Study sets matching "digestion transport"

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Study sets matching "digestion transport"

Digestion and Transport
Absorption
Amylase
Anemia
Aneurysm
The passage of materials across the cell membrane into a cell…
An enzyme that digest starch into disaccharides
Decreased ability of red blood cells to provide adequate oxyg…
A blood-filled sac formed by the dilation of the wall of an a…
Absorption
The passage of materials across the cell membrane into a cell…
Amylase
An enzyme that digest starch into disaccharides
37 terms
Digestion and Transport
What are the aseptic techniques for a…
What are the aseptic techniques for a…
What is the role of root hair cells?
How does transpiration cause physical…
Sterilise loop by heating untill red hot in blue bunsen flame…
Heat in bunsen burner until its red hot
Increase surface area for the absorption of water
Water leaves from air spaces in a plant by a process called t…
What are the aseptic techniques for a…
Sterilise loop by heating untill red hot in blue bunsen flame…
What are the aseptic techniques for a…
Heat in bunsen burner until its red hot
33 terms
Digestion, absorption, transport
Define digestion
Define absorption
Types of smooth muscle contractions
What is the role of saliva in the mouth?
...
- the uptake of nutrient's by the cells of the small intestin…
1. Peristalsis: waves of smooth muscle contraction from behin…
-has amylase( breaks down carbs)and a little bit of lipase( b…
Define digestion
...
Define absorption
- the uptake of nutrient's by the cells of the small intestin…
53 terms
Digestion & Transport dietary lipids
Identify the structural features of in…
Triacylglycerols
3 classes of chain lengths
Lipases (lingual lipase in the saliva…
...
major fat in human diet.... contain glycerol backbone and 3 este…
perform limited digestion of triacylglycerol before food ente…
Identify the structural features of in…
...
Triacylglycerols
major fat in human diet.... contain glycerol backbone and 3 este…
15 terms
Chapter 3-Digestion, Absorption, and transport
List the segments of the digestive tra…
Explain the mechanical processes of di…
List the five organs and their secreti…
Simple Diffusion
mouth... esophagus... stomach... small intestine... large intestine (colon)
Peristalsis pushes the digestive controls along. Stomach acti…
1. Saliva- Salivary glands moistens food... 2. Gastric Juice-Gas…
Some nutrients such as water and small lipids are absorbed by…
List the segments of the digestive tra…
mouth... esophagus... stomach... small intestine... large intestine (colon)
Explain the mechanical processes of di…
Peristalsis pushes the digestive controls along. Stomach acti…
83 terms
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
chemical digestion
mechanical digestion
gastrointestinal (GI) tract
digestion
breaking down food through enzymatic reactions
breaking down food by chewing, grainding, squeezing, and movi…
a long tube comprised of the organs of the digestive tract. I…
a process that breaks down food into individual molecules sma…
chemical digestion
breaking down food through enzymatic reactions
mechanical digestion
breaking down food by chewing, grainding, squeezing, and movi…
68 terms
Digestion and Transport Test
Absorption
Amylase
Anemia
Aneurysm
the passage of materials across a cell membrane into the cell…
an enzyme that digests starch into dissacharides
decreased ability of red blood cells to provide adequate oxyg…
a blood-filled sac formed by the dilatation of the wall of an…
Absorption
the passage of materials across a cell membrane into the cell…
Amylase
an enzyme that digests starch into dissacharides
21 terms
Digestion, Transport, and Uptake of Glucose
Fermentation
Roles of glycolysis
Aerobic glycolysis
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)
Process to extract chemical energy from a fuel... in the absence…
Emergency mechanism to generate ATP... Set stage for oxidation o…
Lactate produced in the presence of oxygen. A common mechanis…
Converts pyruvate to acetyl-coA. Requires O2 and TCA cycle ac…
Fermentation
Process to extract chemical energy from a fuel... in the absence…
Roles of glycolysis
