Study sets matching "electrolytes"

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Study sets matching "electrolytes"

50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
61 terms
Electrolytes
normal levels of Na:
normal levels of K:
normal levels of Mg:
Na
135-145
3.5-5.3 mEq/L
1.5-2.5 mg/dL
1. extracellular cation... 2. necessary for protein synthesis an…
normal levels of Na:
135-145
normal levels of K:
3.5-5.3 mEq/L
17 terms
Electrolytes
Hyponatremia
causes of hyponatremia
signs and symptoms of hyponatremia
hyponatremia treatment
low sodium (salt) levels. Anything below 135
certain medications, heart, kidney, and liver problems, syndr…
headache, confusion, lethargy, irritability, muscle weakness.…
hold water and give sodium
Hyponatremia
low sodium (salt) levels. Anything below 135
causes of hyponatremia
certain medications, heart, kidney, and liver problems, syndr…
66 terms
Electrolytes
Electrolytes include:
Functions of electrolytes:
What electrolytes have to do with musc…
F & E "pearls"
1. Potassium... 2. Sodium... 3. Chloride... 4. Calcium... 5. Phosphate... 6.…
- Muscle contraction ... - Neural function ... - Hormone Release... -…
1. Calcium... 2. Magnesium
1. Where ever K+ goes, Mg goes ... - NEVER give K+ IV push... 2. W…
Electrolytes include:
1. Potassium... 2. Sodium... 3. Chloride... 4. Calcium... 5. Phosphate... 6.…
Functions of electrolytes:
- Muscle contraction ... - Neural function ... - Hormone Release... -…
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
Electrolytes
what is the major intracellular cation
what is the major extracellular cation
what is the major ECF anion?
how do chloride and sodium interact
potassium (K+)
sodium (Na+)
chloride
chloride follows sodium
what is the major intracellular cation
potassium (K+)
what is the major extracellular cation
sodium (Na+)
141 terms
Electrolytes
three main causes of electrolyte disor…
daily intake of sodium
role of sodium
sodium regulation of total body water
1. increased/decreased intake... 2. increased/decreased utilizat…
5 - 6 g
main determination of tonicity and osmolality by *regulat…
main determinant of PLASMA osmolality (280 - 290 mOsm/kg)…
three main causes of electrolyte disor…
1. increased/decreased intake... 2. increased/decreased utilizat…
daily intake of sodium
5 - 6 g
110 terms
Electrolytes
Electrolytes def.
Anions
Cations
Major electrolytes. (Occur mainly as f…
substances that dissociate into ions in solution. possible to…
=, negative charge. Attracted to the Anode (+ electrode)
+, positive charge. Attracted to the Cathode (= electrode)
Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3-(bicarbonate), HPO4..2- (phosphate), Ca2+,…
Electrolytes def.
substances that dissociate into ions in solution. possible to…
Anions
=, negative charge. Attracted to the Anode (+ electrode)
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
ELECTROLYTES
pts at risk for electrolyte imbalance
electrolytes conduct, for what symptoms
electrolytes maintain
electrolytes maintain balance of (2)
elderly... acute/chronic renal... chronic/acute endocrine ... mentally…
electrical current, GI, Cardio, Muscloskel, central/periph ne…
osmolarity/osmolality of fluid
intra/extracellular fluid... acid-base
pts at risk for electrolyte imbalance
elderly... acute/chronic renal... chronic/acute endocrine ... mentally…
electrolytes conduct, for what symptoms
electrical current, GI, Cardio, Muscloskel, central/periph ne…
10 terms
Electrolytes
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Calcium
Chloride (Cl)
Regulates fluid balance
Regulates Nerve muscle conduction
Blood clotting and muscle contraction
Anion and follows Sodium
Sodium (Na)
Regulates fluid balance
Potassium (K)
Regulates Nerve muscle conduction
