Study sets matching "diseases emerging infectious"

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Study sets matching "diseases emerging infectious"

25 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Pet Travel Scheme
Anaplasmosis
Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Cx of Anaplasmosis
Allows UK pets to travel to certain countries and then return…
Caused by both some Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species due to re…
Obligate, intracellular, Rickettsial bacteria transmitted by…
Most are subclinical, but if they do show signs they are 1-2…
Pet Travel Scheme
Allows UK pets to travel to certain countries and then return…
Anaplasmosis
Caused by both some Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species due to re…
56 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
General definition of emerging infecti…
Newly recognized but have been causing…
Newly appeared as a result of mutation…
Diseases increasing in incidence or ge…
infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased i…
• Hantaviruses... • Hepatitis C (HCV)... • Helicobacter pylori
• HIV... • New Varient Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (nvCJD)... • SARS…
• "Airport" Malaria... • MRSA... • West Nile Virus ... • Mumps & Measles
General definition of emerging infecti…
infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased i…
Newly recognized but have been causing…
• Hantaviruses... • Hepatitis C (HCV)... • Helicobacter pylori
31 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emerging Infectious Disease (EID)
Classification of EIDs
Most common EIDs
Infectious agents most likely to emerge
"An infectious disease whos incidence is increasing..."... -foll…
Newly emerging... -not previously recognized in humans... -could…
Zoonoses... -transmission from animal to human host... -develop a…
RNA viruses - high mutation rate... -ability to generate quasi…
Emerging Infectious Disease (EID)
"An infectious disease whos incidence is increasing..."... -foll…
Classification of EIDs
Newly emerging... -not previously recognized in humans... -could…
44 terms
EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
General definition of emerging infecti…
Newly recognized but have been causing…
Newly appeared as a result of mutation…
Diseases increasing in incidence or ge…
infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased i…
• Hantaviruses... • Hepatitis C (HCV)... • Helicobacter pylori
• Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)... • New Varient Creutzfeld…
• "Airport" Malaria... • MRSA... • West Nile Virus... • Mumps and Meas…
General definition of emerging infecti…
infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased i…
Newly recognized but have been causing…
• Hantaviruses... • Hepatitis C (HCV)... • Helicobacter pylori
36 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Incubation period
Infectious period
Latent period
epidemic
Time form exposure to the development of disease
Length of time a person can transmit disease
Period of infectionwithout being infection. This may occur ri…
Occurrence of cases of illness in excess of expectancy
Incubation period
Time form exposure to the development of disease
Infectious period
Length of time a person can transmit disease
36 terms
[042] Emerging Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases can emerge from wh…
New diseases come from
What proportion of infectious diseases…
Pandemic emergence
1. A recognised infection spreading to new areas or populatio…
Environment... Animals- zoonoses
2/3
Sustained person-to-person outbreaks, global spread
Infectious diseases can emerge from wh…
1. A recognised infection spreading to new areas or populatio…
New diseases come from
Environment... Animals- zoonoses
15 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
What are the 'new' diseases?
What are the diseases 're-emerging?'
When/Why did the Who get involved with…
What are factors involved in infectiou…
Sars, Ebola, and now Zika.
Yellow fever, cholera, ebola, and plague.
When people thought they might spread to the west.
Microbial adaptation and change (TB), inter-species transmiss…
What are the 'new' diseases?
Sars, Ebola, and now Zika.
What are the diseases 're-emerging?'
Yellow fever, cholera, ebola, and plague.
