Study sets matching "diabetes type"

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Study sets matching "diabetes type"

Pathophysiology of Diabetes/Type 1 Diabetes
Insulin:
Glucagon:
Endocrine pancreatic cells:
Liver as site of
lowering glucose and moving it into target cells
stimulating glycogenolysis and possible other important funct…
Produces alpha cell (glucagon) and beta cell (insulin/ amylin)
storage of glycogen and gluconeogenesis
Insulin:
lowering glucose and moving it into target cells
Glucagon:
stimulating glycogenolysis and possible other important funct…
40 terms
Type 2 Diabetes Medications
Chlorpropamide
Tolazamide
Tolbutamide
Glipizide
1st Generation Sulfonylurea
1st Generation Sulfonylurea
1st Generation Sulfonylurea
2st Generation Sulfonylurea
Chlorpropamide
1st Generation Sulfonylurea
Tolazamide
1st Generation Sulfonylurea
10 terms
Types of Diabetes
Absolute Insulin Deficiency (Type 1)
Cells affected in Type 1
Presentation of Type 1
Insulin dependent
Auto-immune destruction of pancreatic B-cells
Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, fatigue
Absolute Insulin Deficiency (Type 1)
Insulin dependent
Cells affected in Type 1
Auto-immune destruction of pancreatic B-cells
14 terms
Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes
DIABETES TYPE 2
WHAT IS INSULIN RESISTANCE?
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF TYPE 2 DIABETES
RISK FACTORS FOR TYPE 2
*Insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency ... OR... *Ins…
*A decreased response of the liver and peripheral tissues(mus…
*Insulin resistance ALONE does not cause diabetes... *Type 2 =in…
*Impaired Glucose Tolerance/Impaired fasting Glucose i.e. PRE…
DIABETES TYPE 2
*Insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency ... OR... *Ins…
WHAT IS INSULIN RESISTANCE?
*A decreased response of the liver and peripheral tissues(mus…
Type 2 Diabetes Medications
Biguanide
Sulphonylureas
DPP-4 Inhibitors
Thiazolidinedoines
Metforman (Glucophage)... - decrease hepatic glucose output... - de…
Glipizide (Glucotorl)... Glyburide (micronase)... Glimepepiride (Am…
Sitagliptin... - decrease gastric emptying... - increase glucagon-l…
Pioglitazone (actos)... Rosiglitazone (avandia)... - increase perip…
Biguanide
Metforman (Glucophage)... - decrease hepatic glucose output... - de…
Sulphonylureas
Glipizide (Glucotorl)... Glyburide (micronase)... Glimepepiride (Am…
20 terms
Diabetes Type
onset less than 30 years
ketosis common
nonobese
human leukocyte antigen association
1
1
1
1
onset less than 30 years
1
ketosis common
1
6 terms
Types of Diabetes
Symptoms: excessive urination, thirst,…
Symptoms: excessive urination, thirst,…
Cause: develops when the immune system…
Cause: develops when the body becomes…
Type 1
Type 2
Type 1
Type 2
Symptoms: excessive urination, thirst,…
Type 1
Symptoms: excessive urination, thirst,…
Type 2
12 terms
Types of Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 cont'd
Type 2
Gestational diabetes development
Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young ad…
the body does not produce insulin. The body breaks down the s…
body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin re…
During pregnancy - usually around the 24th week - many women…
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young ad…
Type 1 cont'd
the body does not produce insulin. The body breaks down the s…
7 terms
Types of Diabetes
DM-type 1
With DM-type 1, the pancreas?
S/S of DM-type 1
Polydipsia
The pancreas is permanently broken
Stops making ANY insulin and will NEVER make insulin again.
Polydipsia, Polyuria, and Polyphagia
Increased thirst
DM-type 1
The pancreas is permanently broken
With DM-type 1, the pancreas?
Stops making ANY insulin and will NEVER make insulin again.
Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes
Type 1
Type 2
Type 1 cellular level
Type 2 cellular level
little or no insulin is produced in the body
A fatty build up is built over the insulin receptors so no in…
the insulin receptors dont get insulin so the signal doesnt g…
the cells are not absorbing the insulin
Type 1
little or no insulin is produced in the body
Type 2
A fatty build up is built over the insulin receptors so no in…
9 terms
Diabetes type 2
Metformin
Orlistat
Sulphonylureas
Acarbose
First line therapy; check renal function and LFTs before init…
BMI > 28 (treatment for obesity)
"Gliclazide"; monitor renal function and LFTs; direct effect…
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors; slows down digestion of carbohy…
Metformin
First line therapy; check renal function and LFTs before init…
Orlistat
BMI > 28 (treatment for obesity)
24 terms
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes was previously known as
pancreae
DM type 1 affects:
often develops in children and young adults.
juvenile-onset diabetes... or... insulin-dependent diabetes.
is unable to produce insulin because of the destruction of th…
5% to 10% of patients with diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes
often develops in children and young adults.
Type 1 Diabetes was previously known as
juvenile-onset diabetes... or... insulin-dependent diabetes.
Diabetes Type 2 medications
Which drug class stimulates insulin se…
What are the nursing considerations fo…
The patient has a sulfa allergy and se…
Which drug class stimulates insulin se…
Sulfonylureas
major side effect is hypoglycemia, avoid alcohol, take 30 min…
She can't have sulfonylureas because of her sulfa allergy, nu…
Meglitinides
Which drug class stimulates insulin se…
Sulfonylureas
What are the nursing considerations fo…
major side effect is hypoglycemia, avoid alcohol, take 30 min…
Diabetes type 1 & 2
What is diabetes?
What causes type 1 diabetes?
What causes type 2 diabetes?
What are the main symptoms of diabetes…
Diabetes is a life long condition that causes a person's bloo…
Type 1 diabetes occurs because your body is unable to produce…
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce eno…
Feeling thirsty... Frequent urination ... Tiredness ... Weight loss ... a…
What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a life long condition that causes a person's bloo…
What causes type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes occurs because your body is unable to produce…
17 terms
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes was once called ____ o…
when does DM type 2 develop?
what factors increases the risk of dev…
pancreas
adult-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes
usually develops in adults, but may be seen at any age
- family history.... - history of gestational diabetes.... - impair…
produce insulin, but not enough, and/or the target cells are…
Type 2 Diabetes was once called ____ o…
adult-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes
when does DM type 2 develop?
usually develops in adults, but may be seen at any age
5 terms
Type 2 Diabetes
Polyuria
Polydispsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
Production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease such as diabe…
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated wit…
deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream
Polyuria
Production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
Polydispsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease such as diabe…
Type II Diabetes
Diagonistic tests for diabetes
Screen anyone whose BMI over the _____…
Every ____ years is how often you shou…
Test for gestational diabetes at _____…
A1C... plasma glucose... FPG... OGTT
85
3
24-28
Diagonistic tests for diabetes
A1C... plasma glucose... FPG... OGTT
Screen anyone whose BMI over the _____…
85
Insulins- Type 1 diabetes
Insulin lispro
Insulin aspart
Insulin human
Insulin regular
Humalog
Novalog
Exubera (Inhalation)
Humulin R, Novolin R
Insulin lispro
Humalog
Insulin aspart
Novalog
5 terms
Diabetes Type 2
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
abnormally large amount of urine
excessive thirst
high concentrated sugar in blood
low concentrated sugar in blood
Polyuria
abnormally large amount of urine
Polydipsia
excessive thirst
5 terms
Type 2 Diabetes
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
production or abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated wit…
low blood sugar, body's main energy source
Polyuria
production or abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
Polydipsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
Type 2 Diabetes
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
Production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
Abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
An excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated wit…
Low blood sugar, the body's main energy source
Polyuria
Production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
Polydipsia
Abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
Type 2 Diabetes Flashcards
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
The passing of an excessive quantity of urine, as in diabetes.
Excessive Thirst
An abnormal high level of glucose in blood.
An abnormally low level of glucose in the blood.
Polyuria
The passing of an excessive quantity of urine, as in diabetes.
Polydipsia
Excessive Thirst
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
Production of abnormally large values of dilute urine.
Abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease.
An excess of glucose in the bloodstream.
Low blood sugar.
Polyuria
Production of abnormally large values of dilute urine.
Polydipsia
Abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease.
