Study sets matching "diabetes complications"

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Study sets matching "diabetes complications"

Diabetes Complications
C... a. Is produced by BETA cells ... b. sti…
Glycogenolysis
True
A
Insulin:... a. Is produced by alpha cells ... b. stimulates glucose…
Breakdown of glycogen to form glucose from the liver is terme…
T/F: A diabetic patient may be asymptomatic until 70-80% of B…
Which of the following is characteristic of Type I diabetes?…
C... a. Is produced by BETA cells ... b. sti…
Insulin:... a. Is produced by alpha cells ... b. stimulates glucose…
Glycogenolysis
Breakdown of glycogen to form glucose from the liver is terme…
36 terms
DIABETES COMPLICATIONS
Diabetes definition
Cultural considerations
Glycogenolysis
Glycogenesis
A chronic multi system disease related to... -Abnormal insulin p…
-Native American - Pima Indians in Arizona... -Alaska natives ... -…
Glycogen stored in the liver is converted to glucose in respo…
Formation of glycogen from glucose. Glycogen is synthesized d…
Diabetes definition
A chronic multi system disease related to... -Abnormal insulin p…
Cultural considerations
-Native American - Pima Indians in Arizona... -Alaska natives ... -…
Complications of Diabetes
what is the normal blood sugar for som…
why can some diabetics have a hypoglyc…
what are the main diabetic emergencies
what would be counted a severe hypogly…
between 4 and 8mmol/L (dependant on the situation)
they are used to maintained very high glucose levels for exam…
hypoglycaemia ... diabetic ketoacidosis ... hyperosmolar hyperglyca…
requiring the need for external assistance ( if you need hosp…
what is the normal blood sugar for som…
between 4 and 8mmol/L (dependant on the situation)
why can some diabetics have a hypoglyc…
they are used to maintained very high glucose levels for exam…
Diabetes Complications
Microvascular Complications (3)
Macrovascular complications (3)
micro vs macrovascular complications
risk for microvascular complications (…
1. retionopathy... 2. nephropathy... 3. neuropathy
1. cornoary artery disease... 2. cerebrovascular disease... 3. peri…
- microvascular are specific to diabetes... - macrovascular not…
HbA1C
Microvascular Complications (3)
1. retionopathy... 2. nephropathy... 3. neuropathy
Macrovascular complications (3)
1. cornoary artery disease... 2. cerebrovascular disease... 3. peri…
60 terms
Diabetic Complications
What are the 2 main types of diabetic…
Names some examples of MICROvascular d…
Names examples of MACROvascular disease
What is the major cause of death in ty…
MICRO and MACRO vascular disease
>disease of the small blood vessels... >manifest by thickening…
>atherosclerosis... >result in increase in MI, stroke, PVD... >abno…
Renal Failure
What are the 2 main types of diabetic…
MICRO and MACRO vascular disease
Names some examples of MICROvascular d…
>disease of the small blood vessels... >manifest by thickening…
17 terms
Diabetes Complications
Pathophysiology of Blood Glucose Contr…
Type 1 (juvenile) DM p. 1417... 1. Ketosi…
Type 2 Metabolic Syndrome (RISK for de…
Hypoglycemia Complications... -Causes: sk…
1. insulin- prevents hyperglycemia by allowing body cells tak…
Type 2 Adult-onset... 1. Ketosis-resistant... 2. Age onset: >40... 3.…
1. men =40 or >... woman =35 or > ... 2. =100 or >... 3. =130/85 or >…
1. BS<60 ... 2. trembling/shaking, sweating, pounding heard, fas…
Pathophysiology of Blood Glucose Contr…
1. insulin- prevents hyperglycemia by allowing body cells tak…
Type 1 (juvenile) DM p. 1417... 1. Ketosi…
Type 2 Adult-onset... 1. Ketosis-resistant... 2. Age onset: >40... 3.…
21 terms
Diabetes - complications
Macroangiopathy
Macroangiopathy
Macroangiopathy
Microangiopathy
Ischaemic heart disease
Periferial artery disease
TIA/Stroke
Glomerulosclerosis
Macroangiopathy
Ischaemic heart disease
Macroangiopathy
Periferial artery disease
53 terms
Diabetic Complications
What are the 2 main types of diabetic…
Names some examples of MICROvascular d…
Names examples of MACROvascular disease
What is the major cause of death in ty…
MICRO and MACRO vascular disease
>disease of the small blood vessels... >manifest by thickening…
