measures of Variation include

Range, interquartile range, variance, standard deviation, and…

One of the most important principles o…

To use a constant value in a formula:

You can mix relative and absolute refe…

The Excel formulas you write can refer…

A constant value should be entered only one time in a workbook.

reference its cell location.

TRUE

TRUE

One of the most important principles o…

A constant value should be entered only one time in a workbook.

To use a constant value in a formula:

reference its cell location.

Variable

Attributes

Operationalization

Mutually Exclusive

Anything that varies in the social world. Anything that shows…

Characteristics that make up a variable. (ex. female, male, o…

Listing the attributes of a variable, ensuring that the list…

Every observation falls into one, and only one category of th…

Variable

Anything that varies in the social world. Anything that shows…

Attributes

Characteristics that make up a variable. (ex. female, male, o…

Replicates

Central tendencies

Standard deviation

Central limit theorem

The number of times a measurement is taken on a certain indiv…

The degree of clustering of the values of a statistical distr…

Quantity calculated to indicate the extent of deviation for a…

The sampling distribution of independent, identical statistic…

Replicates

The number of times a measurement is taken on a certain indiv…

Central tendencies

The degree of clustering of the values of a statistical distr…

Hypothesis testing

Operational definition

Correlation

Random assignment

The process of drawing conclusions about whether a particular…

The operations or procedures used to measure or manipulate a…

An association between two or more variables

The protocol established for an experiment whereby every part…

Hypothesis testing

The process of drawing conclusions about whether a particular…

Operational definition

The operations or procedures used to measure or manipulate a…

____________analysis is concerned with…

two decisions regarding null hypothesi…

accepting the null hypothesis when it…

rejecting the null hypothesis when it…

-statistical ... -relationship

NH is true... NH is false

type II error

type I error

____________analysis is concerned with…

-statistical ... -relationship

two decisions regarding null hypothesi…

NH is true... NH is false

Level of analysis from most basic to m…

Description analysis

Generalization Analysis

Differences

1. Description... 2. Generalization ... 3. Differences... 4. Relations…

data summarization and simple description

project sample findings to the population

detect differences in responses

Level of analysis from most basic to m…

1. Description... 2. Generalization ... 3. Differences... 4. Relations…

Description analysis

data summarization and simple description

Main Types of Data Analysis

Descriptive Analysis

Examples of Descriptive Analysis

Content Analysis

Descriptive and Inferential

summarizes Data from your particular sample and conclusions c…

Content Analysis... Descriptive statistics... Statistical relations…

Process of organizing unstructured observations or interviews…

Main Types of Data Analysis

Descriptive and Inferential

Descriptive Analysis

summarizes Data from your particular sample and conclusions c…

Either/Or (The Union)

Conditional Probability

Multiplication Rule

Independent Events

The Union of events, A and B, is where either A or B, or A an…

The probability of one event conditional upon the state of an…

Two Events are said to be independent if the results of the f…

Either/Or (The Union)

The Union of events, A and B, is where either A or B, or A an…

Conditional Probability

The probability of one event conditional upon the state of an…

Interval Data

Mean

Ratio Data

Standard Deviation

a level of measurement where units of equal measurement are u…

calculated by adding up all the data items and dividing be th…

a level of measurement on a scale like interval, but has a tr…

the measure of the spread across the mean.

Interval Data

a level of measurement where units of equal measurement are u…

Mean

calculated by adding up all the data items and dividing be th…

Cross tab

Analysis of variance

Regression analysis

Factor analysis

Frequency counts... Conditions, attitudes, and/or behaviors that…

Variability around an average... Averages that differ beyond exp…

Relationship between a dependent variable and one or more ind…

Data reduction techniques... Identify highly correlated variable…

Cross tab

Frequency counts... Conditions, attitudes, and/or behaviors that…

Analysis of variance

Variability around an average... Averages that differ beyond exp…

Primary Data

Bedload Roundness Bradshaw

Bedload Roundness Describe

Bedload Roundness Explain

Data/analysis based on Bradshaw's Model of how channel charac…

According to Bradshaw the roundness of the rocks should incre…

Using Callieux Index of Roundness (CIR) we measured the round…

According to Bradshaw the roundness of the rocks should incre…

Primary Data

Data/analysis based on Bradshaw's Model of how channel charac…

Bedload Roundness Bradshaw

According to Bradshaw the roundness of the rocks should incre…

Data

Building blocks of information

Data management

Information

is raw facts that have yet to be processed to reveal true mea…

Data

generation, storage and retrieval of information

occurs when data is produced where data's meaning is revealed

Data

is raw facts that have yet to be processed to reveal true mea…

Building blocks of information

Data

range

mean

median

mode

difference between the highest and lowest data items

the sum of data items divided by the number of items

middle data item when data is ordered from least to greatest

data that occurs most often

range

difference between the highest and lowest data items

mean

the sum of data items divided by the number of items

Measures of Central Tendency

Mean

Advantage of the Mean

Disadvantage of the Mean

Measures the middle or average in a set of data.