emerging & re-emerging infectious diseases
infectious disease
pathogens
infection
disease
A disease that is caused by the invasion of the host by agent…
Micro organisms that are capable of causing disease
results when a pathogen invades and begins growing within a h…
as a consequence of the invasion and growth of the pathogen t…
infectious disease
A disease that is caused by the invasion of the host by agent…
pathogens
Micro organisms that are capable of causing disease
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emerging Diseases
Re-Emerging Diseases
Stage 1 Cross-Species Disease Emergence
Stage 2 Cross-Species Disease Emergence
Previously unknown disease that suddenly appears in a populat…
Known disease, previously on the decline, that is becoming mo…
Pathogen exclusive to an animal reservoir
Animal reservoir transmits to humans/other animals, but there…
Emerging Diseases
Previously unknown disease that suddenly appears in a populat…
Re-Emerging Diseases
Known disease, previously on the decline, that is becoming mo…
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Acute infection
Aerosol
Biological warfare
Carrier
a short-term infection usually characterized by dramatic onset
a fine mist containing minute particles
the use of biological agents to incapacitate or kill humans
an infected individual who does not show symptoms but is infe…
Acute infection
a short-term infection usually characterized by dramatic onset
Aerosol
a fine mist containing minute particles
44 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases (ID)
old diseases
SARS; yellow fever
global pandemic
microbial; insecticide
____________ like the plague have resurface in the last century
New diseases include HIV/AIDs and ___________ (2003-2008); ol…
The emergence of old and new (exotic) diseases gave rise to t…
ID emergence came from ____________ adaption and change (vect…
old diseases
____________ like the plague have resurface in the last century
SARS; yellow fever
New diseases include HIV/AIDs and ___________ (2003-2008); ol…
emerging infectious diseases
eight characteristics of living things
biosphere
biome
ecosystem
cells, reproduction, metabolism, respond to stimuli, homeosta…
everything in the earth
ecospheres on earth
one area
eight characteristics of living things
cells, reproduction, metabolism, respond to stimuli, homeosta…
biosphere
everything in the earth
Emerging Infectious Diseases
pose a risk to national security
second highest priority
include emerging pathogens that could…
Class A
Category A... Can be easily disseminated or transmitted from pe…
Class B... Are moderately easy to disseminate... Result in moderate…
Class C... Availability... Ease of production and dissemination... Pot…
• Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)... • Yersinia pestis (plague -pne…
pose a risk to national security
Category A... Can be easily disseminated or transmitted from pe…
second highest priority
Class B... Are moderately easy to disseminate... Result in moderate…
Emerging Infectious Diseases
• Human behaviour and demographics... • M…
Bacteria
Viruses
• Digest food/ digestion... • Immune syst…
Why do diseases emerge?
Most thoroughly studied. Most are single-celled organisms wit…
Composed of a nucleic acid and a few proteins. Replicate them…
What are the benefits of microbes?
• Human behaviour and demographics... • M…
Why do diseases emerge?
Bacteria
Most thoroughly studied. Most are single-celled organisms wit…
11 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Incidence rate
Prevalence
R0=b k D
R0 < 1
Number of new cases per population at risk for a disease over…
Total number of disease cases / number of individuals in the…
R0 = Number of secondary cases following a single introductio…
Disease will die out as fewer individuals are affected every…
Incidence rate
Number of new cases per population at risk for a disease over…
Prevalence
Total number of disease cases / number of individuals in the…
107 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
microorganisms can be found where in t…
the vast majority of microorganisms ar…
there are approximately ___ known path…
disease causing organisms are called _…
soil, water, foods
nonpathogenic
1400
pathogens
microorganisms can be found where in t…
soil, water, foods
the vast majority of microorganisms ar…
nonpathogenic
15 terms
(RE)Emerging Infectious Diseases
Causes of acute pneumonia
MERS-CoV
Avian Influenza
Metapneumovirus
Bacterial: Strep. pneumoniae, Legionella, Chlamydophilia, M…
novel coronavirus in MEast, reservoir = camels... fever, cough,…
caused by H5, H7, H9 strains; most are low path, but high pat…
common cause of respiratory infections in children and older…
Causes of acute pneumonia
Bacterial: Strep. pneumoniae, Legionella, Chlamydophilia, M…
MERS-CoV
novel coronavirus in MEast, reservoir = camels... fever, cough,…
Emerging Infectious Diseases-GMU
quarantine
isolation
Basic reproduction number (R0)
20/80 rule
sequestering of an individual who is thought to be ill with a…
sequestering of individual who is confirmed to be ill w/ an i…
average number of secondary infections caused by one infected…
20% of infected individuals are responsible for 80% of transm…
quarantine
sequestering of an individual who is thought to be ill with a…
isolation
sequestering of individual who is confirmed to be ill w/ an i…
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Virus
Virus Genome
Classification of Viruses
ELISA
obligate intracellular parasite containing genetic material s…
made up of DNA or RNA (not both) because they are either sing…
based on the type of nucleic acid contained within: RNA virus…
Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay
Virus
obligate intracellular parasite containing genetic material s…
Virus Genome
made up of DNA or RNA (not both) because they are either sing…
107 terms
Emerging/Re-emerging Infectious Diseases
What does "disease" refer to?
What is the difference between disease?
Define infectious disease
What are pathogens
conditions that impair normal tissue function
The cause
a disease that is caused by the invasion of a host by agents…
Microorganisms that are capable of causing disease
What does "disease" refer to?
conditions that impair normal tissue function
What is the difference between disease?