>atherosclerosis... >result in increase in MI, stroke, PVD... >abno…
Renal Failure
What are the 2 main types of diabetic…
MICRO and MACRO vascular disease
Names some examples of MICROvascular d…
>disease of the small blood vessels... >manifest by thickening…
79 terms
Complications of Diabetes
2-2.5 times
150 million
450 million
Diabetes
The increase in risk of mortality of diabetes
The number of worldwide cases of diabetes in 2000
The estimated number of worldwide cases of diabetes by 2030
Complications:... Retinopathy... Erectile dysfunction... Abnormal ECG…
2-2.5 times
The increase in risk of mortality of diabetes
150 million
The number of worldwide cases of diabetes in 2000
39 terms
Diabetes Complications
You have a diabetic patient with nephr…
You have a diabetic patient with BP ov…
When is multiple drug therapy required…
When is it specifically contraindicate…
1. Give ACE or ARB ... - if patient has severe CKD or allergies…
1. Give ACE or ARB or DHP-CCB or thiazide diuretic... - if all o…
>150/90
In diabetic patients with NO proteinuria (ie. no nephropathy)
You have a diabetic patient with nephr…
1. Give ACE or ARB ... - if patient has severe CKD or allergies…
You have a diabetic patient with BP ov…
1. Give ACE or ARB or DHP-CCB or thiazide diuretic... - if all o…
27 terms
diabetes complications
Goals of therapy for Gestational DM?…
What is the goal for Hospitalized pati…
What is the medication given to a chil…
what is the leading cause of chronic c…
Pre-prandial=<95 mg/dL... 1 hour post prandial =<140 mg/dL... 2 hou…
pre-prandial 100-140 mg/dL... Random glucose 100-180 mg/dL
metformin
blindness and renal failure
Goals of therapy for Gestational DM?…
Pre-prandial=<95 mg/dL... 1 hour post prandial =<140 mg/dL... 2 hou…
What is the goal for Hospitalized pati…
pre-prandial 100-140 mg/dL... Random glucose 100-180 mg/dL
22 terms
complications of diabetes
co-morbidities
co-morbidities of diabetes
complications
diabetic neuropathy complications of d…
Diseases that occur together, but *aren't necessarily caused…
cancers: pancreas, liver, bladder, colon... cognitive impairment…
disease states that are a direct result of another process,…
Multiple processes are occurring simultaneously to produce th…
co-morbidities
Diseases that occur together, but *aren't necessarily caused…
co-morbidities of diabetes
cancers: pancreas, liver, bladder, colon... cognitive impairment…
37 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Define microvascular complications of…
Define macrovascular complications of…
Describe polyol pathway pyruvate role…
Describe polyol pathway pyruvate role…
retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy... -ADA recommends annual e…
coronary, peripheral , and cerebrovascular disease
- pssible biochemical mechanism linking hyperglycemia
when you block alludes reductase- reduce retinal damage furth…
Define microvascular complications of…
retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy... -ADA recommends annual e…
Define macrovascular complications of…
coronary, peripheral , and cerebrovascular disease
Diabetes complications
Somogyi phenomenon
Dawn phenomenon
Autonomic signs of hypoglycemia
Neuroglycopenic signs of hypoglycemia
Combunation of hypoglycemia during the night with a rebound m…
Rise in blood glucose between 4-8 am not in response to hypog…
Hunger ... Nausea... Anxiety... Shakiness... Irritability... Tachycardia ... Hy…
Strange/ unusual feelings... HA ... Difficulty thinking ... Inability…
Somogyi phenomenon
Combunation of hypoglycemia during the night with a rebound m…
Dawn phenomenon
Rise in blood glucose between 4-8 am not in response to hypog…
13 terms
Diabetes Complications
Stress
Hypertension
Ketoacidosis
Skin problems
Hormones trigger the release of glucose to raise blood glucos…
High blood glucose combines with atherosclerosis (hardening o…
As cells use fatty acids as their source of energy rather tha…
Dehydrated cells can be itchy and are more easily damaged whi…
Stress
Hormones trigger the release of glucose to raise blood glucos…
Hypertension
High blood glucose combines with atherosclerosis (hardening o…