Emergency mechanism to generate ATP... Set stage for oxidation o…
Cell Transport and Digestion
cell transport
active transport
passive transport
simple diffusion
when cells pass through the phospholipid bilayer of the cell…
uses energy to go from a low concentration to a high concentr…
uses NO energy to go from high concentration to low concentra…
a type of passive transport, when nonpolar molecules pass thr…
cell transport
when cells pass through the phospholipid bilayer of the cell…
active transport
uses energy to go from a low concentration to a high concentr…
44 terms
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
Lumen
Pharynx
Epiglottis
Esophagus
The space within a vessel, such as the intenstine
The passageway leading from the nose and mouth to the larynx…
Cartilage in the throat that guards the entrance to the trach…
The food pipe from the mouth to the stomach
Lumen
The space within a vessel, such as the intenstine
Pharynx
The passageway leading from the nose and mouth to the larynx…
28 terms
22 Digestion and Transport of Carbs
Indigestible Fiber
Complex Carbs
Disaccharides
Monosaccharides
Cellulose
Starch ... Amylopectin ... Glycogen
Lactose ... Sucrose ... Maltose
Fructose (fruit, soft drinks)... Ribose (DNA, RNA)... Glycerol (TG)
Indigestible Fiber
Cellulose
Complex Carbs
Starch ... Amylopectin ... Glycogen
digestion absorption and transport
peristalsis
segmentation
reflux
stomach action
contraction, waves... Circular and longitudinal muscles working…
periodic squeezing
backward flow
circular, longitudinal, and diagonal muscles... timing the relea…
peristalsis
contraction, waves... Circular and longitudinal muscles working…
segmentation
periodic squeezing
22 terms
lipid digestion and transport
lipid transport and metabolism
triglycerides
lipids as an energy source
lipid transport for 3 reasons
1) digestion of lipids from the diet... 2) cholesterol and *…
glycerol combined with 3 fatty acyl molecules that vary i…
- lipids are highly reduced, and are used in oxidation rxns…
1) lipids in the diet are transported from the stomach and in…
lipid transport and metabolism
1) digestion of lipids from the diet... 2) cholesterol and *…
triglycerides
glycerol combined with 3 fatty acyl molecules that vary i…
53 terms
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
Digestion
Absorption
GI Tract
Lumen
Process by which food is broken down into absorbable units
The uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine f…
"The digestive tract" ; flexible muscular tube that extends f…
Space within a vessel, such as the intestine
Digestion
Process by which food is broken down into absorbable units
Absorption
The uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine f…
14 terms
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
Gastrointestinal Tract
Mouth
Bolus
Esophagus
6 to 8m long... normal and nervous systems coordinate digestive…
mastication and enzymes begin digestion of CHO... swallow the bo…
the amount of food swallowed at one time
pushes the bolus down the esophagus toward the stomach with p…
Gastrointestinal Tract
6 to 8m long... normal and nervous systems coordinate digestive…
Mouth
mastication and enzymes begin digestion of CHO... swallow the bo…
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
digestion
absorption
GI tract
phyarynx
body's way of breaking down foods into nutrients in peraratio…
the uptake of nutrients by the cells fo teh small intestine f…
the digestive tract. the principle organs are the stomach and…
the passageway leading from the nose and mouth the larynx and…
digestion
body's way of breaking down foods into nutrients in peraratio…
absorption
the uptake of nutrients by the cells fo teh small intestine f…
52 terms
Digestion/transport of carbs
indigestible fiber includes
complex carbs include
disaccarides include
monosaccarides include
cellulose
-starch... -amylopectin... -glycogen
-lactose... -maltose... -sucrose
-fructose... -ribose... -glycerol
indigestible fiber includes
cellulose
complex carbs include
-starch... -amylopectin... -glycogen
54 terms
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
Lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
Chyme
Pepsin
Pyloric Sphincter