The cause
7 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emerging disease
Re-emerging disease
Emerging zoonoses
List the drivers for EID
infections newly recognised in a population or have occured p…
infections or diseases that once posed health issues, decreas…
diseases communicable from animals to humans that are newly r…
1. Land cse change... 2. Environmental changes... 3. Human demograp…
Emerging disease
infections newly recognised in a population or have occured p…
Re-emerging disease
infections or diseases that once posed health issues, decreas…
88 terms
Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases
25%
emerging infectious diseases
re-emerging infectious diseases
human demographics and behavior; human…
Worldwide, approximately ______ of all deaths each year are a…
outbreaks of previously unknown diseases or known disease who…
diseases that have reappeared after a significant decline in…
What are some factors that contribute to the emergence and re…
25%
Worldwide, approximately ______ of all deaths each year are a…
emerging infectious diseases
outbreaks of previously unknown diseases or known disease who…
17 terms
Emerging, Re-emerging infectious diseases
Emerging infectious diseases
Example Emerging disease
Re-emerging infectious diseases
Example re-emerging disease
New type of infectious diseases with increasing patient repor…
AIDS, avian influenza, resistance tuberculosis
Infectious diseases that outbreak in the past and subside ove…
malaria, normal tuberculosis, hemorrhage fever
Emerging infectious diseases
New type of infectious diseases with increasing patient repor…
Example Emerging disease
AIDS, avian influenza, resistance tuberculosis
34 terms
14: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Incubation period
Infectious period
Latent period
Epidemic
Time from exposure to disease development
Length of time person can transmit disease
Period of infection without being infectious
Occurrence of cases of illness in excess of expectancy
Incubation period
Time from exposure to disease development
Infectious period
Length of time person can transmit disease
116 terms
IP -- Emerging infectious diseases
An infectious disease whose incidence…
what are some of the reasons the incid…
What are some reasons for changes in a…
Emerging infectious diseases can be cl…
emerging infectious disease
- it is being introduced into a new host population... - OR it w…
- expanding in geographic range... - changing its virulence... - ch…
- newly emerging ... - reemerging ... - deliberately emerging
An infectious disease whose incidence…
emerging infectious disease
what are some of the reasons the incid…
- it is being introduced into a new host population... - OR it w…
emerging infectious diseases
Droplet Precautions: size?
Airborne Precautions: size?
patient placement, patient transport,&…
patient placement, pt transport, *pt-c…
particles > 5 um
particles < 5 um
droplet + standard
contact + standard
Droplet Precautions: size?
particles > 5 um
Airborne Precautions: size?
particles < 5 um
43 terms
Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases
Emerging Infectious Diseases
1. Unprecedented worldwide population…
5.8°C
dynamic interactions... between rapidly e…
Infections that have newly appeared in a... population or have e…
Factors involved in the emergence... of infectious diseases
Global warming-climatologists project temps... to increase up to…
Emergence of infectious disease are the... results from
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Infections that have newly appeared in a... population or have e…
1. Unprecedented worldwide population…
Factors involved in the emergence... of infectious diseases
87 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases Midterm
5-10,000 years ago, early agrarian set…
3,000 years ago, Eurasian civilization…
500 years ago, European exploration an…
Current, rapid changes in the spread o…
First historic transition
Second historic transition
Third historic transition
Fourth historic transition
5-10,000 years ago, early agrarian set…
First historic transition
3,000 years ago, Eurasian civilization…
Second historic transition
13 terms
emerging infectious diseases
May be caused by man... To help understan…
emerging infectious disease, recently…
domestic animal, wildlife, human, over…
Ebola, BSE, lyme
Why should we study wildlife diseases?
What is an ___ _____ _____?... A disease that has been ___ ____,…
merging infectious disease can be a ____ ____, ____, or ___ E…
____ is wildlife/human, ____ is human/domestic, ____ is wildl…
May be caused by man... To help understan…
Why should we study wildlife diseases?