Diabetes Complications
Oral Health; Body parts affected
Oral Health; Symptoms
Oral Health; Specialists
Ketoacidosis; Body Parts Affected
Mouth, Teeth, Gums
Bleeding/Swollen/ Red gums
Oral Surgeon, PC
Stomach, Kidneys, Heart
Oral Health; Body parts affected
Mouth, Teeth, Gums
Oral Health; Symptoms
Bleeding/Swollen/ Red gums
Diabetes complications
Hypoglycemia
DKA
HHS
Symptoms of hypoglycemia
Bg < 70 mg/dL
Bg > 250 mg/dL... pH < 7.3
Bg > 600 mg/dL
Confusion... Headache... Diaphoresis... Hunger... Weakness... Visual disturb…
Hypoglycemia
Bg < 70 mg/dL
DKA
Bg > 250 mg/dL... pH < 7.3
72 terms
Diabetes Complications
common causes DKA
highest mortality for DKA
highest mortality for HHS
common causes HHS
omit insulin, infection or other stress
young people
old people
omit/ inadequate insulin, infection or other stress
common causes DKA
omit insulin, infection or other stress
highest mortality for DKA
young people
12 terms
Diabetes Complications
polyol poathway
non enzymatic glycosylation
elevation of protein kinase C (PKC)
oxidative carbonyl stress
○ Glucose → sorbitol / fructose → osmotic + oxidative stress…
→ Pro inflammatory pathway.... ○ Result of hyperglycemia, glucos…
→ Pro inflammatory pathway.... ○ In renal and vascular cells lea…
Diabetes is associated with increased extracellular and intra…
polyol poathway
○ Glucose → sorbitol / fructose → osmotic + oxidative stress…
non enzymatic glycosylation
→ Pro inflammatory pathway.... ○ Result of hyperglycemia, glucos…
15 terms
Diabetes Complications
macrovascular angiopathy
microvascular angiopathy
diabetic retinopathy
non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy
damage to larger arteries occurring more rapidly in Diabetes…
small capillaries and arterioles thicken leading to nephropat…
microvascular damage to retinas in which patients lose eyesight
blood vessels in retina are fragile from soaking in excess gl…
macrovascular angiopathy
damage to larger arteries occurring more rapidly in Diabetes…
microvascular angiopathy
small capillaries and arterioles thicken leading to nephropat…
34 terms
Diabetes Complications
Major surgery insulin changes
Minor or moderate surgery insulin chan…
Surgery Oral Hypoglycemic Agents changes
Contrast medium
IV fluids with dextrose and insulin are administered immediat…
Reduce insulin dosage night before and day of surgery
May be held as long as 24 hrs before day of, and IV fluids wi…
Hold glucophage before surgery, don't resume until 48 hrs aft…
Major surgery insulin changes
IV fluids with dextrose and insulin are administered immediat…
Minor or moderate surgery insulin chan…
Reduce insulin dosage night before and day of surgery
88 terms
Diabetes complications
When is type 1 diabetes usually diagno…
A random BS test of above _____ indica…
A FBS of above _____ indicates diabetes
An A1C of above ________ indicates dia…
age 30
200
126
6.5
When is type 1 diabetes usually diagno…
age 30
A random BS test of above _____ indica…
200
7 terms
Diabetes complications
DKA
DKA tx
Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HNKS)
Chronic complications of DM
-type I... -n/v, ABD pain, tachypnea, fruity breath... -look for pr…
-IV fluids (d/t profound dehydration)... -IV insulin to clear ke…
-type ii - elderly (d/t progressive hyperglycemia and dehydra…
MICROVASCULAR... -retinopathy... -nephropathy... -neuropathy... MACROVASC…
DKA
-type I... -n/v, ABD pain, tachypnea, fruity breath... -look for pr…
DKA tx
-IV fluids (d/t profound dehydration)... -IV insulin to clear ke…
Diabetes Complications
Acute complications
Chronic
Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia Symptoms... Autonomic
Hypoglycemia... Diabetic Ketoacidosis... Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia…
Microvascular... Macrovascular
Blood glucose < 70 mg/dl... May or may not have symptoms... Symptom…
Trembling/shaking, sweating, pounding heart, tachycardia, cha…
Acute complications
Hypoglycemia... Diabetic Ketoacidosis... Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia…
Chronic
Microvascular... Macrovascular
Diabetes Complications
Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia Values
