Study sets matching "ecology chapter 4"

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Study sets matching "ecology chapter 4"

13 terms
Ecology vocabulary Chapter 4
Fish
amphibian
reptiles
birds
A vertebrate that lives in the water and has fins.
cold-blooded vertebrate typically living on land but begins l…
vertebrates that live on land, scales cover body, lay eggs, c…
class of animals with feathers, wings and beaks. They lay egg…
Fish
A vertebrate that lives in the water and has fins.
amphibian
cold-blooded vertebrate typically living on land but begins l…
16 terms
Ecology Chapter 4
Weather
Climate
Phenotypic trade-off
Phenotypic plasticity
The variation in temperature and precipitation over periods o…
The typical atmospheric conditions that occur throughout the…
A situation in which a given phenotype experiences higher fit…
The ability of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotypes
Weather
The variation in temperature and precipitation over periods o…
Climate
The typical atmospheric conditions that occur throughout the…
27 terms
Chapter 4 Population Ecology
Ecology
Species
Population
Community
The study of how organisms interact with each other and with…
A group of individuals that interbreed and produce fertile of…
Members of a species that live in the same area at the same t…
All the populations in a particular area
Ecology
The study of how organisms interact with each other and with…
Species
A group of individuals that interbreed and produce fertile of…
15 terms
Ecology Chapter 4 Vocabulary
Interaction
Competition
Symbiosis
Mutualism
A relationship between two or more organisms that affects the…
An interaction between organisms in which neither organism be…
A close relationship between two organisms in which one organ…
The relationship that exists between organisms when both orga…
Interaction
A relationship between two or more organisms that affects the…
Competition
An interaction between organisms in which neither organism be…
27 terms
Chapter 4- Ecology
ecology
species
population
community
The study of how organisms interact with each other and their…
group of organisms that interbreed and produce fertile offspr…
members of a species that live in the same area
all populations in a specific area
ecology
The study of how organisms interact with each other and their…
species
group of organisms that interbreed and produce fertile offspr…
61 terms
Ecology Chapter 4
A waxy layer coating the aerial parts…
Organisms that live in aquatic systems…
Each of the following is a challenge f…
If a tree 50 m high has 300,000 leaves…
cuticle
high specific heat
buoyancy
4
A waxy layer coating the aerial parts…
cuticle
Organisms that live in aquatic systems…
high specific heat
Ecology Chapter 4
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
Phenotypic Plasticity
Allometry as type of change in the rel…
Hardy Weinberg Principle
-Organisms begat like organisms ... -Chance variation between in…
Variation among individuals in form and function as a result…
Oxygen exchange... digestion... water transport... place in tropic rel…
In a population mating at random in the absence of evolutiona…
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
-Organisms begat like organisms ... -Chance variation between in…
Phenotypic Plasticity
Variation among individuals in form and function as a result…
25 terms
Chapter 4- Ecology
atmosphere
carnivore
community
competition
thin layer of gases surrounding Earth
animal that only eats meat
all the different populations in a region
the struggle among organisms for food, water, and space
atmosphere
thin layer of gases surrounding Earth
carnivore
animal that only eats meat
Chapter 4: Behavioral Ecology
Behavior
Behavioral Ecology
Ethology
Proximate Cause
The observable response of organisms to external/internal sti…
The study of how behavior contributes to the differential sur…
The scientific study of animal behavior
The specific genetic and physiological mechanisms of behavior
Behavior
The observable response of organisms to external/internal sti…
Behavioral Ecology
The study of how behavior contributes to the differential sur…
35 terms
Ecology Chapter 4
stress
deviations from optimum result in..
minimize stress
acclimatization
environmental change that decreases and organisms ability to…
decrease in rate of process, leading to negative effects on o…
tolerance... avoidance
minimize stress through short-term change
stress
environmental change that decreases and organisms ability to…
deviations from optimum result in..
decrease in rate of process, leading to negative effects on o…
24 terms
Ecology Chapter 4
tolerance
avoidance
physiological ecology
stress
the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions
a response to stressful environmental conditions that lessens…
the study of the interactions b/w organisms and the physical…
an abiotic factor that results in a decrease in the rate of a…
tolerance
the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions
avoidance
a response to stressful environmental conditions that lessens…
28 terms
Population Ecology (Chapter 4)
Carrying Capacity
Clumped dispersion
Density-dependent factors
Density-independent factors
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environm…
Individuals may live close together in groups in order to fac…
factor that limits a population more as population density in…
factor that limits a population, but is unrelated to populati…
Carrying Capacity
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environm…
Clumped dispersion
Individuals may live close together in groups in order to fac…
9 terms
Ecology - chapter 4 words
pollutant
recycling
hazardous waste
biodegradable
A substance that causes pollution.
