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Study sets matching "diabetes complications"

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Study sets matching "diabetes complications"

54 terms
Diabetes Complications
C... a. Is produced by BETA cells ... b. sti…
Glycogenolysis
True
A
Insulin:... a. Is produced by alpha cells ... b. stimulates glucose…
Breakdown of glycogen to form glucose from the liver is terme…
T/F: A diabetic patient may be asymptomatic until 70-80% of B…
Which of the following is characteristic of Type I diabetes?…
C... a. Is produced by BETA cells ... b. sti…
Insulin:... a. Is produced by alpha cells ... b. stimulates glucose…
Glycogenolysis
Breakdown of glycogen to form glucose from the liver is terme…
36 terms
DIABETES COMPLICATIONS
Diabetes definition
Cultural considerations
Glycogenolysis
Glycogenesis
A chronic multi system disease related to... -Abnormal insulin p…
-Native American - Pima Indians in Arizona... -Alaska natives ... -…
Glycogen stored in the liver is converted to glucose in respo…
Formation of glycogen from glucose. Glycogen is synthesized d…
Diabetes definition
A chronic multi system disease related to... -Abnormal insulin p…
Cultural considerations
-Native American - Pima Indians in Arizona... -Alaska natives ... -…
82 terms
Complications of Diabetes
what is the normal blood sugar for som…
why can some diabetics have a hypoglyc…
what are the main diabetic emergencies
what would be counted a severe hypogly…
between 4 and 8mmol/L (dependant on the situation)
they are used to maintained very high glucose levels for exam…
hypoglycaemia ... diabetic ketoacidosis ... hyperosmolar hyperglyca…
requiring the need for external assistance ( if you need hosp…
what is the normal blood sugar for som…
between 4 and 8mmol/L (dependant on the situation)
why can some diabetics have a hypoglyc…
they are used to maintained very high glucose levels for exam…
60 terms
Diabetic Complications
What are the 2 main types of diabetic…
Names some examples of MICROvascular d…
Names examples of MACROvascular disease
What is the major cause of death in ty…
MICRO and MACRO vascular disease
>disease of the small blood vessels... >manifest by thickening…
>atherosclerosis... >result in increase in MI, stroke, PVD... >abno…
Renal Failure
What are the 2 main types of diabetic…
MICRO and MACRO vascular disease
Names some examples of MICROvascular d…
>disease of the small blood vessels... >manifest by thickening…
21 terms
Diabetes - complications
Macroangiopathy
Macroangiopathy
Macroangiopathy
Microangiopathy
Ischaemic heart disease
Periferial artery disease
TIA/Stroke
Glomerulosclerosis
Macroangiopathy
Ischaemic heart disease
Macroangiopathy
Periferial artery disease
53 terms
Diabetic Complications
What are the 2 main types of diabetic…
Names some examples of MICROvascular d…
Names examples of MACROvascular disease
What is the major cause of death in ty…
MICRO and MACRO vascular disease
>disease of the small blood vessels... >manifest by thickening…
>atherosclerosis... >result in increase in MI, stroke, PVD... >abno…
Renal Failure
What are the 2 main types of diabetic…
MICRO and MACRO vascular disease
Names some examples of MICROvascular d…
>disease of the small blood vessels... >manifest by thickening…
27 terms
diabetes complications
Goals of therapy for Gestational DM?…
What is the goal for Hospitalized pati…
What is the medication given to a chil…
what is the leading cause of chronic c…
Pre-prandial=<95 mg/dL... 1 hour post prandial =<140 mg/dL... 2 hou…
pre-prandial 100-140 mg/dL... Random glucose 100-180 mg/dL
metformin
blindness and renal failure
Goals of therapy for Gestational DM?…
Pre-prandial=<95 mg/dL... 1 hour post prandial =<140 mg/dL... 2 hou…
What is the goal for Hospitalized pati…
pre-prandial 100-140 mg/dL... Random glucose 100-180 mg/dL
44 terms
Diabetes Complications
Microvascular Complications (3)
Macrovascular complications (3)
micro vs macrovascular complications
risk for microvascular complications (…
1. retionopathy... 2. nephropathy... 3. neuropathy
1. cornoary artery disease... 2. cerebrovascular disease... 3. peri…
- microvascular are specific to diabetes... - macrovascular not…
HbA1C
Microvascular Complications (3)
1. retionopathy... 2. nephropathy... 3. neuropathy
Macrovascular complications (3)
1. cornoary artery disease... 2. cerebrovascular disease... 3. peri…
37 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Define microvascular complications of…
Define macrovascular complications of…
Describe polyol pathway pyruvate role…
Describe polyol pathway pyruvate role…
retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy... -ADA recommends annual e…
coronary, peripheral , and cerebrovascular disease
- pssible biochemical mechanism linking hyperglycemia
when you block alludes reductase- reduce retinal damage furth…
Define microvascular complications of…
retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy... -ADA recommends annual e…
Define macrovascular complications of…
coronary, peripheral , and cerebrovascular disease
79 terms
Complications of Diabetes
2-2.5 times
150 million
450 million
Diabetes
The increase in risk of mortality of diabetes
The number of worldwide cases of diabetes in 2000
The estimated number of worldwide cases of diabetes by 2030
Complications:... Retinopathy... Erectile dysfunction... Abnormal ECG…
2-2.5 times
The increase in risk of mortality of diabetes
150 million
The number of worldwide cases of diabetes in 2000
39 terms
Diabetes Complications
You have a diabetic patient with nephr…
You have a diabetic patient with BP ov…
When is multiple drug therapy required…
When is it specifically contraindicate…
1. Give ACE or ARB ... - if patient has severe CKD or allergies…
1. Give ACE or ARB or DHP-CCB or thiazide diuretic... - if all o…
>150/90
In diabetic patients with NO proteinuria (ie. no nephropathy)
You have a diabetic patient with nephr…
1. Give ACE or ARB ... - if patient has severe CKD or allergies…
You have a diabetic patient with BP ov…
1. Give ACE or ARB or DHP-CCB or thiazide diuretic... - if all o…
59 terms
Complications of diabetes
What percentage of the NHS budget is s…
What percentage of the budget spent on…
What percentage of newly presenting pe…
What are common complications of patie…
9%
65%
50%
Retinopathy - 21%... Erectily dysfunction - 20%... Abnormal ECG - 1…
What percentage of the NHS budget is s…
9%
What percentage of the budget spent on…
65%
7 terms
Diabetes Complications
CV disease
peripheral artery disease
retinopathy
diabetic kidney disease
ACE/ARB, diuretic
cilostazol, pentoxyfylline, ASA
ralizumab, alifbercept
losartan, irbesartan, captopril
CV disease
ACE/ARB, diuretic
peripheral artery disease
cilostazol, pentoxyfylline, ASA
15 terms
Diabetes complications
Somogyi phenomenon
Dawn phenomenon
Autonomic signs of hypoglycemia
Neuroglycopenic signs of hypoglycemia
Combunation of hypoglycemia during the night with a rebound m…
Rise in blood glucose between 4-8 am not in response to hypog…
Hunger ... Nausea... Anxiety... Shakiness... Irritability... Tachycardia ... Hy…
Strange/ unusual feelings... HA ... Difficulty thinking ... Inability…
Somogyi phenomenon
Combunation of hypoglycemia during the night with a rebound m…
Dawn phenomenon
Rise in blood glucose between 4-8 am not in response to hypog…
12 terms
Diabetes Complications
polyol poathway
non enzymatic glycosylation
elevation of protein kinase C (PKC)
oxidative carbonyl stress
○ Glucose → sorbitol / fructose → osmotic + oxidative stress…
→ Pro inflammatory pathway.... ○ Result of hyperglycemia, glucos…
→ Pro inflammatory pathway.... ○ In renal and vascular cells lea…
Diabetes is associated with increased extracellular and intra…
polyol poathway
○ Glucose → sorbitol / fructose → osmotic + oxidative stress…
non enzymatic glycosylation
→ Pro inflammatory pathway.... ○ Result of hyperglycemia, glucos…
13 terms
Diabetes Complications
3 major categories of microvascular co…
Categories of diabetic retinopathy
Define causes of vision loss in diabetes
Significance of presence of albumunuri…
1. retinopathy... 2. nephropathy... 3. neuropathy
1. Non proliferative retinopathy... 2. Proliferative retinopathy…
Hyperglycemia (dysregulated retinal blood flow, oxidative str…
Indication of kidney function decline... Microalbuminuria (high…
3 major categories of microvascular co…
1. retinopathy... 2. nephropathy... 3. neuropathy
Categories of diabetic retinopathy
1. Non proliferative retinopathy... 2. Proliferative retinopathy…
13 terms
Diabetes complications
Ketoacidosis
Eye complications
Foot complications
Skin complications
Starts with high blood sugar and no insulin, glucose goes and…
People with diabetes are more likely to have eye complication…
Most often caused by neuropathy (nerve damage), which makes f…
Styes, boils, folliculitis (infection of follicles), carbuncl…
Ketoacidosis
Starts with high blood sugar and no insulin, glucose goes and…
Eye complications
People with diabetes are more likely to have eye complication…
72 terms
Diabetes Complications
common causes DKA
highest mortality for DKA
highest mortality for HHS
common causes HHS
omit insulin, infection or other stress
young people
old people