582 terms
ELECTROLYTES
Electrolytes
positive ions
Negative ions
function of Na
charge particles positive and negative
K, Na, Ca, Mg
Cl, P, SO4
major extracellular fluid used for muscle contraction, nerve…
Electrolytes
charge particles positive and negative
positive ions
K, Na, Ca, Mg
28 terms
Electrolytes
-pnea
Solvent
Crystalloids
Colloids
breathing
The component of a solution that can dissolve a solute. Coffe…
Salts that dissolve readily into true solutions
Substances such as large protein molecules that do not readil…
-pnea
breathing
Solvent
The component of a solution that can dissolve a solute. Coffe…
11 terms
Electrolytes
Sodium
Potassium
Magnesium
Calcium
135-145
3.5-5.0
1.8-3.0
8.5-10.5
Sodium
135-145
Potassium
3.5-5.0
63 terms
electrolytes
Fluids through the Lifespan
Fluids
Example of fluids
Fluids Like to Be Balanced
Amount of fluid: ... Males 55 ... females 45-50... Embryo 90
Total Body Fluid (45-55% of adult body)... ICF = Inside the Cel…
Homeostasis- relative balance between intracellular and extra…
Fluids through the Lifespan
Amount of fluid: ... Males 55 ... females 45-50... Embryo 90
Fluids
Total Body Fluid (45-55% of adult body)... ICF = Inside the Cel…
Electrolytes
Sodium
Hyponatremia
Hypernatremia
Potassium
Na+ 135-145mEq/L, most abundant electrolyte in the body, extr…
Occurs when there is a sodium loss, vomitting, or diarrhea, o…
Caused by an excess of sodium or a decrease in body water. Ca…
K+ 3.5-5.3 mEq/L is the major intracellular cation. Main func…
Sodium
Na+ 135-145mEq/L, most abundant electrolyte in the body, extr…
Hyponatremia
Occurs when there is a sodium loss, vomitting, or diarrhea, o…
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
20 terms
Electrolytes
Signs and symptoms: anorexia, weakness…
S&S: hyperreflexia, bradycardia, ventr…
S&S: oliguria, twitching, lethargy?
S&S: hypotension, hyporeflexia, muscle…
Hypercalcemia
Hyperkalemia (way too much will stop your heart. . .asystole)
Hypernatremia
Hypokalemia
Signs and symptoms: anorexia, weakness…
Hypercalcemia
S&S: hyperreflexia, bradycardia, ventr…
Hyperkalemia (way too much will stop your heart. . .asystole)
10 terms
electrolytes
hypernatremia
hyponatremia
hypokalemia
hyperkalemia
>145. cell dehydration/ thirst/ >bp and temp/ weight gain
<135. cell swelling/ cerebral edema
<3.5. heart dysrhythmias
>5.5. CRAMPING, DIARRHEA/ WEAKNESS
hypernatremia
>145. cell dehydration/ thirst/ >bp and temp/ weight gain
hyponatremia
<135. cell swelling/ cerebral edema
78 terms
Electrolytes
Electrolytes
positive ions
Negative ions
function of Na
charge particles positive and negative
K, Na, Ca, Mg
Cl, P, SO4
major extracellular fluid used for muscle contraction, nerve…
Electrolytes
charge particles positive and negative
positive ions
K, Na, Ca, Mg
11 terms
Electrolytes
Processed foods canned meat vegetables…
Canned tomato products sweet potatoes…
Fluid and electrolyte balance acid bas…
Fluid and electrolyte balance acid bas…
Sodium
Potassium
Sodium
Potassium
Processed foods canned meat vegetables…
Sodium
Canned tomato products sweet potatoes…
Potassium
12 terms
electrolytes
hyponatremia
hypernatremia
hypokalemia
hyperkalemia
nausea, muscle cramps, increased ICP, muscular twitching, con…
S (Skin flushed... increased temp, weakness, disorientation, dil…
muscle weakness, dysrhythmias, increase K (rasins bananas apr…
MURDER Muscle weakness, Urine (olig, anuria) Resp depression,…
hyponatremia
nausea, muscle cramps, increased ICP, muscular twitching, con…
hypernatremia
S (Skin flushed... increased temp, weakness, disorientation, dil…
99 terms
Electrolytes
Electrolyte:
Ions:
Anion:
Cation:
A substance that develops an electrical charge when it dissol…
Electrically charged particles.
Negative Ions.
Positive Ions.