Causes of Hypoglycemia
S/S Hypoglycemia
Occurs when there is too much insulin in proportion to availa…
glucose <70 mg/dl
Too much insulin, too little for, excessive physical activity…
Irritability, hunger, weakness, visual disturbances, sweating…
Hypoglycemia
Occurs when there is too much insulin in proportion to availa…
Hypoglycemia Values
glucose <70 mg/dl
7 terms
Diabetes Complications
DKA/HHS: Correction of dehydration, hy…
DKA Criteria
Anion Gap calculation
DKA/HHS: Correction of dehydration, hy…
- on arrival the patient is given 1-2L of isotonic saline or…
- HYPERlycemia (>250 mg/dl)... - ketosis (ketonemia and ketonuri…
Na - (Cl + CO2) ... Na = 1st square, Cl = 2nd square, CO2 = 5th…
- initial IV bolus (or IM) of 0.1 unit/kg followed by infusio…
DKA/HHS: Correction of dehydration, hy…
- on arrival the patient is given 1-2L of isotonic saline or…
DKA Criteria
- HYPERlycemia (>250 mg/dl)... - ketosis (ketonemia and ketonuri…
48 terms
Diabetes Complications
Nephropathy Goal
Nephropathy: ACE-I
Nephropathy: Benazepril (Lotensin)
Nephropathy: Enalapril (Vasotec)
Ualb < 30 mg/day... -eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2, screen for complic…
Benazepril (Lotensin)... Enalapril (Vasotec)... Captopril (Capoten)…
10 mg PO QD
5-20 mg/day in 1-2 divided dose
Nephropathy Goal
Ualb < 30 mg/day... -eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2, screen for complic…
Nephropathy: ACE-I
Benazepril (Lotensin)... Enalapril (Vasotec)... Captopril (Capoten)…
10 terms
Diabetes Complications
Macrovascular complications
Microvascular complications
Hemoglobin A1C
UKPDS Trial
Coronary artery disease (CAD)... Peripheral arterial disease (PA…
Neuropathy... Nephropathy... Retinopathy
RBC is permeable to glucose... RBCs last 3 mo. and that's why A1…
Lower BGL reduces microvascular complications
Macrovascular complications
Coronary artery disease (CAD)... Peripheral arterial disease (PA…
Microvascular complications
Neuropathy... Nephropathy... Retinopathy
11 terms
Diabetes Complications
intervention for unconscious hypoglyce…
1 carbohydrate=
causes of DKA
DKA s/s
glucagon IM... D50 IV... D5/D10 IV
15 grams of glucose
insulin deficiency... insulin effectiveness reduced by stress…
metabolic acidosis... ketone breath
intervention for unconscious hypoglyce…
glucagon IM... D50 IV... D5/D10 IV
1 carbohydrate=
15 grams of glucose
72 terms
Diabetes Complications
what can staph infections cause in dia…
what are 2 types of diabetic fungal in…
what are the 3 factors that cause erec…
diabetic foot accounts for __% of ampu…
boils... furuncles... abscesses
candidiasis ... mucormycosis
-microvascular disease... -neuropathy... -side effect from some meds
50%
what can staph infections cause in dia…
boils... furuncles... abscesses
what are 2 types of diabetic fungal in…
candidiasis ... mucormycosis
46 terms
Diabetes complications
3 micro complications
does good control reduce micro complic…
what is MA/UCr
what is a normal MA/UCr
nephropathy... neuropathy... retinopathy
yes it reduces micro complications in both type 1 and type 2
microalbumin to urine creatinine ratio
less than 30
3 micro complications
nephropathy... neuropathy... retinopathy
does good control reduce micro complic…
yes it reduces micro complications in both type 1 and type 2
Diabetes complications
Gastroparesis
Gastroenteropathy
Why is it bad that feet lose the abili…
What effect does autonomic neuropathy…
slow stomach emptying , causes delay of food absorption and c…
intestinal issues , severe intermittent diarrhea alternating…
no sweating= shear and increased risk for foot ulcer
They lose the ability to get an erection ( Neurogenic Impoten…
Gastroparesis
slow stomach emptying , causes delay of food absorption and c…
Gastroenteropathy
intestinal issues , severe intermittent diarrhea alternating…
13 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Eye
Foot
Skin
High blood pressure
Higher risk of blindness, glocom, and cataracts... Retinopathy
Can lose feeling in your feet... Diabetics are told to check the…
Itching, infection, fungus, follicles
Body has too much sugar ... Causes dehydration in cells... Heart pr…