omit/ inadequate insulin, infection or other stress
common causes DKA
omit insulin, infection or other stress
highest mortality for DKA
young people
15 terms
Diabetes Complications
macrovascular angiopathy
microvascular angiopathy
diabetic retinopathy
non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy
damage to larger arteries occurring more rapidly in Diabetes…
small capillaries and arterioles thicken leading to nephropat…
microvascular damage to retinas in which patients lose eyesight
blood vessels in retina are fragile from soaking in excess gl…
macrovascular angiopathy
damage to larger arteries occurring more rapidly in Diabetes…
microvascular angiopathy
small capillaries and arterioles thicken leading to nephropat…
34 terms
Diabetes Complications
Major surgery insulin changes
Minor or moderate surgery insulin chan…
Surgery Oral Hypoglycemic Agents changes
Contrast medium
IV fluids with dextrose and insulin are administered immediat…
Reduce insulin dosage night before and day of surgery
May be held as long as 24 hrs before day of, and IV fluids wi…
Hold glucophage before surgery, don't resume until 48 hrs aft…
Major surgery insulin changes
IV fluids with dextrose and insulin are administered immediat…
Minor or moderate surgery insulin chan…
Reduce insulin dosage night before and day of surgery
29 terms
Diabetes Complications
Acute complications
Chronic
Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia Symptoms... Autonomic
Hypoglycemia... Diabetic Ketoacidosis... Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia…
Microvascular... Macrovascular
Blood glucose < 70 mg/dl... May or may not have symptoms... Symptom…
Trembling/shaking, sweating, pounding heart, tachycardia, cha…
Acute complications
Hypoglycemia... Diabetic Ketoacidosis... Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia…
Chronic
Microvascular... Macrovascular
25 terms
Diabetes complications
Acute complications
Hypoglycemia Causes
Hypoglycemia Manefistations
Hypoglycemia: Interventions
Hypoglycemia- low glucose... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)- high…
Too much insulin... Skipping a meal... Overexertion... Nausea/vomiting…
Neuroglycopenic- decreased sugar to brain... Headache... Warmth... Wea…
Mild...(50-64)give 10-15 gm carbs; retest BS in 15 min. Repea…
Acute complications
Hypoglycemia- low glucose... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)- high…
Hypoglycemia Causes
Too much insulin... Skipping a meal... Overexertion... Nausea/vomiting…
48 terms
Diabetes Complications
Nephropathy Goal
Nephropathy: ACE-I
Nephropathy: Benazepril (Lotensin)
Nephropathy: Enalapril (Vasotec)
Ualb < 30 mg/day... -eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2, screen for complic…
Benazepril (Lotensin)... Enalapril (Vasotec)... Captopril (Capoten)…
10 mg PO QD
5-20 mg/day in 1-2 divided dose
Nephropathy Goal
Ualb < 30 mg/day... -eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2, screen for complic…
Nephropathy: ACE-I
Benazepril (Lotensin)... Enalapril (Vasotec)... Captopril (Capoten)…
33 terms
diabetes- complications
acute
chronic
hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia Symptoms: autonomic
Hypoglycemia... Diabetic Ketoacidosis... Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia…
Microvascular... Macrovascular
Blood glucose < 70 mg/dl... May or may not have symptoms... Symptom…
Trembling/shaking, sweating, pounding heart, tachycardia, cha…
acute
Hypoglycemia... Diabetic Ketoacidosis... Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia…
chronic
Microvascular... Macrovascular
11 terms
Diabetes Complications
intervention for unconscious hypoglyce…
1 carbohydrate=
causes of DKA
DKA s/s
glucagon IM... D50 IV... D5/D10 IV
15 grams of glucose
insulin deficiency... insulin effectiveness reduced by stress…
metabolic acidosis... ketone breath
intervention for unconscious hypoglyce…
glucagon IM... D50 IV... D5/D10 IV
1 carbohydrate=
15 grams of glucose
10 terms
Diabetes Complications
Macrovascular complications
Microvascular complications
Hemoglobin A1C
UKPDS Trial
Coronary artery disease (CAD)... Peripheral arterial disease (PA…
Neuropathy... Nephropathy... Retinopathy
RBC is permeable to glucose... RBCs last 3 mo. and that's why A1…
Lower BGL reduces microvascular complications
Macrovascular complications
Coronary artery disease (CAD)... Peripheral arterial disease (PA…
Microvascular complications
Neuropathy... Nephropathy... Retinopathy
72 terms
Diabetes Complications
what can staph infections cause in dia…
what are 2 types of diabetic fungal in…
what are the 3 factors that cause erec…
diabetic foot accounts for __% of ampu…
