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Study sets matching "ecology exam 3"

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Study sets matching "ecology exam 3"

41 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Parasitism
Predation
Competion
Mutualism
• One organism benefits, the other is harmed ... • Effect on org…
• One organism benefits, the other is harmed ... • Effect on org…
• Two organisms mutually harm one another ... • Effect on organi…
• Both organisms benefit ... • Effect on organism A : Effect on…
Parasitism
• One organism benefits, the other is harmed ... • Effect on org…
Predation
• One organism benefits, the other is harmed ... • Effect on org…
33 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Outcomes of Competition on Populations
Example of Competitive Exclusion
Although competitive exclusion can occ…
Examples of when superior competitor r…
1. Competitive Exclusion... 2. Superior competitor reduces the... a…
The big-headed ant is a very invasive species in... many parts o…
a. Environments change, thus balance of... competition shifts be…
a. Impact of Starling on Eastern Bluebird by means... of competi…
Outcomes of Competition on Populations
1. Competitive Exclusion... 2. Superior competitor reduces the... a…
Example of Competitive Exclusion
The big-headed ant is a very invasive species in... many parts o…
37 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Mutualism
Parasitism
Trophic Mutualism
Defensive Mutualism
The fitness of both organisms increases through the interacti…
The fitness of one partner increases at the expense of the ot…
Has to do with energy exchange; includes multiple trophic lev…
One partner provides protection/defense for the partner that…
Mutualism
The fitness of both organisms increases through the interacti…
Parasitism
The fitness of one partner increases at the expense of the ot…
145 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Community IIS
Community properties determined by
Community ecology
Real communities are _______ and _____…
group of actually or potentially INTERACTING SPECIES in the s…
Interactions
investigating biodiversity, community structure, interactions…
dynamic and interconnected
Community IIS
group of actually or potentially INTERACTING SPECIES in the s…
Community properties determined by
Interactions
77 terms
Exam 3 Ecology
Age Structure
Survivor ship curve Type I
Survivor ship curve Type II
Survivor ship curve Type III
Age structure: In a population, the proportion of individuals…
depicts a population that experiences very little mortality e…
when a population experiences relatively constant mortality t…
depicts a population with high mortality early in life and hi…
Age Structure
Age structure: In a population, the proportion of individuals…
Survivor ship curve Type I
depicts a population that experiences very little mortality e…
305 terms
ECOLOGY EXAM 3 :)
What are the 2 SULFUR CYLCES?
What is tied up in organic and inorgan…
sulfur Is found in?
main sources of sulfur?
sedimentary and gaseous phases (UNUSUAL 4 NUTRIENTS)
SULFUR
proteins
burning fossil fuels!!!!
What are the 2 SULFUR CYLCES?
sedimentary and gaseous phases (UNUSUAL 4 NUTRIENTS)
What is tied up in organic and inorgan…
SULFUR
129 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Intraspecific Competition:
Exploitation Competition:
Interference Competition:
Intraspecific competition built into t…
a resourced used by population is in short supply... -demand > s…
no direct interaction, but use by individual reduces availabi…
maintain possession of their territories through ongoing comp…
competition for increasingly limiting resources can slow deve…
Intraspecific Competition:
a resourced used by population is in short supply... -demand > s…
Exploitation Competition:
no direct interaction, but use by individual reduces availabi…
95 terms
Ecology Exam 3
survivorship curve
cohort
type 1 survivorship curve
type 2 survivorship curve
graphic depiction of the survival of a cohort of individuals
group of like-aged individuals
-senescence ... -represented by large mammals, birds, reptiles
-same chance of death ... -songbirds
survivorship curve
graphic depiction of the survival of a cohort of individuals
cohort
group of like-aged individuals
112 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Fires, rock slides, and avalanches
latent heat flux
conduction
convection
What are periodic disturbances?
The heat loss due to evaporation is called what?
The exchange of kinetic energy by molecules in direct contact…
Movement of wind and water is what?