-sphincter down towards the stomach... -Importance: so acid does…
more liquid than bolus
Pepsinogen-secreted by chief cells (inactive form)... + HCl caus…
secrete small amounts-more time for absorption in SI... -if it w…
Lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
-sphincter down towards the stomach... -Importance: so acid does…
Chyme
more liquid than bolus
20 terms
Digestion: Absorption & Transport (Lipids)
a) mouth
b) stomach
c) duodenum (gall bladder)
d) duodenum (pancrease)
Site of lingual lipase:... a) mouth... b) stomach... c) duodenum (gall…
Site of gastric lipase... a) mouth... b) stomach... c) duodenum (gallb…
site of bile salts... a) mouth... b) stomach... c) duodenum (gallbladd…
site of pancreatic lipase (pancreatic colipase)... a) mouth... b) s…
a) mouth
Site of lingual lipase:... a) mouth... b) stomach... c) duodenum (gall…
b) stomach
Site of gastric lipase... a) mouth... b) stomach... c) duodenum (gallb…
20 terms
Digestion: Absorption & Transport (Proteins)
c) proteins, polypeptides, peptides, a…
b) stomach
a) pepsin
b) polypeptides
List the correct order from largest to smallest:... a) proteins,…
Main site of pepsin secretion:... a) duodenum... b) stomach... c)epith…
Which of the following is NOT a secretion from the duodenum (…
Pepsin breaks down proteins into:... a) peptides... b) polypeptides…
c) proteins, polypeptides, peptides, a…
List the correct order from largest to smallest:... a) proteins,…
b) stomach
Main site of pepsin secretion:... a) duodenum... b) stomach... c)epith…
14 terms
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
mouth
esophagus
bolus
stomach
mechanical: chewing... chemical: amylase in saliva; breaks down…
peristalsis movement: contraction... upper esophageal sphincter…
clump of food from mouth to stomach
three layers of muscle: diagonal, circular, longitudinal... pace…
mouth
mechanical: chewing... chemical: amylase in saliva; breaks down…
esophagus
peristalsis movement: contraction... upper esophageal sphincter…
digestion Absorption and transport
six major anatomical organs used in di…
roles of the mouth
roles of the esophagus
roles of the stomach
mouth... esophagus... pharynx... stomach... small intestine... large intestine
ingestion: food enters the mouth... Mechanical digestion: mastic…
propulsion: swallowing and peristalsis move the bolus from th…
Mechanical digestion: this process mixes and churns the bolus…
six major anatomical organs used in di…
mouth... esophagus... pharynx... stomach... small intestine... large intestine
roles of the mouth
ingestion: food enters the mouth... Mechanical digestion: mastic…
120 terms
Digestion, absorption, & transport
Digestion
Lumen
carbs are digested into
protein is digested into
process of breaking down food into absorbable units, so they…
inner portion of GI tract
glucose
amino acids
Digestion
process of breaking down food into absorbable units, so they…
Lumen
inner portion of GI tract
89 terms
Digestion & Transport (NST 103)
components of GI tract (5)
4 accessory organs
functions of stomach (6)
G-cell secretes
- oral cavity... - esophagus... - stomach... - small intestine... - large…
- salivary glands... - liver... - pancreas... - galbladder
- form chyme (food + secretions)... - secrete acid, pepsinogen,…
- gastrin
components of GI tract (5)
- oral cavity... - esophagus... - stomach... - small intestine... - large…
4 accessory organs
- salivary glands... - liver... - pancreas... - galbladder
10 terms
Lipid Digestion and Transport
Where and how does each type of lipid…
Cystic Fibrosis
Hormonal Control of Lipid Digestion
Fate of free fatty acids
Stomach- (short chain TAGs) broken down by gastric and lingua…
Most common lethal genetic disorder affecting caucasians. Cau…
In response to partially digested lipids entering the small i…
FFA's are derived from degradation of TAG. They may either di…
Where and how does each type of lipid…
Stomach- (short chain TAGs) broken down by gastric and lingua…
Cystic Fibrosis
Most common lethal genetic disorder affecting caucasians. Cau…
26 terms
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
path of food through the GI tract
muscular actions of the GI tract
salivary gland secretions
gastric gland secretions