Eye
Higher risk of blindness, glocom, and cataracts... Retinopathy
Foot
Can lose feeling in your feet... Diabetics are told to check the…
21 terms
Complications of diabetes
what are the 3 main complications of d…
what are the MACROvascular complicatio…
What are the MICROvascular complicatio…
As age increases and duration of disea…
diabetic neuropathies, nephropathy (kidneys), retinopathy(eyes)
Coronary Artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and periphe…
effects retina and kidneys
yes
what are the 3 main complications of d…
diabetic neuropathies, nephropathy (kidneys), retinopathy(eyes)
what are the MACROvascular complicatio…
Coronary Artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and periphe…
23 terms
Diabetes Complications
What are causes of hyperglycemic-hyper…
List some macrovascular issues involve…
List some microvascular issues involve…
What are some risk factors of cardiova…
It is caused by insulin deficiency and profound dehydration
Coronary heart disease... Cerebrovascular disease... Peripheral vas…
nephropathy... neuropathy... retinopathy
Obesity... High blood lipid levels... HTN... Sedentary lifestyle... Smoki…
What are causes of hyperglycemic-hyper…
It is caused by insulin deficiency and profound dehydration
List some macrovascular issues involve…
Coronary heart disease... Cerebrovascular disease... Peripheral vas…
Diabetes Complications
What is hypoglycemia?
What are neurogenic symptoms of hypogl…
What are neuroglycopenic symptoms of h…
What are risk factors for hypoglycemia…
plasma glucose <70 mg/dL... (can occur at higher plasma glucose…
sx resulting from activation of autonomic nervous system:... pal…
sx resulting from glucose deprivation in brain:... confusion... dro…
mismatch between timing/dose of insulin and food intake... exerc…
What is hypoglycemia?
plasma glucose <70 mg/dL... (can occur at higher plasma glucose…
What are neurogenic symptoms of hypogl…
sx resulting from activation of autonomic nervous system:... pal…
Diabetes Complications
The major cause of death is
risk of death for adults with diabetes…
most common form of diabetic neuropathy
mononeuropathies are common in what ne…
macrovascular disease/complications
50%, adults without diabetes
distal symmetric peripheral
3, 4, 6, 7th CN Palsy
The major cause of death is
macrovascular disease/complications
risk of death for adults with diabetes…
50%, adults without diabetes
20 terms
Diabetes Complications
Intensive glycemic control with most m…
KDIGO/KDOQI guidelines target a HA1C o…
What does the ADA/NKF consensus say ab…
What are the recommended tests for a t…
A decrease in microvascular complications
7%
-HbA1C levels of 7-8% show highest survival rates
-spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio... -GFR estimated for SCr
Intensive glycemic control with most m…
A decrease in microvascular complications
KDIGO/KDOQI guidelines target a HA1C o…
7%
Diabetes: Complications
The most common acute complication of…
How is Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic stat…
Briefly describe the process of ketoac…
Hyperglycemia in DKA and HHS is due to…
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
No ketones (thus, no acidosis)... Greater fluid deficit
In the absence of insulin, lipids are broken down, releasing…
Decreased glucose utilization... Increased gluconeogenesis... Incre…
The most common acute complication of…
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
How is Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic stat…
No ketones (thus, no acidosis)... Greater fluid deficit
18 terms
diabetes complications
What are the 2 major complications of…
What are the 4 hallmark signs of DM?
What criteria are needed to confirm a…
are uncomplicated diabetic patients us…
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)... Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndro…
PU, PD, polyphagia, weight loss
Fasting hyperglycemia, glycosuria
no
What are the 2 major complications of…
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)... Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndro…
What are the 4 hallmark signs of DM?
