Study sets matching "economics chapter 8 microeconomics arnold"

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Study sets matching "economics chapter 8 microeconomics arnold"

34 terms
Microeconomics Roger A. Arnold 12ED CH.8
diseconomies of scale
average total cost (ATC)
explicit cost
Accounting profit
The condition when inputs are increased... by some percentage an…
Total cost divided by quantity of... output: ATC=TC/Q.
A cost incurred when an actual... (monetary) payment is made.
The difference between total revenue... and explicit costs.
diseconomies of scale
The condition when inputs are increased... by some percentage an…
average total cost (ATC)
Total cost divided by quantity of... output: ATC=TC/Q.
23 terms
Macro Economics Roger Arnold Ch 8
Aggregate Demand
Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
Real Balance Effect
Monetary Wealth
The quantity demand of all goods and services (Real GDP) at d…
A curve that shows the quantity demanded of all goods and ser…
The change in the purchasing power of dollar-denominated asse…
The value of a person's monetary assets.
Aggregate Demand
The quantity demand of all goods and services (Real GDP) at d…
Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
A curve that shows the quantity demanded of all goods and ser…
Macro Economics Roger Arnold Ch 8
Aggregate Demand
Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
Real Balance Effect
Monetary Wealth
The quantity demand of all goods and services (Real GDP) at d…
A curve that shows the quantity demanded of all goods and ser…
The change in the purchasing power of dollar-denominated asse…
The value of a person's monetary assets.
Aggregate Demand
The quantity demand of all goods and services (Real GDP) at d…
Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
A curve that shows the quantity demanded of all goods and ser…
Chapter 8 Vocabulary - Lucas Arnold
ATP
Hetrotroph
Autotroph
Photosynthesis
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use fo…
An organism that doesn't produce its own food
An organism that makes its own food
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use fo…
Hetrotroph
An organism that doesn't produce its own food
Microeconomics Chapter 8
What the four monopoly market structure?
Characteristics of Perfect competition
Perfect Competition
Price Taker's Demand Curve
1- Perfect competition... 2- Monopolistic competition... 3- Oligopo…
- A lot of firms... - The product are homogeneous... - No substanti…
A market with many buyers and sellers, all selling a homogene…
- Perfect competition most sell at the price determined by ma…
What the four monopoly market structure?
1- Perfect competition... 2- Monopolistic competition... 3- Oligopo…
Characteristics of Perfect competition
- A lot of firms... - The product are homogeneous... - No substanti…
17 terms
Arnold, Chapter 8, 12//16
Liberation
Conspire
Anglo American
Immigrant
The act of becoming free
To join in a secret
People whose ancestors moved from one of many European countr…
A person who comes to a country to settle
Liberation
The act of becoming free
Conspire
To join in a secret
18 terms
Macro Economics Roger Arnold Ch 8
Aggregate Demand
Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
Real Balance Effect
Monetary Wealth
The quantity demand of all goods and services (Real GDP) at d…
A curve that shows the quantity demanded of all goods and ser…
The change in the purchasing power of dollar-denominated asse…
The value of a person's monetary assets.
