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Study sets matching "diabetes type"

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Study sets matching "diabetes type"

185 terms
Pathophysiology of Diabetes/Type 1 Diabetes
Insulin:
Glucagon:
Endocrine pancreatic cells:
Liver as site of
lowering glucose and moving it into target cells
stimulating glycogenolysis and possible other important funct…
Produces alpha cell (glucagon) and beta cell (insulin/ amylin)
storage of glycogen and gluconeogenesis
Insulin:
lowering glucose and moving it into target cells
Glucagon:
stimulating glycogenolysis and possible other important funct…
20 terms
Diabetes Type
onset less than 30 years
ketosis common
nonobese
human leukocyte antigen association
1
1
1
1
onset less than 30 years
1
ketosis common
1
40 terms
Type 2 Diabetes Medications
Chlorpropamide
Tolazamide
Tolbutamide
Glipizide
1st Generation Sulfonylurea
1st Generation Sulfonylurea
1st Generation Sulfonylurea
2st Generation Sulfonylurea
Chlorpropamide
1st Generation Sulfonylurea
Tolazamide
1st Generation Sulfonylurea
55 terms
Type II Diabetes Medication
Metformin
Pioglitazone
Rosiglitazone
Glyburide
Glucophage
Actos
Avandia
Glynase, Micronase, Diabeta
Metformin
Glucophage
Pioglitazone
Actos
10 terms
Types of Diabetes
Absolute Insulin Deficiency (Type 1)
Cells affected in Type 1
Presentation of Type 1
Insulin dependent
Auto-immune destruction of pancreatic B-cells
Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, fatigue
Absolute Insulin Deficiency (Type 1)
Insulin dependent
Cells affected in Type 1
Auto-immune destruction of pancreatic B-cells
33 terms
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
What is insulin?
What is main effect of insulin?
Other effects of insulin?
Post-prandial state
Hormone that is produced in the pancreas Beta cells
to regulate glucose metabolism... Increases glucose storage and…
Fat metabolism (↑ production, ↓ breakdown) ... Protein metabolis…
after a meal
What is insulin?
Hormone that is produced in the pancreas Beta cells
What is main effect of insulin?
to regulate glucose metabolism... Increases glucose storage and…
8 terms
Diabetes type 1 & 2
What is diabetes?
What causes type 1 diabetes?
What causes type 2 diabetes?
What are the main symptoms of diabetes…
Diabetes is a life long condition that causes a person's bloo…
Type 1 diabetes occurs because your body is unable to produce…
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce eno…
Feeling thirsty... Frequent urination ... Tiredness ... Weight loss ... a…
What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a life long condition that causes a person's bloo…
What causes type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes occurs because your body is unable to produce…
Type 1 and 2 diabetes
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine.
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated wit…
deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream.
Polyuria
production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine.
Polydipsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
12 terms
Types of Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 cont'd
Type 2
Gestational diabetes development
Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young ad…
the body does not produce insulin. The body breaks down the s…
body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin re…
During pregnancy - usually around the 24th week - many women…
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young ad…
Type 1 cont'd
the body does not produce insulin. The body breaks down the s…
14 terms
Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes
DIABETES TYPE 2
WHAT IS INSULIN RESISTANCE?
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF TYPE 2 DIABETES
RISK FACTORS FOR TYPE 2
*Insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency ... OR... *Ins…
*A decreased response of the liver and peripheral tissues(mus…
*Insulin resistance ALONE does not cause diabetes... *Type 2 =in…
*Impaired Glucose Tolerance/Impaired fasting Glucose i.e. PRE…
DIABETES TYPE 2
*Insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency ... OR... *Ins…
WHAT IS INSULIN RESISTANCE?