Electrolyte:
A substance that develops an electrical charge when it dissol…
Ions:
Electrically charged particles.
electrolytes
Sodium
potassium
calcium
magnesium
135-145
3.5-5.0
9-10
1.3-2.1
Sodium
135-145
potassium
3.5-5.0
Electrolytes
Water makes up ___-___% of human body…
Why is there less water in women than…
What part of the body's water is found…
Intracellular fluid (ICF) is found ___…
40-75
Women have a higher % body fat
2/3 (24 L) intra, 1/3 (16 L) extra
Inside; outside
Water makes up ___-___% of human body…
40-75
Why is there less water in women than…
Women have a higher % body fat
Electrolytes
Cations
Anions
Sodium range
Potassium range
Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium
Chloride, Phosphate, Bicarbonate
135-145
3.5-5.0
Cations
Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium
Anions
Chloride, Phosphate, Bicarbonate
25 terms
Electrolytes
Sodium
Sodium
Sodium (Na+)
Na+
Na+
Chief electrolyte of extracellular fluid and influences ICF v…
Moves easily between intravascular and interstitial spaces an…
Controls and regulates volume of body fluids and maintains wa…
Sodium
Na+
Sodium
Chief electrolyte of extracellular fluid and influences ICF v…
24 terms
Electrolytes
metabolic alkalosis
prom u waves
GI losses
tx of hypokaemia
hypokaemia
hypokaemia
hypokaemia and hypernatemia
Mg, KCl
metabolic alkalosis
hypokaemia
prom u waves
hypokaemia
71 terms
Electrolytes
The adult male body contains____water
The adult female body contains ___water
Infants are easily dehydrated b/c
The elderly are easily dehydrated b/c
60%
50%
large body surface compared to weight... loses more fluid throug…
age related decline in total body water... diminished thirst sen…
The adult male body contains____water
60%
The adult female body contains ___water
50%
25 terms
ELECTROLYTES
Sodium range
causes of hyponatermia
hyponatremia manifestations
causes of hypernatremia
136-145 mmol/L
Excessive, sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea (eg: athlete follo…
Tachycardia, thready pulse... Fatigue... Muscle cramps, especially…
Diabetes Insipidus, which causes polyuria... Insufficient ADH (f…
Sodium range
136-145 mmol/L
causes of hyponatermia
Excessive, sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea (eg: athlete follo…
47 terms
Electrolytes
Acid
Acidosis
Active transport
Aldosterone
Substances which release hydrogen ions when dissolved
Condition resulting from the accumulation of acid or the loss…
Movement of materials across the cell membrane by means of ch…
Adrenocortical hormone that regulates sodium, potassium, and…
Acid
Substances which release hydrogen ions when dissolved
Acidosis
Condition resulting from the accumulation of acid or the loss…
48 terms
Electrolytes
What is NOT one of the body's physiolo…
which system has the greatest capacity…
Respiratory alkalosis is a result of _…
Hyperventilation is defined as _______.
hydrochloride
renal system
too little carbon dioxide in the blood... hyperventilation!
an increase in the rate and depth of breathing
What is NOT one of the body's physiolo…
hydrochloride
which system has the greatest capacity…
renal system
Electrolytes
magnesium
Hypomagnesemia ... <1.3 mEq/L
Hypermagnesemia
Calcium
Regulated by kidneys and GI tract ... assists with CHO and prote…
Most common pathologic cause of hypocalcemia... Depressant, inc…
Caused by: renal failure, adrenal insufficiency, excess repla…
bone and teeth formation ... assists with skeletal and cardiac m…
magnesium
Regulated by kidneys and GI tract ... assists with CHO and prote…
Hypomagnesemia ... <1.3 mEq/L
Most common pathologic cause of hypocalcemia... Depressant, inc…
17 terms
Electrolytes
Strong Electrolyte
Strong Electrolyte
Strong Electrolyte
Strong Electrolyte
HCl
HNO3
HClO4
H2SO4
Strong Electrolyte
HCl
Strong Electrolyte
HNO3
71 terms
Electrolytes
Sodium Normal Range
Chloride Normal Range
Potassium Normal Range
Calcium Normal Range
135-145 mEq/L
98-106 mEq/L
3.5-5 mEq/L
9-10.5 mEq/L
Sodium Normal Range
135-145 mEq/L
Chloride Normal Range
98-106 mEq/L
74 terms
Electrolytes
Hypovolemia Causes
Hypovolemia Lab Values
Hypovolemia Nursing Interventions
Hypervolemia Causes
↑ water loss (high fever, heatstroke)... Overuse of diuretics…
USG >1.020... Elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit... Elevated pota…
Monitor vital signs... Monitor I & O... Obtain daily weights ... Mo…
Excessive intake of fluids... Retention of fluids... Renal failur…
Hypovolemia Causes
↑ water loss (high fever, heatstroke)... Overuse of diuretics…
Hypovolemia Lab Values
USG >1.020... Elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit... Elevated pota…
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
18 terms
Electrolytes
Magnesium (Mg)... normal lab value:
Magnesium and Calcium acts as a....
