How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Study sets matching "dna biology genetics molecular basis"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "dna biology genetics molecular basis"

24 terms
Biology 202: Molecular Genetics - DNA
adenine
adenosine triphosphate ATP
anticodon
codon
a nitrogen-containing base that is part of one of the types o…
the molecule that delivers usable chemical energy for almost…
a sequence of three bases in a tRNA molecule that is compleme…
a sequence of three bases that codes for a single amino acid
adenine
a nitrogen-containing base that is part of one of the types o…
adenosine triphosphate ATP
the molecule that delivers usable chemical energy for almost…
25 terms
AP Biology DNA and Molecular Genetics
RNA splicing
introns
exons
splicesome
removal of large portions of the RNA molecule that was origin…
non-coding segments of RNA that are removed through RNA splic…
regions of the RNA that are kept and pasted bakc together aft…
large complex of proteins and RNA that splices RNa by interac…
RNA splicing
removal of large portions of the RNA molecule that was origin…
introns
non-coding segments of RNA that are removed through RNA splic…
24 terms
AP Biology DNA and Molecular Genetics
RNA splicing
introns
exons
spliceosome
removal of large portions of the RNA molecule that was origin…
non-coding segments of RNA that are removed through RNA splic…
regions of the RNA that are kept and pasted bakc together aft…
large complex of proteins and RNA that splices RNa by interac…
RNA splicing
removal of large portions of the RNA molecule that was origin…
introns
non-coding segments of RNA that are removed through RNA splic…
26 terms
Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics- DNA
DNA
DNA function
Stadler and Uber experiment
Griffiths experiment
Deoxy ribonucleic acid
1.Transmission of genetic information (inheritance): - mediat…
...
...
DNA
Deoxy ribonucleic acid
DNA function
1.Transmission of genetic information (inheritance): - mediat…
16 terms
Molecular Basis of DNA
Double Helix
Chargaff's Rule
Pyrimidines
Purines
DNA Structure
Adenine (A) - Thymine (T)... Guanine (G) - Cytosine (C)
A single 6-membered ring of C and N atoms. Examples are... 1. Cy…
6-membered ring of C and N atoms bonded to a 5-member ring. E…
Double Helix
DNA Structure
Chargaff's Rule
Adenine (A) - Thymine (T)... Guanine (G) - Cytosine (C)
45 terms
AP - Biology Molecular Genetics: DNA
Differentiation is the process by whic…
Which of the following is NOT found in…
Which of the following statements is f…
In transcription,
e. become specialized by turning on some genes and turning of…
a. ribose
b. only red blood cells have hemoglobin genes.
several RNA molecules are made from the same DNA molecule.... a…
Differentiation is the process by whic…
e. become specialized by turning on some genes and turning of…
Which of the following is NOT found in…
a. ribose
23 terms
Biology-molecular genetics DNA & RNA
DNA & RNA
Phosphate group, base, sugar
Adenine and guanine
What three bases are pyrimidines?
Two nucleus acids we studied this unit
What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
What two bases are purines?
Thymine, cytosine & uracil
DNA & RNA
Two nucleus acids we studied this unit
Phosphate group, base, sugar
What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
271 terms
AP Biology- Molecular Basis of Genetics Terms
Bacteria
bacteriophage
bacterium
chromatin
One of two prokaryotic domains, the other being Archaea.
(bak-ter´-e-o-faj) A virus that infects bacteria; also called…
Member of the prokaryotic domain Bacteria.