Add up all the values in the data and divide by the amount of…

Most sensitive measure of central tendency as all of the data…

Easily affected (skewed) by extreme scores so can be less val…

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures the middle or average in a set of data.

Mean

Add up all the values in the data and divide by the amount of…

Qualitative Data

Quantitative Data

Primary Data

Secondary Data

Data that is expressed in words and non--numerical (although…

Data that can be counted. Usually given as numbers

Information that has been obtained first hand by the research…

Information that has already been collected by somebody else…

Qualitative Data

Data that is expressed in words and non--numerical (although…

Quantitative Data

Data that can be counted. Usually given as numbers

Frequency Distribution

Relative frequency

Segmented/Stacked bar graph

Histogram

The frequency or count of a particular category or numerical…

Relative frequency of an element is the frequency (or count)…

Each bar represents a category (the variable measured) which…

A bar graph with no spaces between the bars. Any space betwee…

Frequency Distribution

The frequency or count of a particular category or numerical…

Relative frequency

Relative frequency of an element is the frequency (or count)…

Accuracy

Base Unit

Conversion Factor

Density

refers to how close a measured value is to an accepted value

defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an o…

ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantity…

ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume

Accuracy

refers to how close a measured value is to an accepted value

Base Unit

defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an o…

What is the analysis of QUANative data?

Statistics=

2 types of statistics:

What are descriptive statistics?

Use of statistics to examine & summarize nnnumerical data to…

An estimate of characteristics derived from data collected

1) Descriptive ... 2) Inferential... Inferential

Statistics that enable description & summarization of collect…

What is the analysis of QUANative data?

Use of statistics to examine & summarize nnnumerical data to…

Statistics=

An estimate of characteristics derived from data collected

Base Unit

Derived Units

Volume

Denstity

A defined unit based on an object or event in the physical wo…

Combination of base units.

The space occupied by an object.

A ratio comparing the mass of an object to its volume.

Base Unit

A defined unit based on an object or event in the physical wo…

Derived Units

Combination of base units.

accuracy

base unit

conversion factor

density

refers to how close a measured value is to an accepted value

is a defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on…

is a ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quan…

is a ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume

accuracy

refers to how close a measured value is to an accepted value

base unit

is a defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on…

Base Unit

Volume

Density

Scientific Notation

A defined unit based on an object or event in the physical wo…

The space occupied by an object

A ration comparing the mass of an object to its volume

Expresses really large or really small measurements as a prod…

Base Unit

A defined unit based on an object or event in the physical wo…

Volume

The space occupied by an object

Percentage

Nominal

Ordinal

True

The phrase "50% of the class" represents what type of derived…

Which of the following is considered the lowest level of data?

The order in which a group of horses finish a race represents…

A histogram is useful for presenting distributions of observa…

Percentage

The phrase "50% of the class" represents what type of derived…

Nominal

Which of the following is considered the lowest level of data?

Point estimate

Margin of error

Population parameter

Confidence interval

Sample stat calculated on data drawn from a random sample

Error of random sample when estimating the population parameter

Characterises a population e.g m/p/sd

Range of values where it is likely that the population parame…

Point estimate

Sample stat calculated on data drawn from a random sample

Margin of error

Error of random sample when estimating the population parameter

The statement, "Forty percent of the c…

Statistics will do all of the followin…

Which sampling method is best for stud…

Statistical literacy is necessary for…

Descriptive

Prove relationships

Cluster sampling

True

The statement, "Forty percent of the c…

Descriptive

Statistics will do all of the followin…

Prove relationships

Descriptive statistics

Bivariate analysis

Multivariate analysis

Tabulation

Used to describe characteristics of a sample

Evidence of the extent to which X and Y facts occur together…

Evidence of the extent to which multiple factors occur togeth…

The orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summer fo…

Descriptive statistics

Used to describe characteristics of a sample

Bivariate analysis

Evidence of the extent to which X and Y facts occur together…