# distributive tendency Flashcards

Browse 204 sets of distributive tendency flashcards

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Central Tendency

Mode

Bimodal

Multimodal

The tendency for the values of a random variable to cluster ro…

The number which occurs the most in a data set

Two modes

More than two modes

Central Tendency

The tendency for the values of a random variable to cluster ro…

Mode

The number which occurs the most in a data set

Time series

Trend

Irregularity

Cyclicality

simple regression using time as the independent variable

general slope up or down over a period of time

unforeseen circumstances causing random deviations

repetition in up and down patters

Time series

simple regression using time as the independent variable

Trend

general slope up or down over a period of time

Idiographic

Nomothetic

Normal Dist

Z Scores

the study of the individual. Properties setting apart from oth…

the study of a cohort of individuals. ... What we share, generali…

-Looks like the cross section of a bell... -The distribution of a…

-Convert a score into the number of standard deviations above…

Idiographic

the study of the individual. Properties setting apart from oth…

Nomothetic

the study of a cohort of individuals. ... What we share, generali…

Mean

Median

Mode

Range

average: ... add everything & divide by how many

middle value (medium): ... write data in order, find the middle v…

most frequent value: ... find the number you see the most number…

spread (or span) of the data: ... max - min... subtract the maximum…

Mean

average: ... add everything & divide by how many

Median

middle value (medium): ... write data in order, find the middle v…

Central Tendency

Mean or Average

Importance of the Mean

Median

It is the clustering of data in specific areas within the data…

It is the sum of all the observations or scores divided by the…

It is mathematically based and represents the exact mathematic…

It is the middle point in the set of data which divides the di…

Central Tendency

It is the clustering of data in specific areas within the data…

Mean or Average

It is the sum of all the observations or scores divided by the…

Variability

Range

Limitation

Deviation

the degree to which scores are spread out or clustered togethe…

the distance between the smallest and largest scores in a dist…

range is completely determined by the smallest and largest sco…

the difference or distance between a score and the mean

Variability

the degree to which scores are spread out or clustered togethe…

Range

the distance between the smallest and largest scores in a dist…

simple frequency distribution

measures of central tendency

mode

median

an ordered arrangement that shows the frequency of a set of sc…

descriptive statistics that indicate a typical or representati…

the most common score in the distribution

the score that falls in the middle of the distribution

simple frequency distribution

an ordered arrangement that shows the frequency of a set of sc…

measures of central tendency

descriptive statistics that indicate a typical or representati…

20

56

51

22

What is the median for this data set: 20, 21, 18, 17, 20, 15,…

What is the outlier for this data set: 20, 21, 18, 17, 20, 15,…

What is the outlier for this data set: 19, 27, 14, 28, 30, 51,…

What is the outlier for this data set: 22, 83, 80, 87, 75, 66,…

20

What is the median for this data set: 20, 21, 18, 17, 20, 15,…

56

What is the outlier for this data set: 20, 21, 18, 17, 20, 15,…

Frequency distributions (Histograms)

skew

Positive skew

Negative skew

A graph plotting values of observations on the horizontal axis…

symmetry of the distribution

scores bunched at low values with the tail pointing to high va…

scores bunched at high values with the tail pointing to low va…

Frequency distributions (Histograms)

A graph plotting values of observations on the horizontal axis…

skew

symmetry of the distribution

Central Tendency:

Mean:

Median:

Mode:

Tells us where the center of distribution is, the average

-Can be used with continuous variables, not discrete variables…

-Can be used with continuous variables, not discrete variables…

-The most common form of CT ... -Appropriate measure for nominal…

Central Tendency:

Tells us where the center of distribution is, the average

Mean:

-Can be used with continuous variables, not discrete variables…

central tendency

mode

median

mean

-3 ways to describe what is happening in the center of a distr…

-most common score... -best when data are nominal... -in a frequency…

-middle score... -best for a skewed distribution or one with one…

-average of group of scores... -most commonly used and best for s…

central tendency

-3 ways to describe what is happening in the center of a distr…

mode

-most common score... -best when data are nominal... -in a frequency…

Mean

Standard deviation

frequency distributions/direction of sk…

What are Percentile Ranks

add/total the scores then divide by number of scores... Average…

The standard deviation is an approximation of the average devi…

- displays scores on a variable or a measure to reflect how fr…

Percentile rank show "what percent of scores fall below a part…

Mean

add/total the scores then divide by number of scores... Average…

Standard deviation

The standard deviation is an approximation of the average devi…

describing a distribution

Describing the shape of a distribution

central tendency

Variation

shape, central tendency and variation

is the distribution rectangular, positive skew, negative skew,…

a number that describes something about the "average" score of…

indicators of the spread of scores

describing a distribution

shape, central tendency and variation

Describing the shape of a distribution

is the distribution rectangular, positive skew, negative skew,…

What is the mean for the following scor…

After 5 points are subtracted from ever…

After each score in a sample is multipl…

In a sample of n=6 scores, the smallest…

8

29

7

the mean is M=8

What is the mean for the following scor…

8

After 5 points are subtracted from ever…

29

Central tendency

Mean

Population Mean

Sample mean

A single score that summarize the center of a distribution

Average; the sum of a set of data divided by the total number…

A mean of a set of scores in an entire population

Subset scored from a population

Central tendency

A single score that summarize the center of a distribution

Mean

Average; the sum of a set of data divided by the total number…

In a histogram each interval must have…

Central Tendency ... (the "middle-ness" of…

MODE:

Mu (µ)

True

The idea of selecting the 1 average or representative (most ty…

the most frequently occurring score in the distribution.

Mean or average of population

In a histogram each interval must have…

True

Central Tendency ... (the "middle-ness" of…

The idea of selecting the 1 average or representative (most ty…

Ways to describe scores

Frequency distribution

Class interval size =

graphic presentations of frequency dist…

frequency distributions... measure of central tendency... measure of…

places scores on order on a table or graph... see scores "at a gl…

highest score - lowest score (over)... Desired # of class interva…

frequency polygon (p. 54)... smoothed frequency polygon (p. 55)

Ways to describe scores

frequency distributions... measure of central tendency... measure of…

Frequency distribution

places scores on order on a table or graph... see scores "at a gl…

Sigma (summation notation)

f1

f2

Ratio

n = where the sum of terms end ... l = where the sum of terms beg…

number of observations in first category

number of observations in second category

Count of observations in one category per number of observatio…

Sigma (summation notation)

n = where the sum of terms end ... l = where the sum of terms beg…

f1

number of observations in first category

descriptive procedures

inferential procedures

scales of measurement

nominal

used to summarize, organize, and simplify sample data ... ex: wh…

techniques that allow us to study samples and then make genera…

dictates the type of statistical procedures you can use

represents differences between categories... ex: gender, politica…

descriptive procedures

used to summarize, organize, and simplify sample data ... ex: wh…

inferential procedures

techniques that allow us to study samples and then make genera…

What are the goals of exploratory data?

How do you explore the distribution of…

How do you explore the typical response…

How do you explore the relationships be…

-To get to know your data before making inferences ... -to catch…

by summarizing data in frequency tables and/or graphically (ba…

central tendency and calculating variability- these are also k…

(scatter plots) examine variables one by one, then look at the…

What are the goals of exploratory data?

-To get to know your data before making inferences ... -to catch…

How do you explore the distribution of…

by summarizing data in frequency tables and/or graphically (ba…

Score comparison types

Distribution

Histogram

Ranks

- Ranks... - Percentile ranks... - Standard scores

A pattern of scores:... - Majority would cluster around the mean

Bell curve:... - Image projecting frequency distribution

- Order the group participants' scores (e.g. from... low to high)…

Score comparison types

- Ranks... - Percentile ranks... - Standard scores

Distribution

A pattern of scores:... - Majority would cluster around the mean

Variables

Score

Population

Sample

Properties of objects (people, places, etc) that can take on d…

An individual value for a variable.

A complete set of scores in which we might be interested.

A sub-set of a population - a set of scores that we have obtai…

Variables

Properties of objects (people, places, etc) that can take on d…

Score

An individual value for a variable.

Variable

Idiographic

Nomothetic.

Properties of normal distribution

simply anything that can be measured

Describes the study of the individual, who is seen as an entit…

The study of a cohort of individuals. Describes the effort to…

Mean median and mode fall on the same value.... Distribution is s…

Variable

simply anything that can be measured

Idiographic

Describes the study of the individual, who is seen as an entit…

After collecting data what is the next…

What is one method for simplifying and…

Frequency distribution

A frequency distribution presents an or…

Organize and simplify the data so that it is possible to get a…

Constructing a frequency distribution

Is an organized tabulation showing exactly how many individual…

The entire set of scores

After collecting data what is the next…

Organize and simplify the data so that it is possible to get a…

What is one method for simplifying and…

Constructing a frequency distribution