*A decreased response of the liver and peripheral tissues(mus…
5 terms
diabetes type 2
polyuria
polydipsia
hyperglycemia
hypoglycemia
is a condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally lar…
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated wit…
is a condition characterized by an abnormally low level of bl…
polyuria
is a condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally lar…
polydipsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
77 terms
Diabetes Type 2 treatment
Oral medications
What helps decrease CV events/mortalit…
Do Not cause hypoglycemia
mechanism of Biguanides (Metformin)
Biguanides... Sulfonylureas... Meglitinides... Thiazolidinediones (TZD…
Metformin
Biguanides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, DPP-4 Inhibitors, Sodiu…
inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis ... decreases GI absorption of…
Oral medications
Biguanides... Sulfonylureas... Meglitinides... Thiazolidinediones (TZD…
What helps decrease CV events/mortalit…
Metformin
5 terms
Type 2 Diabetes
Polyuria
Polydispsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
Production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease such as diabe…
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated wit…
deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream
Polyuria
Production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
Polydispsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease such as diabe…
8 terms
Insulins- Type 1 diabetes
Insulin lispro
Insulin aspart
Insulin human
Insulin regular
Humalog
Novalog
Exubera (Inhalation)
Humulin R, Novolin R
Insulin lispro
Humalog
Insulin aspart
Novalog
5 terms
Diabetes Type 2
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
abnormally large amount of urine
excessive thirst
high concentrated sugar in blood
low concentrated sugar in blood
Polyuria
abnormally large amount of urine
Polydipsia
excessive thirst
5 terms
Type 2 Diabetes
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
production or abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated wit…
low blood sugar, body's main energy source
Polyuria
production or abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
Polydipsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
5 terms
Diabetes Type 2
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream often associated with…
deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream
Polyuria
production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
Polydipsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
5 terms
Type 2 Diabetes
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
Production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
Abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
An excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated wit…
Low blood sugar, the body's main energy source
Polyuria
Production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
Polydipsia
Abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diab…
5 terms
Type 2 Diabetes Flashcards
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
The passing of an excessive quantity of urine, as in diabetes.
Excessive Thirst
An abnormal high level of glucose in blood.
An abnormally low level of glucose in the blood.
Polyuria
The passing of an excessive quantity of urine, as in diabetes.
Polydipsia
Excessive Thirst
5 terms
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
Production of abnormally large values of dilute urine.
Abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease.
An excess of glucose in the bloodstream.
Low blood sugar.
Polyuria
Production of abnormally large values of dilute urine.
Polydipsia
Abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease.
5 terms
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
A condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally large…
Excessive thirst or excess drinking.
(High blood sugar) A condition in which an excessive amount o…
(Low blood sugar) When blood sugar decreases to below normal…
Polyuria
A condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally large…
Polydipsia
Excessive thirst or excess drinking.
5 terms
diabetes type 2 
polyuria
polydipsia
hyperglycemia
hypoglycemia
production of abnormally large volume of dilute urine
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease(such as diabe…
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream.
deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream
polyuria
production of abnormally large volume of dilute urine
polydipsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease(such as diabe…
5 terms
Diabetes Type 2
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
excessive secretion of urine;production of abnormally large v…
excessive or abnormal thirst;abnormally great thirst as a sym…
an excess of sugar in the blood;an excess of glucose in the b…
abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood;deficiency of glucose…
Polyuria
excessive secretion of urine;production of abnormally large v…
Polydipsia
excessive or abnormal thirst;abnormally great thirst as a sym…
16 terms
Type 2 Diabetes & Complications
risk factors
type 2 vs type 1
Mechanisms of hyperglycaemic damage
macrovascular complications of diabetes
obesity... large waist... afro-caribbean, asian... age... family history…
usually >30yrs... greater genetic component... no immune disturbanc…
polyol pathway... atherosclerosis... oxidative stress... advanced glyc…
heart attack... stroke... CAD... IHD... peripheral artery disease... aneurys…
risk factors
obesity... large waist... afro-caribbean, asian... age... family history…
type 2 vs type 1
usually >30yrs... greater genetic component... no immune disturbanc…
5 terms
Type 2 Diabetes
polyuria
polydipsia
hyperglycemia
hypoglycemia
A condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally large…
constant excessive drinking as a result of thirst
high blood sugar/ elevated level of sugar glucose
an abnormally low level of the sugar glucose in the blood
polyuria
A condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally large…
polydipsia
constant excessive drinking as a result of thirst
9 terms
Diabetes Type 2
Avandia
Actos
Amaryl
Diabeta, Mecronase
rosiglitazone maleate
pioglitazone
glimepiride
glyburide
Avandia
rosiglitazone maleate
Actos
pioglitazone
25 terms
Immunology Type 1 diabetes
Lean adipose vs obesity
adipose in the Obese
Type 1 diabetes: insulinitis
is T1D increasing or Decreasing in the…
-lean adipose contains mostly M2 macrophages and t reg cells…
-high amounts of fat stored in adipose tissue can undergo apo…
-the onset of T1D is associated with infiltration of the Isle…
-increaseing... -about 3% per year... -this rate is higher than we…
Lean adipose vs obesity
-lean adipose contains mostly M2 macrophages and t reg cells…
adipose in the Obese
-high amounts of fat stored in adipose tissue can undergo apo…
32 terms
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
RIsk factors for T2DM
Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetes tests
HbA1c levels for diagnosing
FPG levels in diangoisng
Genetic: Family history, thrifty genes, genetic markers... Demo…
FPG ... 2 hour PG ... random glucose... HBA1C
HbA1c less than 5.7% is normal.... HbA1c between 5.7% and 6.4% r…
FPG - fasting plasma glucose, IFG is impaired fasting glucose…
RIsk factors for T2DM
Genetic: Family history, thrifty genes, genetic markers... Demo…
Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetes tests
FPG ... 2 hour PG ... random glucose... HBA1C
62 terms
Diabetes Type 2 Tx
What are the ways of treating non insu…
what happens when all of these fail?
Insulin sensitizers
Incretins
Insulin sensitizers... Incretins... Insulin Secretagogues... Inhibitor…
administer insulin or insulin analogues
Biguanides (metformin)... Thiazolidinediones
GLP-1 Receptor agonists... DDP-4 inhibitors
What are the ways of treating non insu…
Insulin sensitizers... Incretins... Insulin Secretagogues... Inhibitor…
what happens when all of these fail?
administer insulin or insulin analogues
71 terms
Intro to Diabetes Type 1
diabetes mellitus
diabetes insipidus
WHO diagnostic criteria for DM diagnosis
WHO diagnosis table DM
disordered metabolism w/ inappropriate hyperglycemia and urin…
a syndrome of insufficient antidiuretic hormone and the urine…
1. random plasma glucose > 200 mg/dL AND Sx (thirst, polyuria…
diabetes mellitus
disordered metabolism w/ inappropriate hyperglycemia and urin…
diabetes insipidus
a syndrome of insufficient antidiuretic hormone and the urine…
8 terms
Type 2 Diabetes Medications
Biguanide
Sulphonylureas
DPP-4 Inhibitors
Thiazolidinedoines
Metforman (Glucophage)... - decrease hepatic glucose output... - de…
Glipizide (Glucotorl)... Glyburide (micronase)... Glimepepiride (Am…
Sitagliptin... - decrease gastric emptying... - increase glucagon-l…
Pioglitazone (actos)... Rosiglitazone (avandia)... - increase perip…
Biguanide
Metforman (Glucophage)... - decrease hepatic glucose output... - de…
Sulphonylureas
Glipizide (Glucotorl)... Glyburide (micronase)... Glimepepiride (Am…
5 terms
Signs of Type 2 Diabetes
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated wit…
deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream
Polyuria
production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine
Polydipsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease
5 terms
Signs of Diabetes Type 2
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemica
Hypoglycemia
production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine.
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease
a excess of glucose in the blood stream
deficiency of glucose in the blood steam
Polyuria
production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine.