Fires, rock slides, and avalanches
What are periodic disturbances?
latent heat flux
The heat loss due to evaporation is called what?
229 terms
Ecology Exam 3
decomposition
organic, plant, animal, inorganic
serve as fertilizers and minerals whic…
inorganic
breakdown of organic compounds from dead animal and plant mat…
decomposition is the breakdown of ____ compounds from dead __…
what is the function of inorganic nutrients converted from or…
the function of ____ nutrients are to serve as fertilizers an…
decomposition
breakdown of organic compounds from dead animal and plant mat…
organic, plant, animal, inorganic
decomposition is the breakdown of ____ compounds from dead __…
224 terms
Ecology exam 3
Community Structure
The "richness" of a community is refer…
What determines community structure ?
Increased environmental heterogeneity…
The number , abundance, and kinds of species found in a comun…
Number of each species in an area (not abundance)
Environmental heterogeneity, the more variable the habitat th…
Niches!
Community Structure
The number , abundance, and kinds of species found in a comun…
The "richness" of a community is refer…
Number of each species in an area (not abundance)
64 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Community Ecology: Species richness pa…
How does richness change from the equa…
What is the latitude richness gradient?
What are three hypotheses for factors…
Concept: There are several continental species richness patte…
Latitudinal richness gradient: number of species increases fr…
The number of species of most taxa generally increases from p…
Propose that species richness increases with increased Produc…
Community Ecology: Species richness pa…
Concept: There are several continental species richness patte…
How does richness change from the equa…
Latitudinal richness gradient: number of species increases fr…
44 terms
Ecology Exam 3
state the N (population) value of the…
where does OH rank in N (population) a…
distinguish between intraspecific and…
recognize the differences between expl…
7.4 billion
11.59 million- 7th
Intraspecific competition- occurs when individuals of the sam…
exploitative competition:
state the N (population) value of the…
7.4 billion
where does OH rank in N (population) a…
11.59 million- 7th
110 terms
ecology exam 3 chumchal
terrestrial biomes
examples of temperate zones
what are temperate grasslands... uses
environmental biology and conservation
groups together land by similar factors... -physical ... -climate... -…
grasslands... forests
ex: tcu... climate:... -precip= highly seasonal... -winters cold and…
-how plants and animals interact w environment and respond to…
terrestrial biomes
groups together land by similar factors... -physical ... -climate... -…
examples of temperate zones
grasslands... forests
215 terms
Ecology Exam 3
community ecology
species richness
evenness
species diversity
ecological communities are composed of populations which shar…
number of species (count)
the relative abundance of individuals among species (compare)
increases as the number of individuals in the total populatio…
community ecology
ecological communities are composed of populations which shar…
species richness
number of species (count)
52 terms
Terrestrial Ecology Exam 3
Community
3 Types of Interactions Between Species
Community Structure
Guilds
an association of interacting species that is inhabiting a de…
1. Exploitative Interactions... 2. Competitive Interactions... 3. M…
include attributes such as number of species, relative specie…
groups of organisms that all have the same life strategies; f…
Community
an association of interacting species that is inhabiting a de…
3 Types of Interactions Between Species
1. Exploitative Interactions... 2. Competitive Interactions... 3. M…
25 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Which of the following organisms uses…
If the P:R ratio of an ecosystem is le…
Which of the following is true about g…
Net primary production...... a) equals gr…
B
A
E
E
Which of the following organisms uses…
B
If the P:R ratio of an ecosystem is le…
A
58 terms
BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY EXAM 3
animals are inherently (altruistic/sel…
3 paths of cooperation
game theory
reciprocity
selfish
reciprocity, byproduct mutualism, group selection
a game applies when the best decision depends on the decision…
animals cooperate selectively with those known to have cooper…
animals are inherently (altruistic/sel…
selfish
3 paths of cooperation
reciprocity, byproduct mutualism, group selection
127 terms
Tropical Ecology Exam 3
Wetlands
RAMSAR definition
Hydrophytes
Wetlands occupy
Areas permanently/seasonally flooded with fresh water, compri…
Wetlands include lakes, rivers, flood plains, mangroves, and…
Water loving plants
6% of earths surface occupied by these
Wetlands
