Study sets matching "electrolytes 4"

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Study sets matching "electrolytes 4"

41 terms
WEEK 4: Fluids and Electrolytes
Covalent Bonds
Electrolytes
Cations
Anions
Present in organic molecules.... The more electrons shared, the…
A solution which conducts electricity.... Ions.... All body fluid…
Positive charge.
Negative charge.
Covalent Bonds
Present in organic molecules.... The more electrons shared, the…
Electrolytes
A solution which conducts electricity.... Ions.... All body fluid…
Patho: 4, Fluid and Electrolytes
Extracellular Fluid 33%
Intracellular fluid 66%
Hydrostatic Pressure
Oncotic/Osmotic pressure
Interstitial 25% (In space between cells)... Plasma 8%
This is fluid inside of the cell
Pushes Fluid out of capillaries... Highest on arterial side
Pulls fluids back into capillaries... Highest on Venous side
Extracellular Fluid 33%
Interstitial 25% (In space between cells)... Plasma 8%
Intracellular fluid 66%
This is fluid inside of the cell
45 terms
Ch. 4 Fluids and Electrolytes
ICF
ECF
2 main ECF compartments
interstitial fluid
fluid within the cells and about 2/3 of TBW
fluid outside the cell and about 1/3 TBW
interstitial and intravascular fluid
space b/w cells and outside blood vessels
ICF
fluid within the cells and about 2/3 of TBW
ECF
fluid outside the cell and about 1/3 TBW
Patho: 4, Fluid and Electrolytes
Extracellular Fluid 33%
Intracellular fluid 66%
Hydrostatic Pressure
Oncotic/Osmotic pressure
Interstitial 25% (In space between cells)... Plasma 8%
This is fluid inside of the cell
Pushes Fluid out of capillaries... Highest on arterial side
Pulls fluids back into capillaries... Highest on Venous side
Extracellular Fluid 33%
Interstitial 25% (In space between cells)... Plasma 8%
Intracellular fluid 66%
This is fluid inside of the cell
108 terms
4.4 Electrolytes
what is the major cation in the extrac…
what is a cation?
what is the major determinate of extra…
what is osmolality?
sodium
positively charged ion
sodium
measure of solutes per kilogram of solvent
what is the major cation in the extrac…
sodium
what is a cation?
positively charged ion
Exam #4 fluid and electrolytes
Body is __% water
ICF... ECF... Interstitial fluid... Intravascul…
2 tasks of fluids within body
Average I+O per day
60
ICF: 40... ECF: 20... Interstitial:75... Intravascular :25
1) maintain temp and cell shape... 2) transport nutrients, gases…
2.5 L both ways
Body is __% water
60
ICF... ECF... Interstitial fluid... Intravascul…
ICF: 40... ECF: 20... Interstitial:75... Intravascular :25
110 terms
4.4 Electrolytes
************************
what is the major cation in the extrac…
what is a cation?
what is the major determinate of extra…
********************
sodium
positively charged ion
sodium
************************
********************
what is the major cation in the extrac…
sodium
108 terms
4.4 Electrolytes
what is the major cation in the extrac…
what is a cation?
what is the major determinate of extra…
what is osmolality?
sodium
positively charged ion
sodium
measure of solutes per kilogram of solvent
what is the major cation in the extrac…
sodium
what is a cation?
positively charged ion
31 terms
Electrolytes - 4 Major Ones
What are the 4 general functions of el…
What is the most abundant cation in th…
What is the major contributor to serum…
Which electrolyte regulates ECF water…
General functions of ____:... 1. Maintain fluid balance... 2. Promo…
Sodium
Sodium
Sodium
What are the 4 general functions of el…
General functions of ____:... 1. Maintain fluid balance... 2. Promo…
What is the most abundant cation in th…
Sodium
9 terms
Labs electrolytes Majic 4
Potassium - K
Chloride - Cl
sodium - Na
P. H.
4
104... electrolite
140
7.35 - 7.45
Potassium - K
4
Chloride - Cl
104... electrolite
33 terms
Week 4 - fluids and electrolytes
percentage of body that is made up of…
trend of body fat and water
ICF content
ECF
men - 60%... women 50%... %d decreases with age
more body fat means less body water
fluid inside the cells... makes up 2/3 of our fluids ... contains…
makes up 1/3 of body fluid ... contains electrolytes like NaCl b…
percentage of body that is made up of…
men - 60%... women 50%... %d decreases with age
trend of body fat and water
more body fat means less body water
4.5 - Electrolytes
what are The major electrolytes in pla…
What are the tests used to test electr…
what can Changes in electrolyte levels…
why is sodium important in the body?