(kro´-muh-tin) The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up…
Bacteria
One of two prokaryotic domains, the other being Archaea.
bacteriophage
(bak-ter´-e-o-faj) A virus that infects bacteria; also called…
28 terms
Biology--Molecular Genetics: DNA and stuff
Frederick Griffith
Erwin Chargaff
Franklin and Wilkins
Watson and Crick
Discovered the "transforming principle"; died while he was wo…
Discovered "Chargaff's rules": 1. C=G and A=T 2. DNA varies i…
Took 1st x-Ray diffraction images of the structure of DNA
Discovered the structure of DNA molecules known as the double…
Frederick Griffith
Discovered the "transforming principle"; died while he was wo…
Erwin Chargaff
Discovered "Chargaff's rules": 1. C=G and A=T 2. DNA varies i…
14 terms
The molecular basis of Genetic Disease
Housekeeping Protein function and exam…
Specialty Protein function and example
-Inhereitance... -effects of substrate an…
3. For PKU, describe the following: co…
-proteins expressed in most all tissues that serve essential…
-proteins expressed in specific tissues that serve specific f…
-autosomal or X-linked recessive... -substrate increase, product…
-autosomal recessive, loss of function mutation in phenylalan…
Housekeeping Protein function and exam…
-proteins expressed in most all tissues that serve essential…
Specialty Protein function and example
-proteins expressed in specific tissues that serve specific f…
20 terms
DNA & Molecular Genetics
DNA
Base-pairing
Base-pairing rules
DNA Replication
Double-stranded macromolecule made of nucleotides that stores…
The nitrogen bases of DNA and RNA stick together because of h…
A-T, G-C, A-U (RNA only)
DNA is copied by enzymes. Each strand is used as a guide, or…
DNA
Double-stranded macromolecule made of nucleotides that stores…
Base-pairing
The nitrogen bases of DNA and RNA stick together because of h…
136 terms
Unit 3: DNA and Genetics; Module 6: Molecular Basis of Heredity
Four Nitrogen Bases
Cytosine forms a hydrogen bond with?
Adonine forms a hydrogen bond with?
What is DNA's job?
Adonine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine
Guanine
Thymine
To carry the genetic information of an organism
Four Nitrogen Bases
Adonine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine
Cytosine forms a hydrogen bond with?
Guanine
39 terms
DNA: molecular basis of inheritance
Gene
Nucleic Acids
Gene Expression
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide which is programmed…
polymers made of monomers called nucleotides
DNA also directs RNA synthesis and through RNA, controls phot…
genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents
Gene
the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide which is programmed…
Nucleic Acids
polymers made of monomers called nucleotides
53 terms
DNA Molecular Basis of Inheritance
James Watson and Francis Crick
Rosalind Franklin
Gregor Mendel
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Proposed the double helix structure of DNA in 1953
Took x-ray crystallography photograph that Watson and Crick u…
Discovered GENES, aka heritable factors
Discovered that genes are IN chromosomes
James Watson and Francis Crick
Proposed the double helix structure of DNA in 1953
Rosalind Franklin
Took x-ray crystallography photograph that Watson and Crick u…
23 terms
Molecular Basis DNA
Match the following linkages between m…
What is the role of DNA ligase in the…
Which of the following sets of materia…
In E. coli, there is a mutation in a g…
D. peptide bonds... C. hydrogen bonds... B. glycosidic bonds... A. pho…
Selected Answer: ... join Okazaki fragments together
Selected Answer: ... double-stranded DNA, 4 kinds of dNTPs, prim…
Selected Answer: ... No replication fork will be formed.
Match the following linkages between m…
D. peptide bonds... C. hydrogen bonds... B. glycosidic bonds... A. pho…
What is the role of DNA ligase in the…
Selected Answer: ... join Okazaki fragments together
52 terms
Topic 9- Molecular Biology - DNA and Genetic Code
Genetic Blueprint 3 fundamental proper…
Frederick Griffith
Griffith's Experiment
Smooth Bacteria
-stores information... -can be accurately copied and transmitted…
-early evidence that DNA carries genetic information... -studied…
Two classes of bacteria:... 1. smooth (S) = virulent strain (kil…
-Griffith's experiment... -Streptococcus penumoniae... -smooth (s)…
Genetic Blueprint 3 fundamental proper…
-stores information... -can be accurately copied and transmitted…
Frederick Griffith
-early evidence that DNA carries genetic information... -studied…
107 terms
AP Biology--Unit 6: Molecular Genetics and DNA Technology
Griffith's Experiment
transformation
Avery/MacLeod/McCarthy
bacteriophage
He took 2 strands of bacteria: one pathogenic (harmful) calle…
change in genotype/phenotype because of assimilation of exter…
discovered DNA was transformed through the transformation pro…
virus that infects bacteria
Griffith's Experiment
He took 2 strands of bacteria: one pathogenic (harmful) calle…
transformation
change in genotype/phenotype because of assimilation of exter…
7 terms
DNA The Molecular Basis of Life
Frederich Meischer?