Areas permanently/seasonally flooded with fresh water, compri…
RAMSAR definition
Wetlands include lakes, rivers, flood plains, mangroves, and…
220 terms
Ecology Exam 3
When individuals ... belonging to the sam…
In ... competition one species reduces…
In ________ competition one species re…
Although the barnacle Tesseropa rosea…
intraspecific competition
exploitative
interference
preemptive competition
When individuals ... belonging to the sam…
intraspecific competition
In ... competition one species reduces…
exploitative
85 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Mating system
Promiscuity
Polygamy
Polygyny
The number of mates each individual has and the permanence of…
Males mate with multiple females and females mate with multip…
a single individual of one sex forms long-term social bonds w…
a polygamous mating system in which a male mates with more th…
Mating system
The number of mates each individual has and the permanence of…
Promiscuity
Males mate with multiple females and females mate with multip…
54 terms
ecology exam 3
systems view of earth
conservation of matter and energy
Entropy
Alfred Tansley
a system is any portion of the universe that can be 'isolated…
1st Law of Thermodynamics ... Matter and energy can be neither c…
tendency towards chaos. ... 2nd law of Thermodynamics... Organic ma…
In 1935, he introduced the Ecosystem concept.
systems view of earth
a system is any portion of the universe that can be 'isolated…
conservation of matter and energy
1st Law of Thermodynamics ... Matter and energy can be neither c…
36 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Intraspecific competition
Interspecific competition
interference competition
resource competition
When members of the same species compete
when individuals of different species compete
when an individual actively or aggressively excludes other in…
when an individual tries to gather as much of a resource for…
Intraspecific competition
When members of the same species compete
Interspecific competition
when individuals of different species compete
92 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Charles Darwin
Rosemary and Peter Grant
La Nina drought
El Nino
experienced naturalist when he went to the Galapagos, he noti…
Variation in beak size of medium ground finch in response to…
mid 1970s, seeds are scarce
1983, seeds small and produced in abundance
Charles Darwin
experienced naturalist when he went to the Galapagos, he noti…
Rosemary and Peter Grant
Variation in beak size of medium ground finch in response to…
147 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Is population size constant?
Define population dynamics
Do populations approach K smoothly?
If K is overshot what happens
seldom
how populations change in abundance over time
No
die-offs
Is population size constant?
seldom
Define population dynamics
how populations change in abundance over time
Exam 3 Ecology
community ecology
niche
competition
ecosystem ecology
species interaction
role in the ecosystem
more than one species with the same or overlapping niches, or…
cycling of energy and matter
community ecology
species interaction
niche
role in the ecosystem
79 terms
Exam 3: Ecology
Levels of ecological study
Population
Community
Ecosystems
Organisms... Populations... Communities... Ecosystems... Biosphere
group of individuals of the same species that live in the sam…
populations of different species that interact with each other
all organisms + non living components
Levels of ecological study
Organisms... Populations... Communities... Ecosystems... Biosphere
Population
group of individuals of the same species that live in the sam…
86 terms
Wildlife Ecology & Conservation Exam 3
acclimation
benthic
biomes
biotic
an environmentally induced change through long term exposure…
pertaining to the lowermost region of an aquatic system
large, relatively distinct ecological systems characterized b…
life or act of living
acclimation
an environmentally induced change through long term exposure…
benthic
pertaining to the lowermost region of an aquatic system
167 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Intraspecific
Interspecific
Interference competition
Resouce(exploitation) competition
occurs among members of the same species
occurs among members of different species
involves direct interaction between competitors such that the…
involves more indirect inhibitory effects... Such as those aris…
Intraspecific
occurs among members of the same species
Interspecific
occurs among members of different species
49 terms
Exam 3 Ecology
Random effects on population size due…
The above population is
The values for qx from age 1 to 4 shou…
A survival rate that does not change w…
are environmental stochasticity.
increasing in abundance
1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 1
type II survivorship curve.