89 terms
Type 1 Diabetes - Shubrook
Diagnostic Criteria for Type 1
Diagnostic Criteria for Type 1
Diagnostic Criteria for Type 1
Diagnostic Criteria for Type 1
HgbA1C ≥ 6.5% with confirmed repeat test
Fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL with confirmed repeat test
Random plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL and classic symptoms of T1DM
Plasma glucose ≥ 200mg/dL after 2 hr glucose load (75g)
Diagnostic Criteria for Type 1
HgbA1C ≥ 6.5% with confirmed repeat test
Diagnostic Criteria for Type 1
Fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL with confirmed repeat test
diabetes type 2 
polyuria
polydipsia
hyperglycemia
hypoglycemia
production of abnormally large volume of dilute urine
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease(such as diabe…
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream.
deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream
polyuria
production of abnormally large volume of dilute urine
polydipsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease(such as diabe…
diabetes type 2
polyuria
polydipsia
hyperglycemia
hypoglycemia
is a condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally lar…
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated wit…
is a condition characterized by an abnormally low level of bl…
polyuria
is a condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally lar…
polydipsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
Type 2 Diabetes
polyuria
polydipsia
hyperglycemia
hypoglycemia
A condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally large…
constant excessive drinking as a result of thirst
high blood sugar/ elevated level of sugar glucose
an abnormally low level of the sugar glucose in the blood
polyuria
A condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally large…
polydipsia
constant excessive drinking as a result of thirst
9 terms
Diabetes Type 2
Avandia
Actos
Amaryl
Diabeta, Mecronase
rosiglitazone maleate
pioglitazone
glimepiride
glyburide
Avandia
rosiglitazone maleate
Actos
pioglitazone
60 terms
Type 2 Diabetes - Shubrook
1 in 3 Americans
Pre-diabetes
Pre-diabetes
Pre-diabetes
have Pre-diabetes , 70% will develop T2DM
Fasting plasma glucose 100-125mg/dl
2 hr plasma glucose 140-199mg/dl
A1c 5.7-6.5%
1 in 3 Americans
have Pre-diabetes , 70% will develop T2DM
Pre-diabetes
Fasting plasma glucose 100-125mg/dl
25 terms
Immunology Type 1 diabetes
Lean adipose vs obesity
adipose in the Obese
Type 1 diabetes: insulinitis
is T1D increasing or Decreasing in the…
-lean adipose contains mostly M2 macrophages and t reg cells…
-high amounts of fat stored in adipose tissue can undergo apo…
-the onset of T1D is associated with infiltration of the Isle…
-increaseing... -about 3% per year... -this rate is higher than we…
Lean adipose vs obesity
-lean adipose contains mostly M2 macrophages and t reg cells…
adipose in the Obese
-high amounts of fat stored in adipose tissue can undergo apo…
52 terms
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
this is a chronic disorder with elevat…
diabetes mellitus can be a _______ or…
what are the 4 types of diabetes melli…
what are diseases of the pancreas that…
diabetes mellitus
-primary... -secondary
-type 1 diabetes... -type 2 diabetes... -gestational ... -malnutrition…
-pancreatitis... -hemochromatosis
this is a chronic disorder with elevat…
diabetes mellitus
diabetes mellitus can be a _______ or…
-primary... -secondary
Type 1 and 2 diabetes
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine.
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated wit…
deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream.
Polyuria
production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine.
Polydipsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
62 terms
Diabetes Type 2 Tx
What are the ways of treating non insu…
what happens when all of these fail?
Insulin sensitizers
Incretins
Insulin sensitizers... Incretins... Insulin Secretagogues... Inhibitor…
administer insulin or insulin analogues
Biguanides (metformin)... Thiazolidinediones
GLP-1 Receptor agonists... DDP-4 inhibitors
What are the ways of treating non insu…
Insulin sensitizers... Incretins... Insulin Secretagogues... Inhibitor…
what happens when all of these fail?
administer insulin or insulin analogues
Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes
DM Type 1: What's Going Wrong
DM Type2: What's Going Wrong
Important Labs:
Signs & Symptoms:
DM 1 occurs when the body or pancreas can not produce insulin…
DM 2 occurs when the insulin produced by the body or pancreas…
- Glycated Haemoglobin(HbA1c) 3 month average plasma glucose…
-Polydipsia (excessive thirst)... -Polyuria (excessive urination…
DM Type 1: What's Going Wrong
DM 1 occurs when the body or pancreas can not produce insulin…
DM Type2: What's Going Wrong
DM 2 occurs when the insulin produced by the body or pancreas…
Signs of Diabetes Type 2
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemica
Hypoglycemia
production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine.