PU, PD, polyphagia, weight loss
Complications of Diabetes
Autonomic
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
Macrovascular
Involuntary
Fight or Flight
Rest & Digest
Changes in Medium to Large BV
Autonomic
Involuntary
Sympathetic
Fight or Flight
13 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Retinopathy
foot complications
skin complications
high blood pressure (hypertension)
-Nonproliferative: capillaries expand and block blood cells f…
-Neuropathy- Nerve damage can lessen your ability to feel pai…
-Causes rashes and patches. ... -May affect metabolic functions…
-Heart has to work harder when your blood pressure is high... -R…
Retinopathy
-Nonproliferative: capillaries expand and block blood cells f…
foot complications
-Neuropathy- Nerve damage can lessen your ability to feel pai…
40 terms
Complications of diabetes
hyperglycemia, ketosis, acidosis
hyperglycemia, hyperosmolarity, dehydr…
insulin
glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, GH
key features of DKA
key features of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS)
decreases hepatic glucose production, lipolysis, proteolysis…
counter regulatory hormones that increase under physiologic s…
hyperglycemia, ketosis, acidosis
key features of DKA
hyperglycemia, hyperosmolarity, dehydr…
key features of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS)
7 terms
Complications of diabetes
Gastrophoresus
Ketosacidosis
Neuropathy
Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
-Stomach takes too long to digest food... -Vagus nerve is damaged
-Thirst, dry mouth, fruity breath... -Occurs when the body can't…
-Damages nerves... -Usually happens in hands in feet
-Increased risk of strokes and heart attacks... -Blood vessels t…
Gastrophoresus
-Stomach takes too long to digest food... -Vagus nerve is damaged
Ketosacidosis
-Thirst, dry mouth, fruity breath... -Occurs when the body can't…
complications of diabetes
eyes
skin
mouth
stomach
changes vision, blindness
rash,blisters,bacterial/fungal infection
bleeding gum, oral infection
excretion problems, heartburn, nausea, vomiting
eyes
changes vision, blindness
skin
rash,blisters,bacterial/fungal infection
20 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Diabetes
acute complications of diabetes (3)
Chronic complications of diabetes (3)
mechanisms of vascular damage in diabe…
group chronic degenerative disease w/acute hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia: if untreated-->death from diabetic ketoacidosi…
Chronic hyperglycemia: corresponding to use insulin therapy/e…
Sustained high blood glucose-->sorbitol buildup... Non enzymatic…
Diabetes
group chronic degenerative disease w/acute hyperglycemia
acute complications of diabetes (3)
Hyperglycemia: if untreated-->death from diabetic ketoacidosi…
45 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Balance between insulin and its counte…
Complete lack of insulin production du…
Insulin resistance leading to lack of…
Hyperglycaemia
What determines blood glucose levels
What is T1D
What is T2D
What do T1D and T2D lead to?
Balance between insulin and its counte…
What determines blood glucose levels
Complete lack of insulin production du…
What is T1D
Complications of diabetes
Hypoglycemia
Neurogenic symptoms of hypoglycemia
Neuroglycopenic symptoms of hypoglycemia
Risk factors for hypoglycemia
-plasma glucose < 60 mg/dL
-activation of autonomic nervous system... -palpitations... -tremo…
-effects of glucose deprivation on the brain... -confusion... -dro…
-excessive insulin dose... -missed meal... -meal with insufficient…
Hypoglycemia
-plasma glucose < 60 mg/dL
Neurogenic symptoms of hypoglycemia
-activation of autonomic nervous system... -palpitations... -tremo…
Complications in diabetes
Increase in intracellular glucose
Micrangiopathy?
More on microangiopathy
Retinal Microangiopathy
Damaged lipids, proteins and DNA... Formation of AGE = impaired…
Thickening of vessel wall... - increase permeability = fluid exu…
thickened vessels, more ECM and collagen, leaked plasma prote…
CSME- clinically significant macular edema... non-proliferative…
Increase in intracellular glucose
Damaged lipids, proteins and DNA... Formation of AGE = impaired…
Micrangiopathy?
Thickening of vessel wall... - increase permeability = fluid exu…
51 terms
Complications of Diabetes
Acute complications of DM
pathophysiology of DKA
precipitating factors
DKA: biochemical triad
Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS)... Diabetic Ketoacidosis…
-glucagon... -cortisol... -catecholamines... -GH... vs. insulin
Infection: 28-43% (pneumonia, UTI)... Insulin omission: 13-45%... O…
Hyperglycemia... Ketonemia... Metabolic Acidosis
Acute complications of DM
Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS)... Diabetic Ketoacidosis…
pathophysiology of DKA
-glucagon... -cortisol... -catecholamines... -GH... vs. insulin
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