boils... furuncles... abscesses
candidiasis ... mucormycosis
-microvascular disease... -neuropathy... -side effect from some meds
50%
what can staph infections cause in dia…
boils... furuncles... abscesses
what are 2 types of diabetic fungal in…
candidiasis ... mucormycosis
46 terms
Diabetes complications
3 micro complications
does good control reduce micro complic…
what is MA/UCr
what is a normal MA/UCr
nephropathy... neuropathy... retinopathy
yes it reduces micro complications in both type 1 and type 2
microalbumin to urine creatinine ratio
less than 30
3 micro complications
nephropathy... neuropathy... retinopathy
does good control reduce micro complic…
yes it reduces micro complications in both type 1 and type 2
8 terms
Diabetic complications
Vascular disease
Nephropathy
Diabetic retinopathy
Background retinopathy
MI - more likely to be silent ... stroke 2x as common ... women are…
Microalbuminuria - when urine dipstick is -ve for protein but…
Annual retinal screening for all DM patients ... - background re…
Vascular disease
MI - more likely to be silent ... stroke 2x as common ... women are…
Nephropathy
Microalbuminuria - when urine dipstick is -ve for protein but…
20 terms
Diabetes complications
Gastroparesis
Gastroenteropathy
Why is it bad that feet lose the abili…
What effect does autonomic neuropathy…
slow stomach emptying , causes delay of food absorption and c…
intestinal issues , severe intermittent diarrhea alternating…
no sweating= shear and increased risk for foot ulcer
They lose the ability to get an erection ( Neurogenic Impoten…
Gastroparesis
slow stomach emptying , causes delay of food absorption and c…
Gastroenteropathy
intestinal issues , severe intermittent diarrhea alternating…
31 terms
Diabetes complications
What are the 4 main chronic complicati…
What are the 3 things that fall under…
What are the 2 conditions that fall un…
What are the 4 types of neuropathy (P-…
Macrovascular... Microvascular ... Erectile dysfunction... Psychiatric
Neuropathy... Nephropathy... Retinopathy
IHD... Stroke
Peripheral - hands and feet... Focal neuropathy - sudden weakne…
What are the 4 main chronic complicati…
Macrovascular... Microvascular ... Erectile dysfunction... Psychiatric
What are the 3 things that fall under…
Neuropathy... Nephropathy... Retinopathy
55 terms
Diabetes: Complications
The most common acute complication of…
How is Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic stat…
Briefly describe the process of ketoac…
Hyperglycemia in DKA and HHS is due to…
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
No ketones (thus, no acidosis)... Greater fluid deficit
In the absence of insulin, lipids are broken down, releasing…
Decreased glucose utilization... Increased gluconeogenesis... Incre…
The most common acute complication of…
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
How is Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic stat…
No ketones (thus, no acidosis)... Greater fluid deficit
20 terms
Diabetes Complications
Intensive glycemic control with most m…
KDIGO/KDOQI guidelines target a HA1C o…
What does the ADA/NKF consensus say ab…
What are the recommended tests for a t…
A decrease in microvascular complications
7%
-HbA1C levels of 7-8% show highest survival rates
-spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio... -GFR estimated for SCr
Intensive glycemic control with most m…
A decrease in microvascular complications
KDIGO/KDOQI guidelines target a HA1C o…
7%
23 terms
Diabetes Complications
What are causes of hyperglycemic-hyper…
List some macrovascular issues involve…
List some microvascular issues involve…
What are some risk factors of cardiova…
It is caused by insulin deficiency and profound dehydration
Coronary heart disease... Cerebrovascular disease... Peripheral vas…
nephropathy... neuropathy... retinopathy
Obesity... High blood lipid levels... HTN... Sedentary lifestyle... Smoki…
What are causes of hyperglycemic-hyper…
It is caused by insulin deficiency and profound dehydration
List some macrovascular issues involve…
Coronary heart disease... Cerebrovascular disease... Peripheral vas…
45 terms
Complications of diabetes
CNS
CNS is also responsible for
Peripheral Nervous system
somatic nervous system
brain and spinal cord. IT is the control center and provides…
higher functions of the nervous system such as language, crea…
includes all the parts of the nervous system outside of the b…
this is a division of the PNS that includes all voluntary eff…
CNS
brain and spinal cord. IT is the control center and provides…
CNS is also responsible for
higher functions of the nervous system such as language, crea…