DNA polymer is made of ?
How many bases in nucleotides ?
Frederick Griffith?
1869: discovered the presence of both protein and another sub…
Nucleotide monomers
4
1920: expts to determine whether protein or DNA was the stuff…
Frederich Meischer?
1869: discovered the presence of both protein and another sub…
DNA polymer is made of ?
Nucleotide monomers
19 terms
Biology Unit 9: Molecular Genetics (DNA to Protein Synthesis) w/ Picts
Central dogma of molecular biology
Chargaff's rules
messenger RNA (mRNA)
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
**DNA - RNA - protein (doctrine that genetic instructions in…
Observations by Erwin CHargaff that concentrations of the fou…
type of RNA that copies genetic instructiions from the DNA in…
type of RNA that helps form ribosomes and assemble proteins
Central dogma of molecular biology
**DNA - RNA - protein (doctrine that genetic instructions in…
Chargaff's rules
Observations by Erwin CHargaff that concentrations of the fou…
8 terms
Molecular genetics - DNA Structure
DNA
Watson/Crick
Nucleotides
Backbone of DNA / 2 components
Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid
Scientists credited for discovering DNA
Monomers repeating to form a DNA polymer
Purines & Pyrimidine
DNA
Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid
Watson/Crick
Scientists credited for discovering DNA
41 terms
Molecular/Genetics Basis of Neoplasia
ABL
adenoma
anaplasia
ataxia telangiectasia
nonreceptor tyrosine kinase... -abnormal chromosomal translocati…
a benign tumor formed from glandular structures in epithelial…
lack of histologic differentiation of cells
rare, childhood neurological disorder that causes degeneratio…
ABL
nonreceptor tyrosine kinase... -abnormal chromosomal translocati…
adenoma
a benign tumor formed from glandular structures in epithelial…
47 terms
GENETICS & THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE
Meiosis
Homologous Chromosomes
Law of Segregation
Law of Independent Assortment
Meiosis is a reduction division that occurs in sexual reprodu…
A pair of chromosomes (1 chromosome contributed by each paren…
One member of each chromosome pair migrates to an opposite po…
The migration of homologues within one pair of homologous chr…
Meiosis
Meiosis is a reduction division that occurs in sexual reprodu…
Homologous Chromosomes
A pair of chromosomes (1 chromosome contributed by each paren…
38 terms
Biology Unit #3- DNA and Molecular Genetics
Double Helix
Nitrogenous Base
Thymine
Uracil
DNA that is double-stranded and twisted
A nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical pro…
A nitrogen base labeled "T".
A compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of RN…
Double Helix
DNA that is double-stranded and twisted
Nitrogenous Base
A nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical pro…
11 terms
DNA: the molecular basis of life
What are four parts all cells must have?
What does DNA stand for?
What are the subunits of each DNA stra…
What are the six parts of the nucleoti…
DNA ,cell membrane,... cytoplasm, ribosomes
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Monomers called nucleotides
1.) phosphate group ... 2.) deoxyribose (sugar) ... 3.) nitrogen…
What are four parts all cells must have?
DNA ,cell membrane,... cytoplasm, ribosomes
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA The Molecular Basis of Life
Frederich Meischer?
DNA polymer is made of ?
How many bases in nucleotides ?
Frederick Griffith?
1869: discovered the presence of both protein and another sub…
Nucleotide monomers
4
1920: expts to determine whether protein or DNA was the stuff…
Frederich Meischer?