The major electrolytes in plasma are calcium, inorganic phosp…
Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Chloride (Cl-), ... Bicarbonate (H…
•increased or decreased intake... •shifts of electrolytes from t…
Sodium is the major cation of plasma and the extracelluar flu…
what are The major electrolytes in pla…
The major electrolytes in plasma are calcium, inorganic phosp…
What are the tests used to test electr…
Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Chloride (Cl-), ... Bicarbonate (H…
11 terms
Electrolytes Part 4
(Metabolic Acidosis) major causes are.…
(Metabolic Acidosis) major causes are.…
(Metabolic Acidosis) major causes are.…
(Metabolic Acidosis) major causes are.…
production of large numbers of metabolic acids (diabetes)
chronic kidney failure
inability to excrete hydrogen ions due to kidney disease/medi…
depletion of bicarbonate, possibly due to chronic diarrhea
(Metabolic Acidosis) major causes are.…
production of large numbers of metabolic acids (diabetes)
(Metabolic Acidosis) major causes are.…
chronic kidney failure
5 terms
IPC 4.6- electrolytes
Electrolyte
According to weather they yield molecu…
The positive and negative ions separat…
Non electrolyte
A substance that dissolves in water to create a solution that…
How are substances dissolved in water classified?
What happens when an ionic compound dissolves?
A substance that dissolves in water but does not conduct an e…
Electrolyte
A substance that dissolves in water to create a solution that…
According to weather they yield molecu…
How are substances dissolved in water classified?
Patho 4-Electrolytes
Sodium
Role of Sodium
Isotonic alterations
HYPOVOLEMIA
Primary ECF cation... Normal plasma lab value is 135-145mEq/L
Regulates the movement of water
Total body water change with proportional electrolyte and wat…
Isotonic fluid loss-Hemorrhage
Sodium
Primary ECF cation... Normal plasma lab value is 135-145mEq/L
Role of Sodium
Regulates the movement of water
#4 Fluid and Electrolytes
fluids
daily fluid requirement for adults
fluid losses in 4 ways
total body water (TBW)
-serve to transport gases, nutrients, and waste... -create surro…
~2500 mL or 2 1/2 L... -from liquid, food and oxidation of food…
1. urine from kidneys... 2. stool from intestine... 3. water vapor…
accounts for 50-60% of body weight... -water content varies with…
fluids
-serve to transport gases, nutrients, and waste... -create surro…
daily fluid requirement for adults
~2500 mL or 2 1/2 L... -from liquid, food and oxidation of food…
25 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes #4
Acid Base:
pH:
Regulatory systems:
Chemical buffering mechanisms:
Acids: substances that release H+ ions when the substance is…
The ratio of acid to base in the body is expressed in terms o…
The 4 regulatory systems that control acid base (pH) balance…
The 1st line of defense... Chemical buffers are substances that…
Acid Base:
Acids: substances that release H+ ions when the substance is…
pH:
The ratio of acid to base in the body is expressed in terms o…
23 terms
THERA 4 ELECTROLYTES & GASES
Maintenance Fluid Therapy
Sodium Levels
Hypernatremia Contributing Factors & T…
Hypernatremia Contributing Factors (ra…
1500ml + 20ml/kg over 20kg: ... 100ml/kg for first 10kg... 50ml/kg…
137-147 mEq/L
Factors: ... Unreplaced losses of hypotonic fluids... Diabetes insi…
Factors:... Excesive gain of hypertonic fluids (ie. hypertonic s…
Maintenance Fluid Therapy
1500ml + 20ml/kg over 20kg: ... 100ml/kg for first 10kg... 50ml/kg…
Sodium Levels
137-147 mEq/L
17 terms
Table 4.1 Electrolytes
HCl
HNO3
HClO4
Ionic Compounds
Strong
Strong
Perchloric acid, Strong
Strong
HCl
Strong
HNO3
Strong
30 terms
4) Fluids/electrolytes
hypovolemia
causes of hypovolemia
Dehydration
causes of dehydration
loss of H2O + electrolytes
GI losses, NG tube, diaphoresis, renal loss, hemorrhage, 3rd…
loss of H2O
Hyperventilation, Diabetic ketoacidosis, enteral feedings
hypovolemia
loss of H2O + electrolytes
causes of hypovolemia
GI losses, NG tube, diaphoresis, renal loss, hemorrhage, 3rd…
26 terms
Fund #4 - electrolytes
Name major electrolytes
Osmosis
Diffusion
Active transportation
Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate, b…
water passes from an area of lesser solute concentration to g…
tendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent ("dow…
requires energy for movement of substances through the cell m…
Name major electrolytes
Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate, b…
Osmosis
water passes from an area of lesser solute concentration to g…
60 terms
Exam #4: Electrolytes
Ions capable of carrying an electric c…
positively charged electrolytes
Name the cations talked about in this…
negatively charged electrolytes
Electrolytes
cations
Na+... K+... Ca²+... Mg²+
anions
Ions capable of carrying an electric c…
Electrolytes
positively charged electrolytes
cations
Electrolytes Quiz #4
Potassium Normal Ranges
Potassium Elevated
Potassium Decreased
Sodium Normal Ranges
3.5-5.1 mEq/L
Renal Failure
Poor Intake
135-145 mEq/L
Potassium Normal Ranges
3.5-5.1 mEq/L
Potassium Elevated
Renal Failure
74 terms
4: Na/K electrolytes
aldosterone
where is the primary site of action of…
angiotensin II
how does angiotensin increase sodium r…
- ↑Na⁺ reabsorption in DT & cortical CD... - ↑K⁺ secretion
DT & cortical CD
- ↑Na⁺ reabsorption ... - constricts both arterioles but has mor…
↑aldosterone... ↓Kf (surface area)... ↑proximal reabsorption... ↑filtr…
aldosterone
- ↑Na⁺ reabsorption in DT & cortical CD... - ↑K⁺ secretion
where is the primary site of action of…
DT & cortical CD
12 terms
Fluid and electrolytes foundations 4
Heat stroke
Hypothermia
Trauma to leg
Chest tube falls out
Flushed, SOB, stomach cramps, put in shade, give water, temp…
cold, bring back slowly, neurogentic shock, arrhythmia of hea…
Keep elevated for circulation
use glove
Heat stroke
Flushed, SOB, stomach cramps, put in shade, give water, temp…
Hypothermia
cold, bring back slowly, neurogentic shock, arrhythmia of hea…
4 Electrolytes and Trace Elements
BMP=
The BMP includes (2)
ex of electrolytes (4) and tests of ki…
normal range of sodium
basal metabolic panel
electrolytes and tests of kidney function
Sodium (Na)... Potassium (K)... Chloride (Cl)... Carbon Dioxide (CO2)…
135-145
BMP=
basal metabolic panel
The BMP includes (2)
electrolytes and tests of kidney function
17 terms
ch 4 electrolytes
HCl
HNO3
HClO4
H2SO4
strong
strong
strong
strong
HCl
strong
HNO3
strong
82 terms
Chapter 4: Electrolytes
Sodium (Na+) levels
Sodium (Na+) distribution
Sodium (Na+) function
Sodium (Na+) regulation
135 - 145 mEq/L
Major cation of ECF
-Maintains fluid volume (fluid balance affects bp)... -Regulates…
Reabsorbed and excreted through kidneys
Sodium (Na+) levels
135 - 145 mEq/L
Sodium (Na+) distribution
Major cation of ECF
56 terms
4. Water & Electrolytes
What are some functions of water?
Blood is made up of about ___% water
Muscle is about ___% water (bone is __…
Adipocytes contain only about ___% water
Urinating - getting rid of waste products... Maintaining body te…
1. 90%
1. 75%... 2. 25%
10%
What are some functions of water?
Urinating - getting rid of waste products... Maintaining body te…
Blood is made up of about ___% water
1. 90%
15 terms
WEEK 4 Fluids and Electrolytes
Hypotonic Fluid
Isotonic Fluid
Hypertonic
Hypotonic Solution Use
+pulls fluid into the cell... Examples:... ½ NSS... 1/3 NSS... ¼ NSS
+Fluid is balanced... Examples:... NSS or LR... D5W
+Fluid flows out of the cell... Examples:... 3% NSS... 5% NSS... D10W
+Hypertonic contraction (loss of water exceeds loss of sodium…
Hypotonic Fluid
+pulls fluid into the cell... Examples:... ½ NSS... 1/3 NSS... ¼ NSS
Isotonic Fluid
+Fluid is balanced... Examples:... NSS or LR... D5W
62 terms
Quiz 4 Fluid and Electrolytes
Body Fluids Function
Extracellular Fluid Types
Interstitial fluids
Maintain blood volume... Regulate body temperature... Transport of…
Interstitial fluids... Intravascular Fluid... Trans cellular fluid
Between cells and outside of blood vessels
Body Fluids Function
Maintain blood volume... Regulate body temperature... Transport of…
Extracellular Fluid Types
Interstitial fluids... Intravascular Fluid... Trans cellular fluid
76 terms
Pharm slide 4 electrolytes
What does good health require in terms…
What organ manages fluid volume?