Aggregate Demand
The quantity demand of all goods and services (Real GDP) at d…
Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
A curve that shows the quantity demanded of all goods and ser…
21 terms
chapter 8 (microeconomics)
formula for profit
accounting cost
economic cost
accounting profit formula
profit= total revenue- total cost
explicit cost
explicit cost + implicit cost
profit= TR- accounting cost
formula for profit
profit= total revenue- total cost
accounting cost
explicit cost
Microeconomics chapter 8
Business Firm
Market Coordination
Managerial Coordination
Shirking
An entity that employs factors of production (resources) to p…
The process in which individuals perform tasks, such as produ…
The process in which managers direct employees to perform cer…
The behavior of a worker who is putting forth less than the a…
Business Firm
An entity that employs factors of production (resources) to p…
Market Coordination
The process in which individuals perform tasks, such as produ…
24 terms
Chapter 8 - Microeconomics
Pure Competition
Pure Monopoly
Monopolistic Competition
Oligopoly
involves a very large number of firms producing a standardize…
a market structure in which one firm is the sole seller of a…
is characterized by a relatively large number of sellers prod…
involves only a few sellers of a standardized or differentiat…
Pure Competition
involves a very large number of firms producing a standardize…
Pure Monopoly
a market structure in which one firm is the sole seller of a…
21 terms
Microeconomics (Chapter 8)
constant returns to scale
cost-plus regulation
hurdle method of price discrimination
increasing returns to scale (or econom…
a production process is said to have constant returns to scal…
a method of regulation under which the regulated firm is perm…
the practice by which a seller offers a discount to all buyer…
a production process is said to have increasing returns to sc…
constant returns to scale
a production process is said to have constant returns to scal…
cost-plus regulation
a method of regulation under which the regulated firm is perm…
16 terms
Microeconomics- Chapter 8 Vocabulary
market structure
perfect competition
commodity
price taker
important feature of a market, such as the number of firms, p…
a market structure with many fully informed buyers and seller…
a standardized product, a product that does not differ across…
a firms that faces a given market price and whose quantity su…
market structure
important feature of a market, such as the number of firms, p…
perfect competition
a market structure with many fully informed buyers and seller…
13 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
Market Structure
Perfect Competition or Pure Competition
Price taker
Marginal Revenue
A classification system for the key traits of a market, inclu…
A market structure characterized by:... 1. A large number of sma…
a buyer or seller who cannot affect the market price. Everyon…
extra revenue from the sale of one additional unit of output
Market Structure
A classification system for the key traits of a market, inclu…
Perfect Competition or Pure Competition
A market structure characterized by:... 1. A large number of sma…
Principles Of Microeconomics chapter 8
Average Fixed Cost
Average Total Cost
Average Variable Cost
Fixed Cost
Total Fixed Cost/Quantity
Total Cost/ Quantity
Total Variable Cost/Quantity
Any cost that in total does not change when the firm changes…
Average Fixed Cost
Total Fixed Cost/Quantity
Average Total Cost
Total Cost/ Quantity
Intro to Microeconomics Chapter 8
the effects of a tax
tax revenue
how tax affects welfare
deadweight loss
a tax on a good places a wedge between the price that buyers…
measures the public benefit from the tax
a tax on a good reduces consumer surplus and producer surplus…
the fall in total surplus that results from a market distorti…
the effects of a tax
a tax on a good places a wedge between the price that buyers…
tax revenue
measures the public benefit from the tax
Principals of Microeconomics Chapter 8
Total Cost
Total Revenue
Total Cost
Explicit Costs
The amount a firm spends in order to produce the goods and se…
The amount a firm receives from the sale of the goods and ser…
The amount a firm spends in order to produce the goods and se…
Tangible out of pocket expenses
Total Cost
The amount a firm spends in order to produce the goods and se…
Total Revenue
The amount a firm receives from the sale of the goods and ser…
Principles of Microeconomics - Chapter 8
perfect competition
homogeneous products
total revenue (TR)
marginal revenue (MR)
many (small) firms producing identical products, no firm larg…
products that are indistinguishable from one another
total amount that a firm takes in from sales; price times qua…
added revenue from increasing output by one unit
perfect competition
many (small) firms producing identical products, no firm larg…
homogeneous products
products that are indistinguishable from one another
Microeconomics chapter 8
Anchoring
Behavioral economics
Cognitive biases
Dictator game
People's estimates are influenced by recently considered info…
study the effects of psychological, social, cognitive, and em…
Are the misperceptions or misunderstandings that cause system…
Two people, one is the dictator. His job is to split an amoun…
Anchoring
People's estimates are influenced by recently considered info…
Behavioral economics
study the effects of psychological, social, cognitive, and em…
17 terms
Macroeconomics (Arnold 11e) Chapter 8 Vocabulary
Aggregate Demand
Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
Real Balance Effect
Monetary Wealth
The quantity of all goods and services (Real GDP) at differen…
A curve that shows the quantity demanded of all goods and ser…
The change in the purchasing power of dollar-denominated asse…
The value of a person's monetary assets. Wealth, as distingui…
Aggregate Demand
The quantity of all goods and services (Real GDP) at differen…
Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
A curve that shows the quantity demanded of all goods and ser…
Microeconomics Chapter 8
Competition and the Public Interest
The long-run outcome in competitive ma…
Productive Efficiency
Allocative Efficiency
...
