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Study sets matching "electrolytes"

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Study sets matching "electrolytes"

50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
61 terms
Electrolytes
normal levels of Na:
normal levels of K:
normal levels of Mg:
Na
135-145
3.5-5.3 mEq/L
1.5-2.5 mg/dL
1. extracellular cation... 2. necessary for protein synthesis an…
normal levels of Na:
135-145
normal levels of K:
3.5-5.3 mEq/L
17 terms
Electrolytes
Hyponatremia
causes of hyponatremia
signs and symptoms of hyponatremia
hyponatremia treatment
low sodium (salt) levels. Anything below 135
certain medications, heart, kidney, and liver problems, syndr…
headache, confusion, lethargy, irritability, muscle weakness.…
hold water and give sodium
Hyponatremia
low sodium (salt) levels. Anything below 135
causes of hyponatremia
certain medications, heart, kidney, and liver problems, syndr…
78 terms
Electrolytes
Electrolytes
positive ions
Negative ions
function of Na
charge particles positive and negative
K, Na, Ca, Mg
Cl, P, SO4
major extracellular fluid used for muscle contraction, nerve…
Electrolytes
charge particles positive and negative
positive ions
K, Na, Ca, Mg
141 terms
Electrolytes
three main causes of electrolyte disor…
daily intake of sodium
role of sodium
sodium regulation of total body water
1. increased/decreased intake... 2. increased/decreased utilizat…
5 - 6 g
main determination of tonicity and osmolality by *regulat…
main determinant of PLASMA osmolality (280 - 290 mOsm/kg)…
three main causes of electrolyte disor…
1. increased/decreased intake... 2. increased/decreased utilizat…
daily intake of sodium
5 - 6 g
66 terms
Electrolytes
Electrolytes include:
Functions of electrolytes:
What electrolytes have to do with musc…
F & E "pearls"
1. Potassium... 2. Sodium... 3. Chloride... 4. Calcium... 5. Phosphate... 6.…
- Muscle contraction ... - Neural function ... - Hormone Release... -…
1. Calcium... 2. Magnesium
1. Where ever K+ goes, Mg goes ... - NEVER give K+ IV push... 2. W…
Electrolytes include:
1. Potassium... 2. Sodium... 3. Chloride... 4. Calcium... 5. Phosphate... 6.…
Functions of electrolytes:
- Muscle contraction ... - Neural function ... - Hormone Release... -…
110 terms
Electrolytes
Electrolytes def.
Anions
Cations
Major electrolytes. (Occur mainly as f…
substances that dissociate into ions in solution. possible to…
=, negative charge. Attracted to the Anode (+ electrode)
+, positive charge. Attracted to the Cathode (= electrode)
Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3-(bicarbonate), HPO4..2- (phosphate), Ca2+,…
Electrolytes def.
substances that dissociate into ions in solution. possible to…
Anions
=, negative charge. Attracted to the Anode (+ electrode)
61 terms
ELECTROLYTES
pts at risk for electrolyte imbalance
electrolytes conduct, for what symptoms
electrolytes maintain
electrolytes maintain balance of (2)
elderly... acute/chronic renal... chronic/acute endocrine ... mentally…
electrical current, GI, Cardio, Muscloskel, central/periph ne…
osmolarity/osmolality of fluid
intra/extracellular fluid... acid-base
pts at risk for electrolyte imbalance
elderly... acute/chronic renal... chronic/acute endocrine ... mentally…
electrolytes conduct, for what symptoms
electrical current, GI, Cardio, Muscloskel, central/periph ne…
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
582 terms
ELECTROLYTES
Electrolytes
positive ions
Negative ions
function of Na
charge particles positive and negative
K, Na, Ca, Mg
Cl, P, SO4
major extracellular fluid used for muscle contraction, nerve…
Electrolytes
charge particles positive and negative
positive ions
K, Na, Ca, Mg
96 terms
Electrolytes
what is the major intracellular cation
what is the major extracellular cation
what is the major ECF anion?