What re the two most common elecrolyte…
What is the range for Na and K in the…
volume osmolaloty and ext and int fluids are normal
kidney
Na and K
Na- 135-145... K-3.5-5.0
What does good health require in terms…
volume osmolaloty and ext and int fluids are normal
What organ manages fluid volume?
kidney
23 terms
4 - Fluid and Electrolytes
What are some major physical and physi…
What are the percentages of water in b…
What are some common signs and symptom…
How can you calculate fluid loss to de…
Much more vulnerable to imbalances in fluids and electrolytes…
Newborns: 75%... Infants: 65%... 2 Year Old: 60%... Child/Adolescent:…
Weight loss (1 kg = 1 liter)... Decreased BP... Decreased small vei…
(Normal weight-Admission Weight) / Normal weight
What are some major physical and physi…
Much more vulnerable to imbalances in fluids and electrolytes…
What are the percentages of water in b…
Newborns: 75%... Infants: 65%... 2 Year Old: 60%... Child/Adolescent:…
31 terms
Electrolytes - 4 Major Ones
What are the 4 general functions of el…
What is the most abundant cation in th…
What is the major contributor to serum…
Which electrolyte regulates ECF water…
General functions of ____:... 1. Maintain fluid balance... 2. Promo…
Sodium
Sodium
Sodium
What are the 4 general functions of el…
General functions of ____:... 1. Maintain fluid balance... 2. Promo…
What is the most abundant cation in th…
Sodium
14 terms
Exam 4 electrolytes
135-145
3.5-5
95-108
4.5-5.5
sodium
potassium
chloride
calcium
135-145
sodium
3.5-5
potassium
Fluid & Electrolytes (Week 4)
What major physical and physiological…
Fluid maintence calculation
What are signs and symptoms of extrace…
What are the signs and symptoms of deh…
-Increased body surface area, the younger the child, water ma…
1st 10 kg X 100mL... 2nd 10kg X 50mL... >20kg X 20mL... Add together a…
-Weight loss, rememeber that 1kg = 1L so if a child who is 20…
-Sunken eyes, cheeks, fontanelle, and abdomen... -Decreased skin…
What major physical and physiological…
-Increased body surface area, the younger the child, water ma…
Fluid maintence calculation
1st 10 kg X 100mL... 2nd 10kg X 50mL... >20kg X 20mL... Add together a…
(2/4) Fluid & Electrolytes
how much % is water in body weight?
where is most water stored?
fraction of intracellular fluid & extr…
in ecf, fraction of interstitial fluid…
60-65%
muscles
2/3 icf... 1/3 ecf
2/3 interstitial... 1/3 plasma
how much % is water in body weight?
60-65%
where is most water stored?
muscles
120 terms
Pharmacotherapy 4- Fluids and Electrolytes
1) Over 90% of ECF (extracellular flui…
2) The ICF (intracellular fluid) osmol…
3) What works to regulate the concentr…
4) Describe the exchanges and process…
a) Sodium and it's salts (chloride and bicarbonate)
a) Potassium and it's salts (primarily phosphates)
a) Free flowing water and the Na+/K+ ATPase Pump
a) On the inside of the membrane of the cell, 3 Na+ are pumpe…
1) Over 90% of ECF (extracellular flui…
a) Sodium and it's salts (chloride and bicarbonate)
2) The ICF (intracellular fluid) osmol…
a) Potassium and it's salts (primarily phosphates)
142 terms
Unit 4 - Electrolytes
What are ions that are able to carry e…
What are 2 classifications of electrol…
What are negatively charged ions that…
What are positively charged ions that…
electrolytes
anion, cation
anions
cations
What are ions that are able to carry e…
electrolytes
What are 2 classifications of electrol…
anion, cation
65 terms
Exam 4: Water and Electrolytes
Water makes up ______ of total body we…
Water is found in two major reservoirs…
What % of water in the body is intrace…
_________ and __________ make up the e…
60%
Intracellular... Extracellular
67%
plasma and interSTITAL fluid (ISF)
Water makes up ______ of total body we…
60%
Water is found in two major reservoirs…
Intracellular... Extracellular
42 terms
4. Fluid and Electrolytes Disorders
Increased sodium reabsorption by kidne…
Sodium loss is caused by:
Increase water reabsorption (water ret…
Sodium concentration value for hyponat…
o Sympathetic nervous system stimulation ... o Renin-angiotensin…
Atrial natriuretic factor: acts on the kidney to increase sod…