34 terms
Diabetes Complications
What is hypoglycemia?
What are neurogenic symptoms of hypogl…
What are neuroglycopenic symptoms of h…
What are risk factors for hypoglycemia…
plasma glucose <70 mg/dL... (can occur at higher plasma glucose…
sx resulting from activation of autonomic nervous system:... pal…
sx resulting from glucose deprivation in brain:... confusion... dro…
mismatch between timing/dose of insulin and food intake... exerc…
What is hypoglycemia?
plasma glucose <70 mg/dL... (can occur at higher plasma glucose…
What are neurogenic symptoms of hypogl…
sx resulting from activation of autonomic nervous system:... pal…
12 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Autonomic
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
Macrovascular
Involuntary
Fight or Flight
Rest & Digest
Changes in Medium to Large BV
Autonomic
Involuntary
Sympathetic
Fight or Flight
18 terms
diabetes complications
What are the 2 major complications of…
What are the 4 hallmark signs of DM?
What criteria are needed to confirm a…
are uncomplicated diabetic patients us…
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)... Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndro…
PU, PD, polyphagia, weight loss
Fasting hyperglycemia, glycosuria
no
What are the 2 major complications of…
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)... Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndro…
What are the 4 hallmark signs of DM?
PU, PD, polyphagia, weight loss
40 terms
Complications of diabetes
hyperglycemia, ketosis, acidosis
hyperglycemia, hyperosmolarity, dehydr…
insulin
glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, GH
key features of DKA
key features of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS)
decreases hepatic glucose production, lipolysis, proteolysis…
counter regulatory hormones that increase under physiologic s…
hyperglycemia, ketosis, acidosis
key features of DKA
hyperglycemia, hyperosmolarity, dehydr…
key features of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS)
18 terms
Diabetes complications
glaucoma
open angle / wide angle glaucoma prima…
open angle / wide angle glaucoma risk…
Presence of pain with open / wide angl…
optic disc atrophy... cupping... IOP... progressive peripheral vision…
unclear
increasing age... african american race... family history
no
glaucoma
optic disc atrophy... cupping... IOP... progressive peripheral vision…
open angle / wide angle glaucoma prima…
unclear
13 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Eye complications
Foot complications
Skin complications
High blood pressure- hypertension
-Vascular system... -Damages blood vessels or causes abnormal bl…
-cardiovascular, circulatory, immune... -causes blood vessels of…
-integumentary, immune, circulatory, urinary... -hypertonic gluc…
-cardiovascular, circulatory ... -too much force exerted on bl.…
Eye complications
-Vascular system... -Damages blood vessels or causes abnormal bl…
Foot complications
-cardiovascular, circulatory, immune... -causes blood vessels of…
12 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Hperyglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome (H…
Manifestations of HHS
Interventions for HHS
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
metabolic disorder of type 2 diabetes resulting from relative…
hypotension, profound dehydration, tachycardia, neuro signs
Rehydration, insulin, assess fluid volume/ electrolyte statuse
absence or inadequate amount of insulin resulting in abnormal…
Hperyglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome (H…
metabolic disorder of type 2 diabetes resulting from relative…
Manifestations of HHS
hypotension, profound dehydration, tachycardia, neuro signs
48 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
Hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar State (HHS)
Alterations from Diabetes
DKA Risk Factors
acute, life-threatening condition characterized by hyperglyce…
acute, life-threatening... profound hyperglycemia (>600mg/dL)... l…
Sensorium... caused by insulin resistance, which results in the…
Lack of insulin (undiagnosed or untreated type 1)... Reduced or…
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
acute, life-threatening condition characterized by hyperglyce…
Hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar State (HHS)
acute, life-threatening... profound hyperglycemia (>600mg/dL)... l…
17 terms
Diabetes Complications
What are the three major causes of dea…
If a patient with type 1 diabetes keep…
What are some of the proteins that are…
What is glycosylation?