HYPERmagnesium:... Causes- Renal failure…
magnesium prevents-
1.3 - 2.1... hangs in GI
sedative... (always think muscle first with these electrolytes)
decrease reflexes, muscle tone, LOC, Pulse, reparations... arrh…
seizures
Magnesium (Mg)... normal lab value:
1.3 - 2.1... hangs in GI
Magnesium and Calcium acts as a....
sedative... (always think muscle first with these electrolytes)
19 terms
Electrolytes
Urine Specific Gravity
Serum Osmolality
Hematocrit M&F
Hemoglobin M&F
1.010-1.030
280-295 mOsm/L
42-52% Males... 35-47% Females
13-18 g/dL Males... 12-16 g/dL Females
Urine Specific Gravity
1.010-1.030
Serum Osmolality
280-295 mOsm/L
87 terms
electrolytes
serum sodium
<135 mEq/L
Hyponatremia
>145 mEq/L = Manifestations Irritabili…
135-145 mEq/L
Hyponatremia
Severe low Na diet. Loss of Na containing secretions without…
Hypernatremia
serum sodium
135-145 mEq/L
<135 mEq/L
Hyponatremia
33 terms
Electrolytes
Intracellular Fluid ( ICF )
Extracellular Fluid ( ECF )
Transcellular fluids
Average mens body weight in water
Fluid in cells, about 2/3 of the bodies water, rich in Potass…
Fluid outside the cells, 1/3 of the bodies water, rich in Sod…
Fluids produced by special cells. Ex. Aqueous humor, saliva,…
60%
Intracellular Fluid ( ICF )
Fluid in cells, about 2/3 of the bodies water, rich in Potass…
Extracellular Fluid ( ECF )
Fluid outside the cells, 1/3 of the bodies water, rich in Sod…
Electrolytes
Sodium (Na+)
Potassium (K+)
Ionized Calcium (Ca++)
Calcium (Ca++) Serum
135-145 Cation
3.5-5.0 Cation
4.5-5.5 Cation
8.5-10.5
Sodium (Na+)
135-145 Cation
Potassium (K+)
3.5-5.0 Cation
40 terms
Electrolytes
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Chloride
136-145
3.5-5.0
9.0-10.5
98-106
Sodium
136-145
Potassium
3.5-5.0
10 terms
electrolytes
Sodium
potassium
calcium
pH of blood
136-145
3.5-5
9-10.5
7.35-7.45
Sodium
136-145
potassium
3.5-5
81 terms
Electrolytes
electrolytes
normal levels of Na:
tassium and sodium are ______ charged…
normal levels of Ca:
are solutes that generate an electrical charge when in solution
135-145
potassium and sodium are + charged ions while chloride and ph…
9-11 mg/dL
electrolytes
are solutes that generate an electrical charge when in solution
normal levels of Na:
135-145
Electrolytes
electrolyte definition
Law of Electroneutrality
active transport
passive transport/diffusion
1) substance: dissociates into ions in solution... 2) capable of…
1) sum of positive ions (cations) must equal sum of negative…
movement of molecules across a cell membrane from a region of…
1) movement of biochemicals and other atomic or molecular sub…
electrolyte definition
1) substance: dissociates into ions in solution... 2) capable of…
Law of Electroneutrality
1) sum of positive ions (cations) must equal sum of negative…
Electrolytes
Sodium
Function of Sodium
Sodium Regulation
Sodium sources
Major Cation in the extracellular fluid. ... Normal serum Levels…
1.) Regulates fluid volume. 2.) Helps maintain blood volume.…
1.) Moves by active transport across cell membranes. 2.) Regu…
Table salt, soy sauce, cured pork, cheese, milk, processed fo…
Sodium
Major Cation in the extracellular fluid. ... Normal serum Levels…
Function of Sodium
1.) Regulates fluid volume. 2.) Helps maintain blood volume.…
27 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
20 terms
electrolytes
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
135-145, decreased with vomitting, diarrhea
3.5-5, increased in renal failure, burns, metabolic acidosis…
8.5-10.5, elevated with bone disease, parathyroid disorder, t…
1.5-2.5, elevated in renal failure, diabetic acidosis, hypoth…
Sodium
135-145, decreased with vomitting, diarrhea
Potassium
3.5-5, increased in renal failure, burns, metabolic acidosis…
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