-chewing/saliva in the mouth... -bolus passes through upper esop…
-esophagus: peristalsis, moves food down... -stomach muscles: lo…
-targets mouth... -secrete saliva... -digestion of some carbs by sa…
-targets stomach... -secrete gastric juices... -breakdown protein
path of food through the GI tract
-chewing/saliva in the mouth... -bolus passes through upper esop…
muscular actions of the GI tract
-esophagus: peristalsis, moves food down... -stomach muscles: lo…
23 terms
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
Digestion
absorption
GI Tract
Digestive System
the process by which food is broken down into absorbable unites
uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for t…
stomach and the intestines
all the organs and glands associated with ingestion and diges…
Digestion
the process by which food is broken down into absorbable unites
absorption
uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for t…
Lipid Digestion & Transport
Glucose
Arachidonic acids
Cholesterol
Enterocytes
goes to Pyruvate then Acetyl CoA which can then be converted…
EPA... 20:4w6... can lead to leukotrienes, Prostaglandins, prostacy…
Acetyl CoA is converted to HMG CoA... --HMG CoA reductase change…
TAG are cleaved into 2-MG & FA which are absorbed by FATP4, C…
Glucose
goes to Pyruvate then Acetyl CoA which can then be converted…
Arachidonic acids
EPA... 20:4w6... can lead to leukotrienes, Prostaglandins, prostacy…
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
digestion
absorption
gastrointestinal (GI) tract
lumen
process by which food is broken down
uptake of nutrients by cells of the small intestine
principal organs of the stomach and small intestines
inner space of the GI tract
digestion
process by which food is broken down
absorption
uptake of nutrients by cells of the small intestine
14 terms
Digestion Absorption and Transport
food in the stomach stimulates...
gastric juice
contraction, waves, circular and longi…
break down proteins to dipetides, trip…
gastrin (secreted from stomach wall, stimulates stomach gland…
- fluid dilutes food in stomach
peristalsis
proteases
food in the stomach stimulates...
gastrin (secreted from stomach wall, stimulates stomach gland…
gastric juice
- fluid dilutes food in stomach
Carbohydrate Digestion, Absorption & Transport
a-amylase
maltase and glucoamylase
sucrase
isomaltase
hydrolyze interior glc(a1-4)glc
hydrolyzing glc (a1-4) glc
hydrolyzing sucrose (glc a1-2 fructose)
hydrolyzing (glc a1-6 glc)
a-amylase
hydrolyze interior glc(a1-4)glc
maltase and glucoamylase
hydrolyzing glc (a1-4) glc
32 terms
Digestion, Absorption, Transport
mechanical
chemical
amylase
bolus
chewing and breaking the food into smaller pieces
starches are broken down by the enzyme amylase in saliva
1. Salivary glands ... 2.pancreas
a soft lump of food formed in the mouth then swallowed
mechanical
chewing and breaking the food into smaller pieces
chemical
starches are broken down by the enzyme amylase in saliva
8 terms
Digestion, Respiration, & Transport/Circulatory
Digestive System
Respiratory System
Circulatory System
mouth - tongue - stomach - small intes…
System that is responsible for the breakdown and utilization…
System made up of the lungs and a system of tubes responsible…
System that links the cells of a complex organism with its en…
Order of digestion
Digestive System
System that is responsible for the breakdown and utilization…
Respiratory System
System made up of the lungs and a system of tubes responsible…
167 terms
Transport, Digestion, Circulation
transmembrane
symplastic
apoplastic
symplast
molecules repeatedly cross plasma membrane and cell walls
molecules move past symplast
molecules move through the apoplast
continuum of cytosol linked by plasmodesmata
transmembrane
molecules repeatedly cross plasma membrane and cell walls
symplastic
molecules move past symplast
38 terms
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Upper & lower esophageal sphincter
Pylori sphincter... 3 layers of muscle
Duodenum... Jejunum... Ileum
Ascending... Transverse ... Descending
Esophagus
Upper & lower esophageal sphincter
Stomach
Pylori sphincter... 3 layers of muscle
Digestion, Absorption and Transport
What does the mouth do?