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease
a excess of glucose in the blood stream
deficiency of glucose in the blood steam
Polyuria
production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine.
Polydipsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease
24 terms
Type I Diabetes
Dx of Type I Diabetes
Hemoglobin A1c
Prediabetes
Immunology of T1D
Fasting plasma glucose > 126mg/dL... 2-hour plasma glucose > 200…
-Fromed by irreversible, non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemog…
Any one of below:... Impaired fasting glucose: 100-125 mg/dL... Im…
-Antibodies do not directly destroy B cells... -Cell mediated (…
Dx of Type I Diabetes
Fasting plasma glucose > 126mg/dL... 2-hour plasma glucose > 200…
Hemoglobin A1c
-Fromed by irreversible, non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemog…
32 terms
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
RIsk factors for T2DM
Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetes tests
HbA1c levels for diagnosing
FPG levels in diangoisng
Genetic: Family history, thrifty genes, genetic markers... Demo…
FPG ... 2 hour PG ... random glucose... HBA1C
HbA1c less than 5.7% is normal.... HbA1c between 5.7% and 6.4% r…
FPG - fasting plasma glucose, IFG is impaired fasting glucose…
RIsk factors for T2DM
Genetic: Family history, thrifty genes, genetic markers... Demo…
Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetes tests
FPG ... 2 hour PG ... random glucose... HBA1C
Diabetes type 1 and 2
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
excessive urination
excessive thirst
excessive sugar in the blood
Condition of low blood sugar... Abnormally low blood sugar level
Polyuria
excessive urination
Polydipsia
excessive thirst
71 terms
Intro to Diabetes Type 1
diabetes mellitus
diabetes insipidus
WHO diagnostic criteria for DM diagnosis
WHO diagnosis table DM
disordered metabolism w/ inappropriate hyperglycemia and urin…
a syndrome of insufficient antidiuretic hormone and the urine…
1. random plasma glucose > 200 mg/dL AND Sx (thirst, polyuria…
diabetes mellitus
disordered metabolism w/ inappropriate hyperglycemia and urin…
diabetes insipidus
a syndrome of insufficient antidiuretic hormone and the urine…
Type 1 Diabetes
what is type 1 diabetes characterized…
when do symptoms appear?
what percentage of diabetics does type…
what are signs and symptoms of type 1…
the destruction of the pancreatic beta cells that results in…
quickly
5-10% (especially in caucasians)
usually under weight,
what is type 1 diabetes characterized…
the destruction of the pancreatic beta cells that results in…
when do symptoms appear?
quickly
Beatty Type 2 Diabetes
What are the risk factors for type 2 d…
What is involved in the treatment plan…
Does self-monitoring of glucose need t…
What should the patient be self-monito…
FH (first degree), obesity, physical inactivity, race/ethnici…
Nutrition, exercise, self-monitoring, medications, and educat…
If the patient is only on oral medications, we really only ca…
Weight, BP, signs/ symptoms, feet, skin, and oral health. May…
What are the risk factors for type 2 d…
FH (first degree), obesity, physical inactivity, race/ethnici…
What is involved in the treatment plan…
Nutrition, exercise, self-monitoring, medications, and educat…
17 terms
Type 2 diabetes pathophysiology
What is the definition of diabetes?
89 million people have pre diabetes
What's driving type 2?
What lead to the cut offs?
glucose
...
increase in obesity
looked across numbers and between 101-120 saw injury to the b…
What is the definition of diabetes?
glucose
89 million people have pre diabetes
...