Random effects on population size due…
are environmental stochasticity.
The above population is
increasing in abundance
30 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Tropical Forest
Tropical Forest
Tropical Forest
Tropical Forest - Tropical Dry Forest
Warm temperatures year round... Extensive rainfall... Home to Epiph…
50% of world's biological diversity lives here... 90% of non-hum…
1. Emergent... 2. Canopy... 3. Understory... 4. Herb Layer... 5. Forest F…
Most converted to agriculture and grazing... Experiences distinc…
Tropical Forest
Warm temperatures year round... Extensive rainfall... Home to Epiph…
Tropical Forest
50% of world's biological diversity lives here... 90% of non-hum…
59 terms
Ecology Exam 3 Terms
social behaviors
Dilution effect
lek
territory
interactions with members of ones own species including mates…
the reduced or diluted probability of predation to a single a…
the location of an animal aggregation to put on a display to…
any area defended by one or more individuals against the intr…
social behaviors
interactions with members of ones own species including mates…
Dilution effect
the reduced or diluted probability of predation to a single a…
109 terms
Exam 3 Ecology
Population
age structure
density
uniform, random, clumped
group of potentially interbreeding and interacting individual…
proportion of individual
either crude or ecological distribution
3 types of dispersion patterns
Population
group of potentially interbreeding and interacting individual…
age structure
proportion of individual
ecology exam 3
community
ecosystem
population
guild
individuals of different species that co-occur in the same ar…
the biotic community and its abiotic environment, functioning…
a group of individuals of the same species living in a given…
a group of different species that carry out similar function…
community
individuals of different species that co-occur in the same ar…
ecosystem
the biotic community and its abiotic environment, functioning…
21 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Resources
What happened when two diatoms compete…
Wilson & Tilman experiment
Competitive inclusion
features of the environment that:... - Are required for growth,…
One drove the other to extinction
Competition among plants will increase in nutrient-poor soils
Competing species are more likely to coexist if they use reso…
Resources
features of the environment that:... - Are required for growth,…
What happened when two diatoms compete…
One drove the other to extinction
124 terms
Ecology Exam 3
commensalism
Batesian mimicry
lianas
epiphytes
type of positive reaction; where one species benefits and the…
one species looks like another that has an advantage
hemi-epiphytes; grow in the ground, host provides support (fe…
grow on tree branches; get support and sunlight; some are par…
commensalism
type of positive reaction; where one species benefits and the…
Batesian mimicry
one species looks like another that has an advantage
52 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Life history
Reproductive effort
Semelparity
Iteroparity
The adaptations or characteristics of organisms that influenc…
The allocation of energy, time, and other resources to the pr…
reproduce once in life
reproduce more then once in life
Life history
The adaptations or characteristics of organisms that influenc…
Reproductive effort
The allocation of energy, time, and other resources to the pr…
74 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Predator response to prey: reproductio…
Predator response to prey: gathering i…
Predator response to prey: change in t…
Predator response to prey: change in h…
numerical responses
aggregative response
developmental response
functional response
Predator response to prey: reproductio…
numerical responses
Predator response to prey: gathering i…
aggregative response
71 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Paul Cox
Tropical Regions
3 Categories of Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Plant physiologist who moved his family to the Samoan rainfor…
Represent the greatest biodiversity on Earth (hotspots)
1. Genetic Diversity ... 2. Species Diversity... 3. Ecological Di…
variety among organisms and ecological systems at all levels…
Paul Cox
Plant physiologist who moved his family to the Samoan rainfor…
Tropical Regions
Represent the greatest biodiversity on Earth (hotspots)
60 terms
Ecology Exam 3
name a prok organism
name a euk organism
Protist
Prokaryote
ecoli, cyanobacteria
green algae
single-celled eukaryote (ex algae)
A single‐celled organism that lacks a membrane‐bound nucleus…
name a prok organism
ecoli, cyanobacteria
name a euk organism
green algae
99 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Competition
Interspecific Competition
Intraspecific Competition
Resources