- Cardiovascular problems (60 - 70%)... - Renal problems (10%)... -…
60%
Haemoglobin, collagen, LDL, tubulin in peripheral nerves.
The process of glucose attachment to proteins without enzymat…
What are the three major causes of dea…
- Cardiovascular problems (60 - 70%)... - Renal problems (10%)... -…
If a patient with type 1 diabetes keep…
60%
9 terms
complications of diabetes
eyes
skin
mouth
stomach
changes vision, blindness
rash,blisters,bacterial/fungal infection
bleeding gum, oral infection
excretion problems, heartburn, nausea, vomiting
eyes
changes vision, blindness
skin
rash,blisters,bacterial/fungal infection
20 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Diabetes
acute complications of diabetes (3)
Chronic complications of diabetes (3)
mechanisms of vascular damage in diabe…
group chronic degenerative disease w/acute hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia: if untreated-->death from diabetic ketoacidosi…
Chronic hyperglycemia: corresponding to use insulin therapy/e…
Sustained high blood glucose-->sorbitol buildup... Non enzymatic…
Diabetes
group chronic degenerative disease w/acute hyperglycemia
acute complications of diabetes (3)
Hyperglycemia: if untreated-->death from diabetic ketoacidosi…
45 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Balance between insulin and its counte…
Complete lack of insulin production du…
Insulin resistance leading to lack of…
Hyperglycaemia
What determines blood glucose levels
What is T1D
What is T2D
What do T1D and T2D lead to?
Balance between insulin and its counte…
What determines blood glucose levels
Complete lack of insulin production du…
What is T1D
17 terms
diabetes complication
diabetic ketoacidosis sign/sx
precipitating/risk factor for diabetic…
HHNS sign/sx
precipitating risk factor for HHNS
kussmaul respirations, fruity breath, n/v, low Na & K, dehydr…
type 1, non-adherence, trauma, stress, thyroid storm, infecti…
mental status change leading to coma, severe hyperglycemia, g…
type 2, infection, elderly, renal insufficiency
diabetic ketoacidosis sign/sx
kussmaul respirations, fruity breath, n/v, low Na & K, dehydr…
precipitating/risk factor for diabetic…
type 1, non-adherence, trauma, stress, thyroid storm, infecti…
25 terms
Complications of diabetes
Hypoglycemia
Neurogenic symptoms of hypoglycemia
Neuroglycopenic symptoms of hypoglycemia
Risk factors for hypoglycemia
-plasma glucose < 60 mg/dL
-activation of autonomic nervous system... -palpitations... -tremo…
-effects of glucose deprivation on the brain... -confusion... -dro…
-excessive insulin dose... -missed meal... -meal with insufficient…
Hypoglycemia
-plasma glucose < 60 mg/dL
Neurogenic symptoms of hypoglycemia
-activation of autonomic nervous system... -palpitations... -tremo…
47 terms
Complications in diabetes
Increase in intracellular glucose
Micrangiopathy?
More on microangiopathy
Retinal Microangiopathy
Damaged lipids, proteins and DNA... Formation of AGE = impaired…
Thickening of vessel wall... - increase permeability = fluid exu…
thickened vessels, more ECM and collagen, leaked plasma prote…
CSME- clinically significant macular edema... non-proliferative…
Increase in intracellular glucose
Damaged lipids, proteins and DNA... Formation of AGE = impaired…
Micrangiopathy?
Thickening of vessel wall... - increase permeability = fluid exu…
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