1869: discovered the presence of both protein and another sub…
DNA polymer is made of ?
Nucleotide monomers
19 terms
Chapter 12 Biology Molecular Genetics DNA
codon
DNA polymerase
double helix
exon
three-base code in DNA or RNA
enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of new DNA nucleotides.
twisted-ladder shape of DNA, formed by two nucleotide strands…
in RNA processing, one of the pieces of DNA that serve as cod…
codon
three-base code in DNA or RNA
DNA polymerase
enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of new DNA nucleotides.
26 terms
Genetics: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
There are two major forms of nucleic a…
DNA
RNA
mRNA
1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid... 2. Ribonucleic Acid
codes for the proteins which drive cellular functions
functions in the actual synthesis of proteins
is generated from DNA by a process known as transcription. it…
There are two major forms of nucleic a…
1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid... 2. Ribonucleic Acid
DNA
codes for the proteins which drive cellular functions
65 terms
Clinical Cytogenetics, The molecular basis of Genetic Disease, Other mode of inheritance, Mendelian Pattern of Inheritance, Variations in DNA, molecular basis of inheritance
How are autosomal chromosomes numbered
What kind of chromosomal abnormailitie…
metacentric chromosome
submetacentric
by size
-detect abnormalities in chromosome number... -detect structural…
centromere near the midpoint
centromere between midpoint and one of the ends
How are autosomal chromosomes numbered
by size
What kind of chromosomal abnormailitie…
-detect abnormalities in chromosome number... -detect structural…
21 terms
GENETICS: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
What molecule is a polymer of Nucleoti…
What are the four nitrogenous bases fo…
Purines?
Pyrimidines?
DNA
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine (Uracil in RNA)
Larger nitrogenous bases made of 2 fused rings (A,G)
Smaller Nitrogenous bases made of 1 fused ring (C,T)
What molecule is a polymer of Nucleoti…
DNA
What are the four nitrogenous bases fo…
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine (Uracil in RNA)
9 terms
AP Biology Molecular Genetics DNA Terminology
DNA
Phosphate Group
Deoxyribose
Nitrogenous Base
Deoxyribonucleic Acid; tells the cells which proteins to crea…
One Phosphur atom at the center; links the Deoxyribose molecu…
A pentose sugar that is bonded to the nitrogenous bases and f…
Codes for DNA; Either Thymine, Adenine, Guanine or Cytosine.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid; tells the cells which proteins to crea…
Phosphate Group
One Phosphur atom at the center; links the Deoxyribose molecu…
19 terms
Biology Ch. 12 Molecular Genetics (DNA)
double helix
nucleosome
DNA polymerase
Okazaki fragment
twisted-helix shape of DNA, formed by two nucleotide strands…
repeating subunit of chromatin fibers, consisting of DNA coil…
enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of new DNA molecules.
short segment of DNA synthesized discontinuously in small seg…
double helix
twisted-helix shape of DNA, formed by two nucleotide strands…
nucleosome
repeating subunit of chromatin fibers, consisting of DNA coil…
32 terms
Biology ISU: Chapter 4 - DNA: The Molecular Basis of Life
Anneal
Antiparallel
Bacteriophage
.Complementary base pairing
the pairing of complementary strands of DNA through hydrogen…
parallel but running in opposite directions; the 5' end of on…
any bacteria-infecting virus
pairing of the nitrogenous base of one strand of DNA with the…
Anneal
the pairing of complementary strands of DNA through hydrogen…
Antiparallel
parallel but running in opposite directions; the 5' end of on…
9 terms
Molecular Basis for Genetics Diseases
Huntington's Chorea
Sickle Cell Anemia
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Alzheimer Disease
-DNA RE/gel and Southern Blot or -PCR/gel... -dominant ... -neurode…
-DNA RE/gel and Southern Blot ... - recessive trait... -single base…
-DNA RE/gel and Southern Blot ... - X-linked (affects primarily…
-Do twice* DNA RE/gel and Southern Blot ... -Multifactorial with…
Huntington's Chorea
-DNA RE/gel and Southern Blot or -PCR/gel... -dominant ... -neurode…
Sickle Cell Anemia
-DNA RE/gel and Southern Blot ... - recessive trait... -single base…
37 terms
DNA Molecular biology
DNA
RNA
histone
nucleosomes
Deoxyribonucleic acid, A type of nucleic acid consisting of n…
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with…
DNA is tightly coiled around these proteins
Bead-like structures formed by the histones with DNA wrapped…
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid, A type of nucleic acid consisting of n…
RNA
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with…
67 terms
molecular basis of genetic disease
What are the 4 P's of medicine?