emerging infectious disease, recently…
What is an ___ _____ _____?... A disease that has been ___ ____,…
78 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases Final
nosocomial infection
3 factors needed for nosocomial infect…
intravenous device-related blood strea…
ventilator associated pneumonia
any infection that is acquired from being in a hospital or ot…
microorganisms in hospital environment, compromised host, cha…
IVDR BSI
VAP
nosocomial infection
any infection that is acquired from being in a hospital or ot…
3 factors needed for nosocomial infect…
microorganisms in hospital environment, compromised host, cha…
Emerging infectious diseases
Emerging Infectious Disease - Definition
Difference between emerging, re-emergi…
What are the most common emerging infe…
What Infectious agents most likely to…
"An infectious disease where incidence is increasing..." ... -…
Newly emerging:... Not previously recognized in humans or is jus…
Zoonoses and Vector borne... Zoonoses : Transmission from anima…
RNA viruses - high mutation rate (dsRNA reassortment) ... Bacte…
Emerging Infectious Disease - Definition
"An infectious disease where incidence is increasing..." ... -…
Difference between emerging, re-emergi…
Newly emerging:... Not previously recognized in humans or is jus…
20 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Spanish flu was different because it k…
The Spanish flu mutated to infect huma…
Reasons for re-emergence are resistanc…
First transition is also known as
healthy
birds
antibiotics, living standards, infrastructure
crowd transition
Spanish flu was different because it k…
healthy
The Spanish flu mutated to infect huma…
birds
28 terms
Infectious- Emerging Diseases
Emerging Diseases
An emerging disease can be:
emerging disease is rapidly expanding…
Historic emerging diseases
Infectious diseases with a distinct presentation whose incide…
A new agent causing a new disease... A mutation of an old/famili…
In the last 20-30 years more than 20 totally new pathogens ha…
Ebola - 1977... Hanta - 1977... HTLV-1 - 1980... E. coli O157:H7 - 198…
Emerging Diseases
Infectious diseases with a distinct presentation whose incide…
An emerging disease can be:
A new agent causing a new disease... A mutation of an old/famili…
emerging infectious diseases
emerging infectious disease
new, re-emerging, drug resistant
zoonotic
rural to urban
infectious disease whose incidence in humans has *increased i…
what can emerging infectious diseases be? (3)
transmission from animal to human or human to animal (ex:…
EID frequently moves from ________ areas with migrating popul…
emerging infectious disease
infectious disease whose incidence in humans has *increased i…
new, re-emerging, drug resistant
what can emerging infectious diseases be? (3)
Emerging Infectious Diseases
what is an emerging infectious disease…
what are emerging infectious diseases?
what can emerging infectious diseases…
what are the 8 important emerging and…
-a disease that we thought we had controlled, but is reemergi…
infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased i…
-new diseases like bird flu... -reemerging diseases like ebola…
HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB, influenza, SARS, west nile virus, marb…
what is an emerging infectious disease…
-a disease that we thought we had controlled, but is reemergi…
what are emerging infectious diseases?
infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased i…
34 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
disease
parasites
pathogen
infection
a condition of the living animal or plant body or one of its…
technically, include bacteria, viruses, fungi, worms, and pro…
a microbial agent of disease... typically reserved for bacteria…
the establishment of a pathogen in its host after invasion; d…
disease
a condition of the living animal or plant body or one of its…
parasites
technically, include bacteria, viruses, fungi, worms, and pro…
33 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
emerging infectious diseases
important emerging and re-emerging dis…
characteristics of EID
factors involved in emergence of infec…
infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased i…
1. HIV/AIDS... 2. Malaria... 3. TB... 4. Influenza... 5. SARS... 6. West Nil…
- about 70% are zoonotic in origin... - frequently move from rur…
1. ecological change & agricultural development... 2. changes in…
emerging infectious diseases
infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased i…
important emerging and re-emerging dis…
1. HIV/AIDS... 2. Malaria... 3. TB... 4. Influenza... 5. SARS... 6. West Nil…
32 terms
Emerging and Re-Emerging infectious disease
pathogen
virulent
opportunistic
epidemiology
disease causing agents
not likely to cause diseases
they attack weak immune system and are potentially infectious…
study of medicine that deals with disease in a population
pathogen
disease causing agents
virulent
not likely to cause diseases
Micro: Emerging Infectious Diseases
emerging infectious diseases (EIDs)
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS…
severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
H1N1 influenza (flu)/ swine flu
diseases that are new or changing and are increasing or have…
cause illnesses from the common cold to sever acute respirato…
viral infection caused by the SARS- associated coronavirus ... f…
caused by new virus H1N1 infuenza... pandemic: disease that affe…
emerging infectious diseases (EIDs)
diseases that are new or changing and are increasing or have…
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS…
cause illnesses from the common cold to sever acute respirato…