Esophagus
Peristalsis
Epiglottis
chews and mixes food with saliva forming a mass called a bolus
passes bolus to stomach, bypassing the trachea. At the top of…
a wave-like circular and longitudinal muscular contractions o…
protects airway during swallowing
What does the mouth do?
chews and mixes food with saliva forming a mass called a bolus
Esophagus
passes bolus to stomach, bypassing the trachea. At the top of…
7 terms
Digestion, Absorption, & Transport
GI tract (alimentary canal)
Mouth & esophagus (ingestion, digestion)
Saliva
Stomach (food storage, mixing, slowly…
main segments = mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, l…
mastication reduces food to bits; enzymes break down carbs; s…
contains two secretions (ptyalin) for digesting starches and…
tonus waves blend food with gastric juices and moves it along…
GI tract (alimentary canal)
main segments = mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, l…
Mouth & esophagus (ingestion, digestion)
mastication reduces food to bits; enzymes break down carbs; s…
Digestion, Absorption, Transport
vitamin B6 into enterocyte
iron via transporter DMT
glucose across basolateral membrane in…
fructose into blood from enterocyte (G…
passive diffusion
facilitated diffusion
facilitated diffusion
facilitated diffusion
vitamin B6 into enterocyte
passive diffusion
iron via transporter DMT
facilitated diffusion
Digestion, Absorption, Transport, and Storage
Digestion
Absorption
Elimination
Transport
Foods are broken down by chemical or mechanical processes to…
Moving products of digestion across intestinal wall into bloo…
Removal of undigested and unabsorbed products from the body
Move products through the blood stream or lymphatic system to…
Digestion
Foods are broken down by chemical or mechanical processes to…
Absorption
Moving products of digestion across intestinal wall into bloo…
36 terms
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport 3
Digestion
Absorption
Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
Digestive System
The process which food is broken down into absorbable parts.…
The uptake of nutrients by the cells of small intestine for t…
The digestive tract. The principal organs are the stomach and…
All the organs and glands associated with the ingestion and d…
Digestion
The process which food is broken down into absorbable parts.…
Absorption
The uptake of nutrients by the cells of small intestine for t…
Digestion and Transport of Lipids
Lipids
Types of Lipids
Esters of Fatty Acids include
Esters of FA can be broken down into _…
family of biomolecules that are soluble in organic solvents b…
Esters of fatty acids... Steroids... Special lipids
triacylglycerols... phospholipids... sphingolipids... oils, waxes, fats
the fatty acids and an alcohol.
Lipids
family of biomolecules that are soluble in organic solvents b…
Types of Lipids
Esters of fatty acids... Steroids... Special lipids
35 terms
Lipid Digestion and Transport
Which apoprotein acts as a cofactor ac…
What sequence places the lipoproteins…
What is the most abundant compound of…
The conversion of nascent chylomicrons…
ApoC-II
HDL/LDL/VLDL/chylomicrons
Triglyceride
High-density lipoproteins
Which apoprotein acts as a cofactor ac…
ApoC-II
What sequence places the lipoproteins…
HDL/LDL/VLDL/chylomicrons
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport pt II
What are the 4 cells of the Small inte…
What are the 3 vessels within a villus?
What is the difference between the hor…
Difference between Mucosa layers of St…
1) Absorptive cells - Most numerous, they are Columnar cells.…
Artery, Vein, and Lymph (called lacteal)
Both have same effect on the stomach (up HCl secretion) BUT e…
Both:... Mucus secreting cells (more in stomach, stomach has 2 l…
What are the 4 cells of the Small inte…
1) Absorptive cells - Most numerous, they are Columnar cells.…
What are the 3 vessels within a villus?