what are the 2 classifications of muta…
how do deletions and insertions create…
Define: missense mutation
Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory
loss of function: mutated product has reduced/no fxn... gain of…
if they create a frameshift
replace one amino acid with another in the same gene product…
What are the 4 P's of medicine?
Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory
what are the 2 classifications of muta…
loss of function: mutated product has reduced/no fxn... gain of…
28 terms
Biology 1009 Exam 2: DNA Inheritance/Molecular Basis of Inheritance
phages
double helix
antiparallel
DNA Replication
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a bacteriophage.
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynuc…
The opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in…
Make an exact copy of the DNA, happens during Inter phase (s…
phages
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a bacteriophage.
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynuc…
67 terms
molecular basis of genetic disease
What are the 4 P's of medicine?
what are the 2 classifications of muta…
how do deletions and insertions create…
Define: missense mutation
Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory
loss of function: mutated product has reduced/no fxn... gain of…
if they create a frameshift
replace one amino acid with another in the same gene product…
What are the 4 P's of medicine?
Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory
what are the 2 classifications of muta…
loss of function: mutated product has reduced/no fxn... gain of…
5 terms
Biochemistry: The molecular basis of Genetics and Metabolism
Atom
Molecule
DNA
Gene
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties…
A group of atoms that are held together by chemical forces. I…
A type of molecule that is present in all living cells and th…
A small piece of a chromosome that provides instructions for…
Atom
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties…
Molecule
A group of atoms that are held together by chemical forces. I…
27 terms
Molecular Biology- DNA & RNA
double helix
nucleotide
adenine
thymine
the twisted ladder structure of DNA.
sub unit of nucleic acid (monomer) made of 5 carbon sugar, ph…
purine that pairs with thymine
pyrimidine (single ring) that pairs with adenine
double helix
the twisted ladder structure of DNA.
nucleotide
sub unit of nucleic acid (monomer) made of 5 carbon sugar, ph…
33 terms
Molecular Genetics DNA & RNA
Avery
Hershey-Chase
Chargaff
Franklin
...
...
...
...
Avery
...
Hershey-Chase
...
22 terms
Unit 5: DNA & Molecular Genetics
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
helix
nucleotide
nitrogenous base
a molecule made of four simple building blocks that contains…
a twisted-ladder shape; DNA has a double-helix shape, while R…
one of the building blocks of DNA and RNA; made of a base (A,…
one of the fundamental components of nucleic acids that form…
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
a molecule made of four simple building blocks that contains…
helix
a twisted-ladder shape; DNA has a double-helix shape, while R…
107 terms
AP Biology--Unit 6: Molecular Genetics and DNA Technology
Griffith's Experiment
transformation
Avery/MacLeod/McCarthy
bacteriophage
He took 2 strands of bacteria: one pathogenic (harmful) calle…
change in genotype/phenotype because of assimilation of exter…
discovered DNA was transformed through the transformation pro…
virus that infects bacteria
Griffith's Experiment
He took 2 strands of bacteria: one pathogenic (harmful) calle…
transformation
change in genotype/phenotype because of assimilation of exter…
22 terms
molecular basis of genetic diseases
>congenital disease doesnt always mean…
loss of function
Gain of function
novel-property
.
gene product having less or no function.... Decreased amount of…
abnormal protein properties in huntington disease
HBS protein has a new property
>congenital disease doesnt always mean…
.