an interaction between individuals in which each is harmed by…
between members of different species
between individuals of a single species
features of the environment required for growth, survival, or…
Competition
an interaction between individuals in which each is harmed by…
Interspecific Competition
between members of different species
138 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Demography
Population
Defining a "particular area"
Why does high connectivity differ less…
Qualitatative description of a populations and its characteri…
A group of individuals of the same species (=cospecifics) liv…
1. Differences in demographic parameters distinguish the loca…
Answer: Gene flow
Demography
Qualitatative description of a populations and its characteri…
Population
A group of individuals of the same species (=cospecifics) liv…
81 terms
Ecology exam 3
density-dependent process, meaning tha…
Biotic factors external to a species d…
Populations are self-regulating. Numbe…
the maximum, equilibrium number of org…
Population regulation
Extrinsic regulation
Intrinsic regulation
Carrying capacity
density-dependent process, meaning tha…
Population regulation
Biotic factors external to a species d…
Extrinsic regulation
56 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Adaptive Evolution
Behavioral Ecology
Dilution effect
Marginal Value Theorem
A process of evolutionary change in which traits that confer…
The study of ecological & evolutionary basis of animal behavi…
A Phenomenon where the chance that any particular member of a…
A conceptual optimal foraging model proposing that an animal…
Adaptive Evolution
A process of evolutionary change in which traits that confer…
Behavioral Ecology
The study of ecological & evolutionary basis of animal behavi…
18 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Ecological succession
Autogenic succession
Allogenic succession
Early successional species
the change in species composition and ecosystem processes at…
environmental change is the result of the presence and activi…
environmental change is a result of a feature of the physical…
the initial colonists, or pioneer species. Often have:... 1. hig…
Ecological succession
the change in species composition and ecosystem processes at…
Autogenic succession
environmental change is the result of the presence and activi…
Ecology - Exam 3
Evolutionary time hypothesis
Ecological time theory
Spatial heterogeneity theory
Climatic stability theory
Old communities will have more species because more time has…
More species are found in areas that are old because there ha…
More complex and heterogeneous environments contain more spec…
A stable environment with a stable climate will have more spe…
Evolutionary time hypothesis
Old communities will have more species because more time has…
Ecological time theory
More species are found in areas that are old because there ha…
226 terms
Ecology Exam 3*
Consumer-resource interactions
Competitive interactions
Mutualism
Amensalism
(+,-): positive effect on one species, negative effect on the…
(-,-): Interaction has negative effects on both species ... Ex:…
(+,+): positive effects on both species ... Ex: plants and polli…
(-,0): interaction has negative effects on one species, no ef…
Consumer-resource interactions
(+,-): positive effect on one species, negative effect on the…
Competitive interactions
(-,-): Interaction has negative effects on both species ... Ex:…
58 terms
Ecology exam 3 vocab
biomes
terrestrial biomes
temperate grasslands
environmental biology
major life zones characterized by vegetation type (terrestria…
often names fo rmajor physical or climactic factors and for v…
found on many continents, precipitation is seasonal, winters…
scientific study of how plants and animals interact with the…
biomes
major life zones characterized by vegetation type (terrestria…
terrestrial biomes
often names fo rmajor physical or climactic factors and for v…
82 terms
Ecology Exam 3
compensation
crypsis
exploitation
herbivore
An adaptive growth response of plants to herbivory in which r…
A defense against predators in which prey species have a shap…
A relationship in which individuals of one species benefit by…
A heterotroph that eats the tissues or internal fluids of liv…
compensation
An adaptive growth response of plants to herbivory in which r…
crypsis
A defense against predators in which prey species have a shap…
132 terms
Ecology Exam 3
Density
Crude Density
Ecological Density
Distribution
number of organisms within distrubution
the number of organisms per unit area
the number of organisms per unit of suitable habitat
-Shape, size, location of an area a population occupies... -Limi…
Density
number of organisms within distrubution
Crude Density
the number of organisms per unit area
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