9 terms
Type 1 Diabetes
what is type 1 diabetes characterized…
when do symptoms appear?
what percentage of diabetics does type…
what are signs and symptoms of type 1…
the destruction of the pancreatic beta cells that results in…
quickly
5-10% (especially in caucasians)
usually under weight,
what is type 1 diabetes characterized…
the destruction of the pancreatic beta cells that results in…
when do symptoms appear?
quickly
47 terms
Diabetes and Insulin - Type 1
What is the goal of endocrine pancreat…
Islets of Langerhans
Insulin
what is the most potent anabolic hormo…
To maintain blood glucose homeostasis
*Beta cells located in the middle of the islets secrete insul…
Lowers blood glucose... -Increases the rate of glucose uptake…
Insulin - ... -Promotes synthesis and storage of carbohydrates,…
What is the goal of endocrine pancreat…
To maintain blood glucose homeostasis
Islets of Langerhans
*Beta cells located in the middle of the islets secrete insul…
31 terms
Diabetes Meds (for type 2)
Sulfonylurea drugs
Sulfonylurea route and administration…
Sulfonylurea MOA... [Glyburide, Amaryl, G…
Sulfonylurea ADEs... [Glyburide, Amaryl,…
Glyburide, Amaryl, Glipizide, Glucotrol XL
PO (30 min BEFORE meals)
Lowers blood sugar by triggering the release of insulin from…
- Hypoglycemia... - Weight gain... - CV risk
Sulfonylurea drugs
Glyburide, Amaryl, Glipizide, Glucotrol XL
Sulfonylurea route and administration…
PO (30 min BEFORE meals)
30 terms
Diabetes Type 1 HESI
What is the mechanism that results in…
To achieve the goal of restoring Lara'…
To restore Lara's blood glucose to a n…
In addition to monitoring Lara's blood…
To compensate for metabolic acidosis, the respirations are de…
Maintain an infusion of normal saline solution
An IV infusion containing regular insulin
Hemoglobin... Calcium... Potassium... BUN
What is the mechanism that results in…
To compensate for metabolic acidosis, the respirations are de…
To achieve the goal of restoring Lara'…
Maintain an infusion of normal saline solution
Insulin and Type 2 Diabetes
Use of insulin in Type 2 Diabetes....
What are the regimens of insulin use i…
Would you ever start insulin in a newl…
What are the algorithms for starting i…
- as a consequence of the normal progression of Type 2 Diabet…
* daily or twice daily Lantus ... OR... * once, twice, three tim…
YES... - if BGL's were very high at diagnosis... - if symptoms were…
- be aware that insulin is commenced ONTO existing oral medic…
Use of insulin in Type 2 Diabetes....
- as a consequence of the normal progression of Type 2 Diabet…
What are the regimens of insulin use i…
* daily or twice daily Lantus ... OR... * once, twice, three tim…
60 terms
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
What is diabetes mellitus? What are th…
What is Type II DM and why does it no…
MC form of diabetes?
Etiology of DM 2?
Group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia…
Chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes…
TYPE 2 DIABETES... MC form of diabetes (90-95%)... Prevalence risi…
Strong genetic component... Identical twins, parents w/DM Envir…
What is diabetes mellitus? What are th…
Group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia…
What is Type II DM and why does it no…
Chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes…
32 terms
type 2 diabetes
Values for Normoglycemia?
values for prediabetes?
Values for diabetes?
ADA goals for DM?
FPG... < 100 mg/dl... PPG... < 140 mg/dl
Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG)... FPG ... 100-125 mg/dl... Impaired…
FPG>126 mg/dl... ... PPG> 200 mg/dl... RPG > 200 + symptoms ... A1c>6…
FPG(preprandial) 80-130 mg/dl ... PPG (peak) < 180 mg/dl ... ... A1…
Values for Normoglycemia?
FPG... < 100 mg/dl... PPG... < 140 mg/dl
values for prediabetes?
Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG)... FPG ... 100-125 mg/dl... Impaired…
69 terms
Type 2 Diabetes Drugs
What are potential undesirable effects…
What is the mechanism of action of sul…
Describe the release of insulin from p…
What are first generation sulfonylureas?
Insulin resistance, elevated levels contribute to long-term c…
Bind to the SUR site on the K channel on the pancreatic beta…
Increased glucose metabolism in the cell causes an increase i…
Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide.
What are potential undesirable effects…
Insulin resistance, elevated levels contribute to long-term c…
What is the mechanism of action of sul…
Bind to the SUR site on the K channel on the pancreatic beta…
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