Convert waste into reusable material.
Any material that can be harmful to human health or the envir…
capable of being broken down by bacteria and other natural de…
pollutant
A substance that causes pollution.
recycling
Convert waste into reusable material.
Ecology Chapter 4
Ecosystem
Biotic Factors
Abiotic Factors
Organisms
all of the organisms living in an area together with their ph…
living and once living parts of an ecosystem
nonliving parts of the ecosystem
an individual living thing
Ecosystem
all of the organisms living in an area together with their ph…
Biotic Factors
living and once living parts of an ecosystem
20 terms
Ecology - Ch 4 - Population Ecology
limiting factors
range of tolerance
zone of intolerance
stress zone
anything that limits the size of a population
the range of conditions a population can survive
extreme conditions with no survivors
harsh conditions that some individuals can survive
limiting factors
anything that limits the size of a population
range of tolerance
the range of conditions a population can survive
10 terms
Ecology Chapter 4
demographic transition
zero population growth
replacement fertility rate
carrying capacity
as a country's economy changes from preindustrial to postindu…
when population size is stable, neither increasing nor decrea…
when the number of people born equals the number of people dy…
the maximum population size that the area can support
demographic transition
as a country's economy changes from preindustrial to postindu…
zero population growth
when population size is stable, neither increasing nor decrea…
Biology - Chapter 4 - Ecology
Ecology
Biosphere
Ecosystem
Sample Ecosystems
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between…
The part of the planet containing organisms
A group of clearly distinguished organisms that interact with…
Temperate deciduous forest - warm summer, rain ... Grassland - m…
Ecology
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between…
Biosphere
The part of the planet containing organisms
35 terms
Population Ecology--Chapter 4
biosphere
ecosystem
organism
species
All the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living thin…
A community of organisms and their abiotic environment
a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act o…
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile…
biosphere
All the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living thin…
ecosystem
A community of organisms and their abiotic environment
25 terms
Ecology Chapter 4
r squared
p-value
where is decomposition fastest?
decomposition in water
correlation coefficient, 0=no relation, 1=perfect relation
significance value, is significant if p<0.05
hotter, wetter climates
faster than on land, moving water causes mechanical breakdown…
r squared
correlation coefficient, 0=no relation, 1=perfect relation
p-value
significance value, is significant if p<0.05
Ecology Chapter 4
Weather
Climate
Phenotypic Trade-Off
Phenotypic Plasticity
The variation in temperature and precipitation over periods o…
The typical atmospheric conditions that occur throughout the…
A situation in w which a given phenotype experiences higher f…
The ability of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotyp…
Weather
The variation in temperature and precipitation over periods o…
Climate
The typical atmospheric conditions that occur throughout the…
Ecology Chapter 4
Temporal Variation
Phenotypic Trade-off
Phenotypic Plasticity
Physiological Plasticity
how environmental conditions change over time
neither phenotype does well in both environments
Single genotype produces multiple phenotypes. Affect growth,…
Acclimation
Temporal Variation
how environmental conditions change over time
Phenotypic Trade-off
neither phenotype does well in both environments
Ecology: Chapter 4
Weather
Climate
Phenotypic Trade-Off
Phenotypic Plasticity
The variation in temperature and precipitation over periods o…
The typical atmospheric conditions that occur throughout the…
A situation in which a given phenotype experiences higher fit…
The ability of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotypes
Weather
The variation in temperature and precipitation over periods o…
Climate
The typical atmospheric conditions that occur throughout the…
28 terms
Ecology Chapter 4
The variation in temperature and preci…
The typical atmospheric conditions tha…
Large-scale spatial variation is cause…
Small-scale variation is generated by…
Weather
Climate
Climate, land topography, and soil type.
plant structure... animal behavior
The variation in temperature and preci…
Weather
The typical atmospheric conditions tha…
Climate
Ecology Chapter 4
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
Modern Construct of Darwin's Theory
Fitness
Selection
- Chance of variation between individuals ... - More offspring a…
- Variation exist in populations ... - Some of the variation is…
- Refers to ability to survive to maturity, reproduce and off…
- Is primary mechanism of evolutionary change ... - Other mechan…
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
- Chance of variation between individuals ... - More offspring a…
Modern Construct of Darwin's Theory
- Variation exist in populations ... - Some of the variation is…
16 terms
Ecology: Chapter 4
Weather
Climate
Phenotypic Trade-off
Phenotypic Plasticity
The variation in temperature and precipitation over periods o…
The typical atmospheric conditions that occur throughout the…
A situation in which a given phenotype experiences higher fit…
The ability of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotyp…
Weather
The variation in temperature and precipitation over periods o…
Climate
The typical atmospheric conditions that occur throughout the…
13 terms
Ecology vocabulary Chapter 4
Fish
amphibian
reptiles
birds
A vertebrate that lives in the water and has fins.