Productive efficiency... Allocative Efficiency
Goods are supplied at the lowest possible opportunity cost
The mix of goods and services produced are just what society…
Competition and the Public Interest
...
The long-run outcome in competitive ma…
Productive efficiency... Allocative Efficiency
11 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
Technical Efficiency
Cost Minimization
Principle of Substitution
Long-Run Average Cost Curve
When a given number of inputs are combined in such a way as t…
An implication of profit maximization that firms choose the p…
The principle that methods of production will change if relat…
The curve showing the lowest possible cost of producing each…
Technical Efficiency
When a given number of inputs are combined in such a way as t…
Cost Minimization
An implication of profit maximization that firms choose the p…
Macroeconomics (Arnold 11e) Chapter 8 Vocabulary
Aggregate Demand
Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
Real Balance Effect
Monetary Wealth
The quantity of all goods and services (Real GDP) at differen…
A curve that shows the quantity demanded of all goods and ser…
The change in the purchasing power of dollar-denominated asse…
The value of a person's monetary assets. Wealth, as distingui…
Aggregate Demand
The quantity of all goods and services (Real GDP) at differen…
Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
A curve that shows the quantity demanded of all goods and ser…
Microeconomics Hubbard chapter 8
Marginal utility
Utility
Law of diminishing marginal utility
Budget constraint
The change in total utitlity a person recieves from consuming…
The enjoyment or satisfaction people receive from consuming f…
The principle that consumers experience diminishing additiona…
The limited amount of income available to consumers to spend…
Marginal utility
The change in total utitlity a person recieves from consuming…
Utility
The enjoyment or satisfaction people receive from consuming f…
20 terms
Microeconomics chapter 8
Three types of firms
Asset
Unlimited liability
Limited liability
1. Sole proprietorship (firm owned by a single individual and…
anything of value owned by a person or firm
- sole prop. and partnerships have this... - no legal distinctio…
- owners of corporations have this... - can never lose more than…
Three types of firms
1. Sole proprietorship (firm owned by a single individual and…
Asset
anything of value owned by a person or firm
22 terms
Microeconomics Group Quiz- Chapter 8
In a perfectly competitive market, mar…
A necessary condition for perfect comp…
In a perfectly competitive market the…
The demand curve for a product produce…
determine
number
elastic
downward
In a perfectly competitive market, mar…
determine
A necessary condition for perfect comp…
number
18 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
Market Failure
Government Failures
Externalities
Negative Externalities
A situation in which the invisible hand pushes in such a way…
When the government intervention in the market to improve the…
The effects of a decision on a third party that are not taken…
Occur when the effects of a decision not taken into account b…
Market Failure
A situation in which the invisible hand pushes in such a way…
Government Failures
When the government intervention in the market to improve the…
22 terms
Microeconomics Group Quiz- Chapter 8
B
B
C
D
B
B
13 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
production possibilities curve (PPC)
comparative advantage
absolute advantage
terms of trade
shows the relationship between the maximum production of one…
the ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a c…
ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce more of…
the negotiated exchange rate of goods for goods
production possibilities curve (PPC)
shows the relationship between the maximum production of one…
comparative advantage
the ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a c…
21 terms
Microeconomics chapter 8
fixed costs
short run
variable costs
total fixed costs
any cost the does not depend on the firms level of output ... -t…
exiting firms face limited imposed by some fixed factor of pr…
a cost that depends on the level of production chosen ... -total…
-"overhead" ... -those costs that do not change with output even…
fixed costs
any cost the does not depend on the firms level of output ... -t…
short run
exiting firms face limited imposed by some fixed factor of pr…
10 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
Consumer Surplus
Producer Surplus
Deadweight Loss
Welfare Loss Triangle
The value the consumer gets from buying a product less its pr…
The price the producer sells a product for less the cost of p…
The loss of consumer and producer surplus from a tax
A geometric representation of the welfare cost in terms of mi…
Consumer Surplus
The value the consumer gets from buying a product less its pr…
Producer Surplus
The price the producer sells a product for less the cost of p…
10 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