Polydipsia
abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease
24 terms
Type II Diabetes
Contrasting Type I and Type II Diabetes
Diabetes Complications and Comorbiditi…
Criteria for diagnosis
Non obvious risk factors for T2D (4)
Microvascular:... -Retinopathy leading to blindness... -Nephropathy…
-Random plasma glucose > 200 mg/dL in pt w/ classic sx or hyp…
-BMI >23 for Asian Americans (>25 for all else)... -Women w/ his…
Contrasting Type I and Type II Diabetes
Diabetes Complications and Comorbiditi…
Microvascular:... -Retinopathy leading to blindness... -Nephropathy…
9 terms
Diabetes type 2
Metformin
Orlistat
Sulphonylureas
Acarbose
First line therapy; check renal function and LFTs before init…
BMI > 28 (treatment for obesity)
"Gliclazide"; monitor renal function and LFTs; direct effect…
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors; slows down digestion of carbohy…
Metformin
First line therapy; check renal function and LFTs before init…
Orlistat
BMI > 28 (treatment for obesity)
24 terms
Type I Diabetes
Dx of Type I Diabetes
Hemoglobin A1c
Prediabetes
Immunology of T1D
Fasting plasma glucose > 126mg/dL... 2-hour plasma glucose > 200…
-Fromed by irreversible, non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemog…
Any one of below:... Impaired fasting glucose: 100-125 mg/dL... Im…
-Antibodies do not directly destroy B cells... -Cell mediated (…
Dx of Type I Diabetes
Fasting plasma glucose > 126mg/dL... 2-hour plasma glucose > 200…
Hemoglobin A1c
-Fromed by irreversible, non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemog…
5 terms
Diabetes type 1 and 2
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
excessive urination
excessive thirst
excessive sugar in the blood
Condition of low blood sugar... Abnormally low blood sugar level
Polyuria
excessive urination
Polydipsia
excessive thirst
36 terms
24 Type 2 diabetes
to diagnose diabetes a random plasma g…
Fasting Plasma glucose for diabetes is?
What diagnoses diabetes in a 2 -hr pla…
What is HONK?
>200 mg/dL
>126 mg/dL
>200 mg/dL
Hyperosmolar nonketotic state aka... sever hyperglycemia... high se…
to diagnose diabetes a random plasma g…
>200 mg/dL
Fasting Plasma glucose for diabetes is?
>126 mg/dL
69 terms
Type 2 Diabetes Drugs
What are potential undesirable effects…
What is the mechanism of action of sul…
Describe the release of insulin from p…
What are first generation sulfonylureas?
Insulin resistance, elevated levels contribute to long-term c…
Bind to the SUR site on the K channel on the pancreatic beta…
Increased glucose metabolism in the cell causes an increase i…
Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide.
What are potential undesirable effects…
Insulin resistance, elevated levels contribute to long-term c…
What is the mechanism of action of sul…
Bind to the SUR site on the K channel on the pancreatic beta…
10 terms
Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes
DM Type 1: What's Going Wrong
DM Type2: What's Going Wrong
Important Labs:
Signs & Symptoms:
DM 1 occurs when the body or pancreas can not produce insulin…
DM 2 occurs when the insulin produced by the body or pancreas…
- Glycated Haemoglobin(HbA1c) 3 month average plasma glucose…
-Polydipsia (excessive thirst)... -Polyuria (excessive urination…
DM Type 1: What's Going Wrong
DM 1 occurs when the body or pancreas can not produce insulin…
DM Type2: What's Going Wrong
DM 2 occurs when the insulin produced by the body or pancreas…
15 terms
Type II Diabetes
Diagnostic criteria for Type II diabet…
Diabetes Screening
Why do we correct for serum sodium in…
What are causes of an elevated anion g…
Fasting plasma glucose > 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) where fasting…
Screen for diabetes in all adults with blood pressure greater…
Hyperglycemia can cause pseudohyponatremia. Extremely eleva…
M - Methanol... U - Uremia in acute renal failure... D - Diabetic k…
Diagnostic criteria for Type II diabet…
Fasting plasma glucose > 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) where fasting…
Diabetes Screening
Screen for diabetes in all adults with blood pressure greater…
27 terms
Type 2 Diabetes Management
Priorities of diabetes management
What is the number one side effect of…
What is the #1 most serious side effec…
What is the dosage of metformin
Gastrointestinal disturbance
Lactic acidosis
1. metformin immediate release 500mg BD with meals... 2. Metfor…
Priorities of diabetes management
What is the number one side effect of…
Gastrointestinal disturbance
30 terms
24 - Type II Diabetes
Describe the four categories of diabetes
Compare the clinical characteristics o…
Discuss the epidemiology of T2DM
What are classic symptoms of DM?