how do chloride and sodium interact
potassium (K+)
sodium (Na+)
chloride
chloride follows sodium
what is the major intracellular cation
potassium (K+)
what is the major extracellular cation
sodium (Na+)
63 terms
electrolytes
Fluids through the Lifespan
Fluids
Example of fluids
Fluids Like to Be Balanced
Amount of fluid: ... Males 55 ... females 45-50... Embryo 90
Total Body Fluid (45-55% of adult body)... ICF = Inside the Cel…
Homeostasis- relative balance between intracellular and extra…
Fluids through the Lifespan
Amount of fluid: ... Males 55 ... females 45-50... Embryo 90
Fluids
Total Body Fluid (45-55% of adult body)... ICF = Inside the Cel…
24 terms
Electrolytes
electrolytes
intracellular compartments
extracellular fluid
cations
ions dissolved in water
within cell membranes... makes up 2/3
within plasma... interstatial... other parts of body
+ charge... move to cathode (-)... enynme cofactors... pH... muscle/nerve…
electrolytes
ions dissolved in water
intracellular compartments
within cell membranes... makes up 2/3
27 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
Electrolytes
Sodium (Na+)
Chloride (Cl-)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Calcium (Ca+)
135-143 mEq/L
95-105 mEq/L
22-26 mEq/L
4.5-5.5 mEq/L
Sodium (Na+)
135-143 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-)
95-105 mEq/L
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
17 terms
Electrolytes
Strong electrolytes
Examples of strong electrolytes
Name the strong acids
Name strong bases
Substances that completely ionize in water (70-100%)
Strong acids, strong bases, & soluble salts
Perchloric acid (HClO4)... hydroiodic acid (HI)... sulfuric acid (H…
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)... potassium hydroxide (KOH)... lithium hyd…
Strong electrolytes
Substances that completely ionize in water (70-100%)
Examples of strong electrolytes
Strong acids, strong bases, & soluble salts
55 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ (Sodium cation)
Na normal lab value
Hypernatremia (>145 mEq/L)
Hypernatremia (>145 mEq/L)
Major cation influencing water distribution
135-145 mEq/L
Causes: Excessive sodium intake... -IV fluids, hypertonic NaCl,…
Causes: Inadequate water intake... -unconscious or cognitively i…
Na+ (Sodium cation)
Major cation influencing water distribution
Na normal lab value
135-145 mEq/L
37 terms
Electrolytes
Osmotic pressure
Solute distribution (see slides for im…
Body water compartments (see slides fo…
Osmolality
Controls:... - distribution of water in body compartments moves…
Semipermeable membrane allows for equilibrium to establish; n…
60% body weight is H20... - 2/3 is ICW (blood & tissue cells)... -…
Measurement of dissolved solutes in relation to H2O ... When mea…
Osmotic pressure
Controls:... - distribution of water in body compartments moves…
Solute distribution (see slides for im…
Semipermeable membrane allows for equilibrium to establish; n…
32 terms
Electrolytes
electrolyte definition
Law of Electroneutrality
active transport
passive transport/diffusion
1) substance: dissociates into ions in solution... 2) capable of…
1) sum of positive ions (cations) must equal sum of negative…
movement of molecules across a cell membrane from a region of…
1) movement of biochemicals and other atomic or molecular sub…
electrolyte definition
1) substance: dissociates into ions in solution... 2) capable of…
Law of Electroneutrality
1) sum of positive ions (cations) must equal sum of negative…
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
39 terms
Electrolytes
Serum Osmolality
Hematocrit
Hemoglobin
BUN
275-300 mOsm
42-52%... 36-47%
14-17.4 mg/dl... 12-16 mg/dL
10-20 mg/dL
Serum Osmolality
275-300 mOsm
Hematocrit
42-52%... 36-47%
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
46 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Bicarbonate normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.3 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
23-30
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.3 (4.4)
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
28 terms
Electrolytes
Strong Acid
Strong Acid
Strong Acid
Strong Acid
HCl
HBr
HI
Strong Acid
HCl
Strong Acid
HBr
29 terms
electrolytes
Hyponatremia
Clinical Manifestations: Hyponatremia
Hyper/Hypokalemia EG
Hypovolemia
Sodium less than 135 mEq/L... Increased loss due to:... - Pure sod…
polyuria - polydipsia - excessive thrist... Most important... Defi…
decreased blood volume
Hyponatremia
Sodium less than 135 mEq/L... Increased loss due to:... - Pure sod…
Clinical Manifestations: Hyponatremia
polyuria - polydipsia - excessive thrist... Most important... Defi…