Artery, Vein, and Lymph (called lacteal)
75 terms
Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
Digestion
Absorption
Sequence of Events in Digestion
Gastrointestinal tract aka ...
process by which food is broken down into absorbable units
passage of nutrients from GI tract into blood or lymph
ingestion --> digestion --> absorption --> transport --> meta…
GI tract = Digestive Tract
Digestion
process by which food is broken down into absorbable units
Absorption
passage of nutrients from GI tract into blood or lymph
37 terms
Biochemistry - Lipid Digestion and Transport
where are lipids found?
lipase
cystic fibrosis
CF, Harris definition
- generally found compartmentalized, transported in plasma in…
- digestion of lipids begins in stomach, catalyzed by a lipas…
- caused by mutations to the gene for the CF transmembrane co…
- a defective epithelium chloride channel causes decreased hy…
where are lipids found?
- generally found compartmentalized, transported in plasma in…
lipase
- digestion of lipids begins in stomach, catalyzed by a lipas…
15 terms
Digestion and transport of carbs
Dietary carbs
alpha amylase
Glycosidases
glucoamylase
indigestible Fiber (cellulose)... complex carbs (starch, amylope…
from saliva... endoglucosidase (cuts glycosidic bonds anywhere)…
convert disaccharides and oligosacchareids to monosaccharides…
exoclucosidase specific for alpha 1,4 bonds ... 2 extracellular…
Dietary carbs
indigestible Fiber (cellulose)... complex carbs (starch, amylope…
alpha amylase
from saliva... endoglucosidase (cuts glycosidic bonds anywhere)…
14 terms
Digestion and Transport of Dietary Lipids
Arachidonic Acid is the precursor for…
What molecule ... a. stabilizes the phosp…
When a triglyceride (TG) is ingested i…
What enzyme during fasting, signals to…
Eicosanoids... Leukotrienes, Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes
Cholesterol
2-Monoglyceride and Fatty Acid... Chylomicrons; Intestinal epit…
Hormone Sensitive Lipase
Arachidonic Acid is the precursor for…
Eicosanoids... Leukotrienes, Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes
What molecule ... a. stabilizes the phosp…
Cholesterol
3 Digestion, Absorption and Transport
Eating food
digestion
absorption
Gastrointestinal Tract = GI
Ingestion --> digestion --> absorption --> transport --> meta…
process by which food is broken down into nutrients
uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for t…
flexible muscular tube from mouth to esophagus to stomach to…
Eating food
Ingestion --> digestion --> absorption --> transport --> meta…
digestion
process by which food is broken down into nutrients
13 terms
Digestion, Absorption & Transport
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
carotenes & retinyl esters w/protein: hydrolyzed from protein…
7-dehydrocholesterol secreted onto skin and reabsorbed, expos…
20-80%absorbed, stored in liver & fatty tissues
K1 by active, K2&3 by passive, needs fat and bile, chylomicro…
Vitamin A
carotenes & retinyl esters w/protein: hydrolyzed from protein…
Vitamin D
7-dehydrocholesterol secreted onto skin and reabsorbed, expos…
21 terms
IB Digestion and Transport Systems
Explain why digestion of large food mo…
Explain the need for enzymes in digest…
State the source, substrate, productio…
State the source, substrate, productio…
Most food is solid and in the form of large complex molecules…
Are biological catalysts which speed up the rate of chemical…
ex. salivary amylase ... source: salivary glands... substrate: st…
ex. pepsin... source: gastric juice ... substrate: protein... ... prod…
Explain why digestion of large food mo…
Most food is solid and in the form of large complex molecules…
Explain the need for enzymes in digest…
Are biological catalysts which speed up the rate of chemical…
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