cold-blooded vertebrate typically living on land but begins l…
vertebrates that live on land, scales cover body, lay eggs, c…
class of animals with feathers, wings and beaks. They lay egg…
Fish
A vertebrate that lives in the water and has fins.
amphibian
cold-blooded vertebrate typically living on land but begins l…
Chapter 4: Population Ecology
age structure
carrying capacity
demographic transition
demography
in any population, the number of individuals in their pre-rep…
largest number of individuals in a species that an environmen…
population change from high birth rates and death rates to lo…
study of human populations based on size, density, movement,…
age structure
in any population, the number of individuals in their pre-rep…
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals in a species that an environmen…
14 terms
Ecology Chapter 4
4 Population Characteristics
Population Size
Population Dispersion
Population Dynamics
Population Size ... Population Density ... Population Dispersion ... P…
Number of individuals that a population contains
Spatial Distribution of individuals in a population
Way a population changes in size and composition OVER TIME
4 Population Characteristics
Population Size ... Population Density ... Population Dispersion ... P…
Population Size
Number of individuals that a population contains
27 terms
Chapter 4: Population Ecology
ecology
species
population
community
the study of how organisms interact with each other and their…
group of individuals that interbreed and produce fertile offs…
members of a species that live in the same area at the same t…
all the populations in a particular area
ecology
the study of how organisms interact with each other and their…
species
group of individuals that interbreed and produce fertile offs…
Ecology Chapter 4
Evolution
Alleles
Allele Frequency
Artificial Selection
A process that changes populations of organisms over time. Si…
One of the alternative forms of the same gene.
The proportion of alternative forms of genes in a population…
Selective breeding techniques used to develop or maintain des…
Evolution
A process that changes populations of organisms over time. Si…
Alleles
One of the alternative forms of the same gene.
44 terms
Chapter 4: Ecology
Abiotic
aquatic life zones
biogeochemical cycle
biological community
Non-living
aquatic equivalent of biomes; marine and freshwater portions…
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other form…
All of the populations of organisms living and interacting in…
Abiotic
Non-living
aquatic life zones
aquatic equivalent of biomes; marine and freshwater portions…
16 terms
Ecology Chapter 4
vegetation
life zone
geographic range
adiabatic cooling
the form of the plant life in a region
a band of vegetation associated with a specific altitude on a…
the region in which a particular species is found
the decrease in air temperature that occurs at higher elevati…
vegetation
the form of the plant life in a region
life zone
a band of vegetation associated with a specific altitude on a…
17 terms
Chapter 4 Ecology
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
Clausen et al. (1940)
Hardy Weinberg principle (definition)
Finding frequency S
-Organisms beget like organisms... -chance variation between ind…
-found evidence of adaptation to local environmental conditio…
population mating at random in the absence of evolutionary fo…
Freq SS + 1/2 (freq SA)
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
-Organisms beget like organisms... -chance variation between ind…
Clausen et al. (1940)
-found evidence of adaptation to local environmental conditio…
20 terms
Chapter 4 ecology
Ecosystem
population
adaptation
protist
a system, or a group of interconnected elements, formed by th…
the total number of persons inhabiting a country, city, or an…
the state of being adapted; adjustment.
any of various one-celled organisms,
Ecosystem
a system, or a group of interconnected elements, formed by th…
population
the total number of persons inhabiting a country, city, or an…
31 terms
Ecology Chapter 4
Adaptation
agriculture
allele
allele frequencies
an evolutionary process that changes anatomy, physiology or b…
the growing of crops and livestock for human consumption.
Mendal found that genes come in alternative forms which we ca…
the proportions of alternative forms of a gene (alleles) in a…
Adaptation
an evolutionary process that changes anatomy, physiology or b…
agriculture
the growing of crops and livestock for human consumption.
19 terms
Ecology Chapter 4
climate
large scale spatial variation
small scale variation
phenotypic trade-off
typical atmospheric conditions that occur through theyear mea…
caused by climate, land topography, soil type
plant structure and animal behavior
situation in which a given phenotype experiences higher fitne…
climate
typical atmospheric conditions that occur through theyear mea…
large scale spatial variation
caused by climate, land topography, soil type
Ecology chapter 4
ecosystem
biotic factor
abiotic factor
organism
all of the organisms living in an area together with their ph…
the living and once living parts of an ecosystem, including a…
the nonliving parts if the ecosystem, including rocks, air, w…
an individual living thing
ecosystem
all of the organisms living in an area together with their ph…
biotic factor
the living and once living parts of an ecosystem, including a…
Ecology: Chapter 4
Weather
Climate
Phenotypic tradeoff
Phenotypic plasticity
The variation in temperature and precipitation over periods o…
The typical atmospheric conditions that occur throughout the…
A situation in which a given phenotype experiences higher fit…
The ability of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotypes
Weather
The variation in temperature and precipitation over periods o…
Climate
The typical atmospheric conditions that occur throughout the…
12 terms
Chapter 4 - Population Ecology
population density
dispersion
density-independent factor
density-dependent factor
number of organisms per unit of living area.