Behavioral economics
Budget line
Consumer equilibrium
Diminishing marginal utility
a branch of economics that studies the ways in which limits o…
the limit which marks the boundary between those combinations…
a situation in which a consumer has allocated all of his or h…
the tendency for marginal utility to decrease as the consumpt…
Behavioral economics
a branch of economics that studies the ways in which limits o…
Budget line
the limit which marks the boundary between those combinations…
Chapter 8 Microeconomics
pure competition
pure monopoly
monopolistic competition
oligopoly
A market structure in which a very large number of firms sell…
A market structure in which one firm sells a unique product i…
A market structure in which many firms sell a differentiated…
A market structure in which a few firms sell either a standar…
pure competition
A market structure in which a very large number of firms sell…
pure monopoly
A market structure in which one firm sells a unique product i…
11 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8 Vocabulary
market structure analysis
profit maximizing rule
normal profits
price taker
By observing a few industry characteristics such as number of…
Firms maximize profit by producing output where MR = MC. No o…
The return on capital necessary to keep investors satisfied a…
Individual firms in perfectly competitive markets get their p…
market structure analysis
By observing a few industry characteristics such as number of…
profit maximizing rule
Firms maximize profit by producing output where MR = MC. No o…
10 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
Perfect Competition
Average Revenue
Marginal Revenue
Break-Even Output
a market in which all buyers and sellers are price takers
the amount of revenue received per unit sold
the extra revenue derived from the sale of one more unit
the level of output at which the sales revenue of the firm ju…
Perfect Competition
a market in which all buyers and sellers are price takers
Average Revenue
the amount of revenue received per unit sold
36 terms
Economics / Microeconomics Chapter 1 Vocabulary
scarcity
economics
need
want
fundamental economic problem facing all societies that result…
social science dealing with the study of how people satisfy s…
basic requirement for survival; includes food, clothing, and/…
way of expressing or communicating a need; a broader classifi…
scarcity
fundamental economic problem facing all societies that result…
economics
social science dealing with the study of how people satisfy s…
23 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
sole proprietorship
partnership
corporation
asset
a firm owned by a single individual and not organized as a co…
a firm owned jointly by two or more persons and not organized…
a legal form of business that provides owners with protection…
anything of value owned by a person or a firm
sole proprietorship
a firm owned by a single individual and not organized as a co…
partnership
a firm owned jointly by two or more persons and not organized…
25 terms
Microeconomics: Chapter 8
Principle-Agent Problem
Principle-Agent Problem Goals
Shirking
Three Types of Business
incentive problem that occurs when the purchaser of services…
-hiring someone because they know more than you... -make sure yo…
working at less than the expected rate of productivity which…
1) Sole Proprietorship... 2) Partnership... 3) Corporation
Principle-Agent Problem
incentive problem that occurs when the purchaser of services…
Principle-Agent Problem Goals
-hiring someone because they know more than you... -make sure yo…
Microeconomics (Chapter 8)
Fixed costs
Variable costs
Marginal cost
Law of diminishing returns in relation…
Do not vary with quantity of output produced
Do change as firm alters quantity of output produced
-Amnt total cost increases when firm increases production by…
Adding more input = lower per-unit returns = increase cost/unit
Fixed costs
Do not vary with quantity of output produced
Variable costs
Do change as firm alters quantity of output produced
30 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
a ___________ on a good affects its pr…
welfare
both buyers and sellers are _________…
the cost of taxes to buyers and seller…
tax
the economics wellbeing of participants in a market
worse... a tax raises the price buyers pay and lowers the price…
exceeds
a ___________ on a good affects its pr…
tax
welfare
the economics wellbeing of participants in a market
23 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
Profits and Losses
Total Revenue
Total Cost
Explicit Costs
are determined by calculating the difference between expenses…
is the amount a firm receives from the sale of the goods and…
is the amount a firm spends in order to produce the goods and…
are tangible out of pocket expenses
Profits and Losses
are determined by calculating the difference between expenses…
Total Revenue
is the amount a firm receives from the sale of the goods and…
Chapter 8- Microeconomics