loss of function
gene product having less or no function.... Decreased amount of…
19 terms
Biology Unit 9: Molecular Genetics (DNA to Protein Synthesis)
Central dogma of molecular biology
Chargaff's rules
messenger RNA (mRNA)
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
doctrine that genetic instructions in DNA are copied by RNA,…
Observations by Erwin CHargaff that concentrations of the fou…
type of RNA that copies genetic instructiions from the DNA in…
type of RNA that helps form ribosomes and assemble proteins
Central dogma of molecular biology
doctrine that genetic instructions in DNA are copied by RNA,…
Chargaff's rules
Observations by Erwin CHargaff that concentrations of the fou…
27 terms
Molecular Basis and Genetics of Neoplasia
Pathways available to a normal cell
What is cancer?
Most common cancers by men and women
Most fatal cancers by men and women
Die (programmed cell death), Proliferate, Differentiate... -Mali…
One or more:... 1. Inappropriate proliferation... 2. Resistance to…
Men: lung, stomach, prostate... Women: breast, cervix and uterus…
Men: lung, liver, pancreas... Women: lung, liver, pancreas
Pathways available to a normal cell
Die (programmed cell death), Proliferate, Differentiate... -Mali…
What is cancer?
One or more:... 1. Inappropriate proliferation... 2. Resistance to…
36 terms
Biology- Molecular Genetics (DNA, RNA, and Protein)
What is the structure of DNA?
What are nucleotides?
What are the components of nucleotides?
What is the 'backbone' of a DNA molecu…
double-helix formed by base pairs attached to a sugar- phosph…
A compound used to form the basic structural unit of nucleic…
five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a base
deoxiribose, 5-carbon sugar, and phosphate
What is the structure of DNA?
double-helix formed by base pairs attached to a sugar- phosph…
What are nucleotides?
A compound used to form the basic structural unit of nucleic…
28 terms
Topic 9: Molecular Biology-DNA & the Genetic Code
Topoisomerase
DNA helicase
Single stranded DNA-binding proteins
Primer
Keeps DNA from getting tangled as it is unwound
Unwinds DNA double helix during DNA replication
Keep helix from reforming after helicase unwinds it
DNA strand containing 3'OH to which next nucleotide is added
Topoisomerase
Keeps DNA from getting tangled as it is unwound
DNA helicase
Unwinds DNA double helix during DNA replication
Molecular Basis of Life: DNA (PP)
Proteins
DNA
Hershey-Chase Experiment
Transcription
Unique shapes, 20 different amino acids, many functions, spec…
Regular shape, 4 different nucleotides
Showed that all the information needed to produce new phage w…
The information encoded in an allele (DNA) is copied into RNA
Proteins
Unique shapes, 20 different amino acids, many functions, spec…
DNA
Regular shape, 4 different nucleotides
70 terms
Genetics, Molecular Biology: DNA structure and function, Molecular Biology: Protein Synthesis
What is the difference between a pheno…
What is a gene?
What is an allele?
How many alleles does a human cell hol…
The phenotype is what is physically observed (like hair color…
It is a stretch of DNA that codes for a trait. It codes for a…
It is a variant of a gene. A gene may have many different all…
2. 1 from the father and 1 from the mother.
What is the difference between a pheno…
The phenotype is what is physically observed (like hair color…
What is a gene?
It is a stretch of DNA that codes for a trait. It codes for a…
100 terms
molecular and genetic basis of neoplasia
growth and accumulation of neoplastic…
neoplasias have a clonal origin
what are the 10 hallmarks of cancer
tumor transformation
increased proliferation... -decreased cell death (aberration in…
genetic evidence for a clonal origin... -there are polymorphisms…
1.) avoid immune destruction... 2.) induce angiogenesis... 3.) sust…
nonlethal mutations in critical genes that confer survival ad…
growth and accumulation of neoplastic…
increased proliferation... -decreased cell death (aberration in…
neoplasias have a clonal origin
genetic evidence for a clonal origin... -there are polymorphisms…
1 of 10