arrangement of a population in its environment.
environmental factor, such as storms and extreme heat or cold…
environmental factor, such as predation, disease, and competi…
population density
number of organisms per unit of living area.
dispersion
arrangement of a population in its environment.
ecology chapter 4
phenotype
genetic basis
environmental variability
phenotypic tradeoff
is the result of genes interacting with its environment, diff…
is the environments ability to turn genes on/off
promotes the evolution of nature
situation in which given phenotype experiences higher fitness…
phenotype
is the result of genes interacting with its environment, diff…
genetic basis
is the environments ability to turn genes on/off
Ecology Chapter 4
Niche
Resource
Competitive Exclusion Principle
Predation
(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment an…
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is e…
Ecological rule that states that no two species can occupy th…
An interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on an…
Niche
(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment an…
Resource
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is e…
39 terms
ES Chapter 4 Population Ecology
Ecology
Species
Population
community
The study of how organisms interact with each other and with…
A group of individuals that interbreed and produce fertile of…
Members of a species that live in the same area at the same t…
All of the population in a particular area
Ecology
The study of how organisms interact with each other and with…
Species
A group of individuals that interbreed and produce fertile of…
50 terms
Ecology Chapter 4
biome
microclimate
climate
weather
A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical…
Climate within a small area that differs significantly from t…
Describes the average conditions, including temperature and p…
Day-to-day changes in atmospheric conditions, including tempe…
biome
A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical…
microclimate
Climate within a small area that differs significantly from t…
Chapter 4- Population Ecology
Ecology
Species
Population
Community
the study of how organisms interact with each other and their…
a specific group of individuals that produce off spring (more…
members of a species that live in the same area
all the population in a specific area
Ecology
the study of how organisms interact with each other and their…
Species
a specific group of individuals that produce off spring (more…
Ecology Chapter 4
Ecosystem
Biotic Factor
Abiotic Factor
Organism
a community of organisms and their abiotic enviroment
An enviromental factor that is associated with or results fro…
An environmental factor that is not associated with the activ…
an individual living thing
Ecosystem
a community of organisms and their abiotic enviroment
Biotic Factor
An enviromental factor that is associated with or results fro…
19 terms
Ecology chapter 4
Ecosystem
Biotic factors
Abotic factos
Organism
Is all of the organisms living in an area together with their…
Are the living and once living parts of an ecosystem, includi…
The nonliving parts of the ecosystem.
Is an individual living thing.
Ecosystem
Is all of the organisms living in an area together with their…
Biotic factors
Are the living and once living parts of an ecosystem, includi…
25 terms
chapter 4 ecology
biological evolution
biodiversity
natural selection
fossils
the process whereby earth's life changes over time through ch…
is the variety of earth's species, the genes they contain, th…
when some individuals of a population have genetically based…
mineralized or petrified replicas of skeletons, bones, teeth,…
biological evolution
the process whereby earth's life changes over time through ch…
biodiversity
is the variety of earth's species, the genes they contain, th…
12 terms
Chapter 4 - Population Ecology
population density
dispersion
density-independent factor
density-dependent factor
number of organisms per unit of living area.
arrangement of a population in its environment.
environmental factor, such as storms and extreme heat or cold…
environmental factor, such as predation, disease, and competi…
population density
number of organisms per unit of living area.
dispersion
arrangement of a population in its environment.
Ecology chapter 4
Biome
plant life
climate
Tropical rainforests and savannas
Areas of the earth that have distinctive climates and organis…
determines how a biome is named
refers to the weather conditions in an area
biomes that occur in a belt around the equator
Biome
Areas of the earth that have distinctive climates and organis…
plant life
determines how a biome is named
Ecology Chapter 4
Where are deserts found?
Rainforest?
Temperate rainforest?
Tropical?
around 30° latitude (N & S) *Atacama desert: dryest place on…
around 0° latitude; 1.5m average annual rainfall... -east: rainf…
+ or - 50° latitude N,S
below 30° latitude
Where are deserts found?
around 30° latitude (N & S) *Atacama desert: dryest place on…
Rainforest?
around 0° latitude; 1.5m average annual rainfall... -east: rainf…
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