average fixed cost (AFC)
average total cost (ATC)
average variable cost (AVC)
fixed cost
total fixed cost divided by the number of units of output; a…
total cost divided by the number of units of output
total variable cost divided by the number of units of output
any cost that does not depend of the firm's level of output.…
average fixed cost (AFC)
total fixed cost divided by the number of units of output; a…
average total cost (ATC)
total cost divided by the number of units of output
13 terms
Economics - Chapter 8
Corporations
Sole Proprietorships
General Partnership
Franchise
A legal entity owned by individual stockholders, each of whom…
Businesses owned and operated by a single individual; the mos…
Partnership in which partners share equally in both responsib…
The paid for right, given by a "parent company", to sell a go…
Corporations
A legal entity owned by individual stockholders, each of whom…
Sole Proprietorships
Businesses owned and operated by a single individual; the mos…
Microeconomics terms chapter 8
externality
positive externality
negative externality
internalizing externalities
a benefit or cost from consumption or production that spills…
when benefits spill over to an outside party who is not invol…
when costs spill over to an outside party who is not involved…
changing incentives so people will take into account the effe…
externality
a benefit or cost from consumption or production that spills…
positive externality
when benefits spill over to an outside party who is not invol…
Microeconomics Chapter 8
parity
price ceiling
price floor
rent control
the ratio of prices received by farmers for their output to t…
a legislated amount above which the market price is not allow…
a legislated amount below which the market price is not allow…
a price ceiling on the rents that landlords can charge low-in…
parity
the ratio of prices received by farmers for their output to t…
price ceiling
a legislated amount above which the market price is not allow…
9 terms
Micro Economics Chapter 8
Consumer Surplus
Deadweaight Loss
Excise Tax
General Rule of Political Economy
the value the consumer gets from buying a product less its pr…
The loss of consumer and producer surplus
a tax levied on a specific good
When small groups are helped by a government action and large…
Consumer Surplus
the value the consumer gets from buying a product less its pr…
Deadweaight Loss
The loss of consumer and producer surplus
Microeconomics Chapter 8
neoclassical economics
behavioral economics
rational
systematic errors
The dominant and conventional branch of economic theory that…
The branch of economic theory that combines insights from eco…
...
Suboptimal choices that 1) are not rational because they do n…
neoclassical economics
The dominant and conventional branch of economic theory that…
behavioral economics
The branch of economic theory that combines insights from eco…
31 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
Total revenue
marginal revenue
marginal product of labor
marginal product of capital
1) amount that consumers pay and sellers receive for a good…
amount received from each additional
change in output associated with adding one additional worker
...
Total revenue
1) amount that consumers pay and sellers receive for a good…
marginal revenue
amount received from each additional
7 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
time inconsistency
future-oriented self
present-oriented self
commitment device
when we change our minds about what we want simply cause of t…
clear-sighted preferences
backslides when faced with temptation
an arrangement entered into by an individual with the aim of…
time inconsistency
when we change our minds about what we want simply cause of t…
future-oriented self
clear-sighted preferences
13 terms
Microeconomics Chapter 8
behavioral economics
The conflict between plans and actions…
One theory on why individuals give in…
time inconsistency
studies why individuals appear to act irrationally by studyin…
-time consistency... -competing selves... -commitment
1. What we would like to want in the future ... 2. What we will…
When individuals change their minds about what they want simp…
behavioral economics
studies why individuals appear to act irrationally by studyin…
The conflict between plans and actions…
-time consistency... -competing selves... -commitment
40 terms
Arnold, Chapter 8 Quizlet, 12/5/16
event: the Enlightenment (pg.156)
person: Father Hidalgo, Miguel (pg.140…
idea: liberation (pg.156)
idea: conspire (pg.156)
a movement in the 1700's that swept through Europe and other…
this man was a Mexican who strongly believed in the ideas of…
the act of becoming free. Father Hidalgo said conditions woul…
to join in a secret agreement. when royal officials learned t…
event: the Enlightenment (pg.156)
a movement in the 1700's that swept through Europe and other…
person: Father Hidalgo, Miguel (pg.140…
this man was a Mexican who strongly believed in the ideas of…
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