48 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Incubation Period
Infectious Period
Latent period
Epidemic
-time from exposure to development of disease
-length of time a person can transmit disease
-period of infection without being infectious
-occurrence of cases of illness in excess of expectancy
Incubation Period
-time from exposure to development of disease
Infectious Period
-length of time a person can transmit disease
11 terms
Emerging infectious diseases
West Nile virus
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (Mad…
Zika virus
A streptococcus
Carried by mosquitoes from birds to humans. Can also effect h…
, in humans we have muscle spasms B lack of control a and los…
Transmitted by mosquitoes and sexually. Firstcseen in Uganda.…
Rapidly growing bacteria that c auses tissue damage spread th…
West Nile virus
Carried by mosquitoes from birds to humans. Can also effect h…
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (Mad…
, in humans we have muscle spasms B lack of control a and los…
Arboviruses and Emerging Infectious Diseases
Arboviruses
Alphaviruses
Flavivirus
Bunyavirus
- arthropod borne viruses... - spread by mosquitos, ticks, fleas…
- an arbovirus... - family: Togaviridae... - +ssRNA, enveloped... - fe…
- an arbovirus... - family: Flaviviridae... - +ssRNA, enveloped... - e…
- an arbovirus... - family: Bunyaviridae... - -ssRNA, enveloped... -ex…
Arboviruses
- arthropod borne viruses... - spread by mosquitos, ticks, fleas…
Alphaviruses
- an arbovirus... - family: Togaviridae... - +ssRNA, enveloped... - fe…
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Definition
NIAID
Group I
Group II
Infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased i…
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Pathogens newly recognized in the past two decades
Re-emerging pathogens
Definition
Infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased i…
NIAID
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
34 terms
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Pathogen pollution
Classic cases
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Monkeypox
spread of new diseases ... -new diseases in wild animals can bec…
SARS (bush meat)... Monkeypox (pet trade)... Avian Influenza (domes…
-started in late 2002... -China... -severe pneumonia outbreak... -very…
-rare zoonotic viral infection ... -orthopoxvirus... -related to sm…
Pathogen pollution
spread of new diseases ... -new diseases in wild animals can bec…
Classic cases
SARS (bush meat)... Monkeypox (pet trade)... Avian Influenza (domes…
PH: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Antigenic Drift
Antigenic Shift
Convergence Model
Directly Observed Therapy
slow and progressive genetic changes that take place in DNA a…
sudden change in the molecular structure of DNA and RNA in mi…
model illustrating that interaction of 13 factors that contri…
observation of clients to ensure that they ingest each dose o…
Antigenic Drift
slow and progressive genetic changes that take place in DNA a…
Antigenic Shift
sudden change in the molecular structure of DNA and RNA in mi…
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emerging Infectious Disease
Dengue Fever
Dengue origin
Dengue Preventions
an Infectious disease whose incidence has increased in the pa…
- Sudden Onset... - Asia, Africa, N America... - Skin Rash... Conjunct…
WWII bomb craters flooded with water and caused mosquito leve…
- Vaccine... - GM Mosquito pre programmed to die
Emerging Infectious Disease
an Infectious disease whose incidence has increased in the pa…
Dengue Fever
- Sudden Onset... - Asia, Africa, N America... - Skin Rash... Conjunct…
emerging infectious diseases
pathogen
pathogenicity
virulence
Symbiotic relationships
a disease producing microorganism
capacity to initiate disease
capacity to harm the host
"life together" ... 1. mutualism... 2. commensalism... 3. parasitism
pathogen
a disease producing microorganism
pathogenicity
capacity to initiate disease
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emerging Disease
Re-Emerging Disease
Stages of Cross-Species Disease Emerge…
Drivers to Pathogen Emergence
PREVIOUSLY UNKNOWN disease that suddenly appears (emerges)) i…
KNOWN disease, previously on the decline, that is becoming mo…
1. Pathogen exclusive to an animal reservoir... 2. Animal reserv…
1) Land use changes... 2) Food and agricultural systems... 3) Envir…
Emerging Disease
PREVIOUSLY UNKNOWN disease that suddenly appears (emerges)) i…
Re-Emerging Disease
KNOWN disease, previously on the decline, that is becoming mo…
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ebola: virus type
Ebola: symptoms
Ebola: prevention
Ebola: post-syndrome
filovirus
- flu like symptoms... - severe dehydration ... - internal bleeding…
- find cases and isolate victims... - educate about symptoms and…
virus hides inside eyes, brain, CNS, testes/mammary glands ca…
Ebola: virus type
filovirus
Ebola: symptoms
- flu like symptoms... - severe dehydration ... - internal bleeding…
5 terms
New (Emerging) Infectious Diseases
Emerging Infections Definition
Factors responsible for emerging disea…
Projected Population Growth
Progressive Urbanization
- New, reemerging or drug-resistant infections whose incidenc…
- World pop. growth... - Urbanization... - Ecological disturbances…
- 9 billion by 2050
- About 50% live in urban centers today
Emerging Infections Definition
- New, reemerging or drug-resistant infections whose incidenc…
Factors responsible for emerging disea…
- World pop. growth... - Urbanization... - Ecological disturbances…
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