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145
3.5-5.0
100 - 110
8 - 11
Na+ normal value
135-145
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0
51 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
95-105 (104)
8.5-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
26 terms
Electrolytes
Sodium imbalance: hypernatremia
hypernatremia treatment
Sodium imbalance: hyponatremia
hyponatremia treatment
greater than 145... excess sodium intake or excess water loss... hy…
start with NS until volume restored, switch to 1/2NS to corre…
less than 135... hypotension... confusion, HA, seizures... decreased m…
chronic - fluid restriction and treat underlying cause... correc…
Sodium imbalance: hypernatremia
greater than 145... excess sodium intake or excess water loss... hy…
hypernatremia treatment
start with NS until volume restored, switch to 1/2NS to corre…
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
11 terms
Electrolytes
Hyponatremia
Hypernatremia
Hypocalcemia
Hypercalcemia
Etiologies: Water retention, edema, low sodium intake, water…
Etiologies: Too much sodium intake, Decreased thirst or unabl…
Etiologies: Hypoparathroidism, Vit D deficiencies, Chronic ki…
Etiologies: Hyperparathyroidism, malignancies, Prolonged immo…
Hyponatremia
Etiologies: Water retention, edema, low sodium intake, water…
Hypernatremia
Etiologies: Too much sodium intake, Decreased thirst or unabl…
40 terms
Electrolytes
Electrolyte
Basic Metabolic Panel
Complete Metabolic Panel
Fishbone Diagram of Basic Metabolic Pa…
-Minerals in your body that carry an electric charge... -Help to…
Potassium, Sodium, Chloride
Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, Calcium
Electrolyte
-Minerals in your body that carry an electric charge... -Help to…
Basic Metabolic Panel
Potassium, Sodium, Chloride
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
45 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
Electrolytes
Water steady gate
ICF
ECF
acidosis
The amount ingested equals the amount eliminated
Fluid inside the cells... 2/3 body weight
Fluid outside the cell ... 1/3 body weight
acid based imbalance with an increased H+ concentration (decr…
Water steady gate
The amount ingested equals the amount eliminated
ICF
Fluid inside the cells... 2/3 body weight
10 terms
Electrolytes
Hyponatremia
Hypernatremia
Hypokalemia
Hyperkalemia
Causes: Vomiting, diarrhea, GI/NG suction, burns, renal loss,…
Causes: Inadequate free water (ie: stroke, unconscious), Hype…
Causes: Respiratory Alkalosis, reduced intake of potassium(an…
Causes: Cell trauma (Crush injuries, Burns, large surgical pr…
Hyponatremia
Causes: Vomiting, diarrhea, GI/NG suction, burns, renal loss,…
Hypernatremia
Causes: Inadequate free water (ie: stroke, unconscious), Hype…
21 terms
Electrolytes
Electrolytes
Example of an electrolyte
Ions
Types of Ions
substances that dissociate in solution to form an ion (inorga…
NaCl
charged particles (Na+, K+, Cl-)
cations & anions
Electrolytes
substances that dissociate in solution to form an ion (inorga…
Example of an electrolyte
NaCl
25 terms
Electrolytes
Sodium (Normal Range)
Assessment Findings: Hyponatremia vs.…
Potassium (Normal Range)
Assessment Findings: Hypokalemia vs. H…
Normal Na: 135 to 145 mEq/L
Normal K: 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L
Sodium (Normal Range)
Normal Na: 135 to 145 mEq/L
Assessment Findings: Hyponatremia vs.…
55 terms
Electrolytes
Hyponatremia S/S
Hyponatremia Causes
Hypernatremia S/S
Hypernatremia Causes
Depends on fluid volume, muscle weakness, headache, personali…
Excessive diaphoresis, diuretics, vomiting, diarrhea, wound d…
Pulmonary edema, early: muscle twitching, late: muscle weakne…
Decreased sodium excretion (corticosteroids, Cushing's syndro…
Hyponatremia S/S
Depends on fluid volume, muscle weakness, headache, personali…
Hyponatremia Causes
Excessive diaphoresis, diuretics, vomiting, diarrhea, wound d…
50 terms
Electrolytes
Na+ normal value
K+ normal value
Cl- normal value
Ca+2 normal value
135-145 (140)
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
98-106 (104)
8.4-10.5 (9.4)
Na+ normal value
135-145 (140)
K+ normal value
3.5-5.0 (4.4)
13 terms
Electrolytes
What labs are in the CMP
Why is Na important
Hypernatremia/Water deficit
Hyponatremia/Excess water
Na+ Cl- BUN Glu... K+ BiCarb (CO2) Cr... Electrolytes-Na, K, Cl... Res…
It measures tonicity and osmolality (solutes); helps interpre…
>145mEq/L
<135mEq/L; sx do not manifest until <125mEq/L
What labs are in the CMP
Na+ Cl- BUN Glu... K+ BiCarb (CO2) Cr... Electrolytes-Na, K, Cl... Res…
Why is Na important
It measures tonicity and osmolality (solutes); helps interpre…
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