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
<135mEq/L... o Fluid or blood loss... o Heart failure... o Cirrhosis…
Increased sodium reabsorption by kidne…
o Sympathetic nervous system stimulation ... o Renin-angiotensin…
Sodium loss is caused by:
Atrial natriuretic factor: acts on the kidney to increase sod…
74 terms
Unit 4 Fluid & Electrolytes
Water makes up how much of the body we…
A lean person has (more/less) total bo…
Who holds more water weight? Male or F…
Infants hold what percentage of water…
50 - 60%
more
Males, because men have more muscle mass and women have more…
70 - 80%
Water makes up how much of the body we…
50 - 60%
A lean person has (more/less) total bo…
more
18 terms
Electrolytes & Diuretics- Exam 4
Potassium (K+) levels
High-Potassium Foods
Hypokalemia
Hypokalemia treatment
-intracellular... - 3.5-5 mEq/L... - excess excreted via kidneys... -…
bananas, orange, apricots, dates, raisins, broccoli, green be…
< 3.5 mEq/L -because so small amt any variation is cause to r…
oral; can cause N/V, diarrhea, GI bleed, ulceration... -liquid d…
Potassium (K+) levels
-intracellular... - 3.5-5 mEq/L... - excess excreted via kidneys... -…
High-Potassium Foods
bananas, orange, apricots, dates, raisins, broccoli, green be…
Quiz 4 Fluid and Electrolytes
Intracellular Fluid
Extracellular Fluid
Electrolytes
Solvent
within cell, 2/3 body fluid, vital to normal cell function
outside cell, 1/3 total body fluid, carries O2/nutrients/wast…
cations (+) and anions (-)... -measured in mEq/L... -*ECF: sodium,…
...
Intracellular Fluid
within cell, 2/3 body fluid, vital to normal cell function
Extracellular Fluid
outside cell, 1/3 total body fluid, carries O2/nutrients/wast…
Electrolytes #4 (anions)
CHLORIDE... BICARBONATE (HCO3)... INORGANIC…
Chloride
3-9g/day
*H20 balance & osmotic pressure in con…
Types of anions
Counterpart of sodium... major extracellular anion... use LITHIUM H…
dietary regulations of chloride
Functions of chloride
CHLORIDE... BICARBONATE (HCO3)... INORGANIC…
Types of anions
Chloride
Counterpart of sodium... major extracellular anion... use LITHIUM H…
18 terms
test 4 electrolytes
135-145 mEq/L
3.5-5 mEq/L
1.5-2.5 mEq/L
ionized 4.5-5.6 mg/dl... total 9-10.5 mg/dl
normal range of sodium
normal range of potassium
normal range of magnessium
normal range of calcium
135-145 mEq/L
normal range of sodium
3.5-5 mEq/L
normal range of potassium
39 terms
Pathophysiology 4 Fluid - Objectives (4-8) Electrolytes
Isotonic
Hypertonic
Hypotonic
Electrolyte Imbalances
Tonicity: equal tension, no net flow of fluid across cell mem…
(higher solute solution) Tonicity: decreased tension; Imbalan…
(lower solute in solution) Tonicity: increased tension; Imbal…
can occur with Na+, K+, Ca2+, PO4- & Mg2+
Isotonic
Tonicity: equal tension, no net flow of fluid across cell mem…
Hypertonic
(higher solute solution) Tonicity: decreased tension; Imbalan…
Exam 4 Electrolytes
65% of water is in
Most abundant extracellular cation
Most abundant extracellular anion
Most abundant intracellular cation
Intracellular fluid
Sodium
Chloride
Potassium
65% of water is in
Intracellular fluid
Most abundant extracellular cation
Sodium
Fluid, Electrolytes, & Acid/Base (4)
electrolytes
hyponatremia
hypernatremia
hypokalemia
the ionic components of salts (cations and anions)
low plasma sodium usually due to excessive loss by sweating o…
high plasma sodium caused by excess salt ingestion, dehydrati…
low plasma potassium caused by fecal loss with diarrhea; caus…
electrolytes
the ionic components of salts (cations and anions)
hyponatremia
low plasma sodium usually due to excessive loss by sweating o…
Chapter 4 Fluids, Electrolytes
A nurse is reviewing lab reports. The…
A 35 year old male weighs 70 kg. Appro…
While planning care for elderly indivi…
Which of the following patients should…
Intravascular fluid
42 L- the total volume of body water for a 70 kg person is ab…
Decreased muscle mass
Liver failure
A nurse is reviewing lab reports. The…
Intravascular fluid
A 35 year old male weighs 70 kg. Appro…
42 L- the total volume of body water for a 70 kg person is ab…
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