DKA can occur in T2DM if severe infection or MI, stroke
polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagiaa* → wt loss... • *acanthosis…
Describe the four categories of diabetes
Compare the clinical characteristics o…
DKA can occur in T2DM if severe infection or MI, stroke
24 terms
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes was previously known as
pancreae
DM type 1 affects:
often develops in children and young adults.
juvenile-onset diabetes... or... insulin-dependent diabetes.
is unable to produce insulin because of the destruction of th…
5% to 10% of patients with diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes
often develops in children and young adults.
Type 1 Diabetes was previously known as
juvenile-onset diabetes... or... insulin-dependent diabetes.
47 terms
Diabetes and Insulin - Type 1
What is the goal of endocrine pancreat…
Islets of Langerhans
Insulin
what is the most potent anabolic hormo…
To maintain blood glucose homeostasis
*Beta cells located in the middle of the islets secrete insul…
Lowers blood glucose... -Increases the rate of glucose uptake…
Insulin - ... -Promotes synthesis and storage of carbohydrates,…
What is the goal of endocrine pancreat…
To maintain blood glucose homeostasis
Islets of Langerhans
*Beta cells located in the middle of the islets secrete insul…
53 terms
Diabetes Type 2 medications
Which drug class stimulates insulin se…
What are the nursing considerations fo…
The patient has a sulfa allergy and se…
Which drug class stimulates insulin se…
Sulfonylureas
major side effect is hypoglycemia, avoid alcohol, take 30 min…
She can't have sulfonylureas because of her sulfa allergy, nu…
Meglitinides
Which drug class stimulates insulin se…
Sulfonylureas
What are the nursing considerations fo…
major side effect is hypoglycemia, avoid alcohol, take 30 min…
9 terms
Type 1 Diabetes
what is type 1 diabetes characterized…
when do symptoms appear?
what percentage of diabetics does type…
what are signs and symptoms of type 1…
the destruction of the pancreatic beta cells that results in…
quickly
5-10% (especially in caucasians)
usually under weight,
what is type 1 diabetes characterized…
the destruction of the pancreatic beta cells that results in…
when do symptoms appear?
quickly
21 terms
Type 2 Diabetes
Stages of Progression
Symptoms
Risk Factors for T2DM
Testing for Type 2 should be done for…
1. insulin resistance, then overproduction of insulin... 2. incr…
fatigue, dry mouth, blurry vision, poor wound healing
obesity or overweight (the most powerful predictor of type 2)…
BMI >/=25 (adjust for Asian population)... age >/= 45 years... 1st…
Stages of Progression
1. insulin resistance, then overproduction of insulin... 2. incr…
Symptoms
fatigue, dry mouth, blurry vision, poor wound healing
31 terms
Diabetes Meds (for type 2)
Sulfonylurea drugs
Sulfonylurea route and administration…
Sulfonylurea MOA... [Glyburide, Amaryl, G…
Sulfonylurea ADEs... [Glyburide, Amaryl,…
Glyburide, Amaryl, Glipizide, Glucotrol XL
PO (30 min BEFORE meals)
Lowers blood sugar by triggering the release of insulin from…
- Hypoglycemia... - Weight gain... - CV risk
Sulfonylurea drugs
Glyburide, Amaryl, Glipizide, Glucotrol XL
Sulfonylurea route and administration…
PO (30 min BEFORE meals)
60 terms
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
What is diabetes mellitus? What are th…
What is Type II DM and why does it no…
MC form of diabetes?
Etiology of DM 2?
Group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia…
Chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes…
TYPE 2 DIABETES... MC form of diabetes (90-95%)... Prevalence risi…
Strong genetic component... Identical twins, parents w/DM Envir…
What is diabetes mellitus? What are th…
Group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia…
What is Type II DM and why does it no…
Chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes…
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