Study sets matching "endocrinology lecture 2"

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Study sets matching "endocrinology lecture 2"

62 terms
Lecture 2 Endocrinology
phospholipase C cascade (PLC)
protein kinase C
phospholipase C
phosphatidyinositol biphosphate
This is another second messenger cascade. We start with the h…
This is also known as PKC. It is activated by DAG during the…
This is an enzyme that splits the lipid (phosphatidyinositol…
This is also called PIP2. It is a lipid from the cell membran…
phospholipase C cascade (PLC)
This is another second messenger cascade. We start with the h…
protein kinase C
This is also known as PKC. It is activated by DAG during the…
12 terms
Endocrinology - Lecture 2
What endocrine disorders result from?
What is the most common hormone defici…
What is another problem that leads to…
What are the steps in treating hormone…
Hormone deficinecy, excess or resistence (problems with recep…
Destructive process in the gland - type I diabetes... - infectio…
Genetic defect in hormone production - gene deletion, mutatio…
- identification of hormones... - purifying the hormone ... - makin…
What endocrine disorders result from?
Hormone deficinecy, excess or resistence (problems with recep…
What is the most common hormone defici…
Destructive process in the gland - type I diabetes... - infectio…
49 terms
Endocrinology lecture 2
Thymus in adulthood
If thyoma, think what?
Regulatory hormones come from where?
Stimulating hormones come from where?
afunctional
Myasthenia Gravis
Hypothalamus; act on pituitary; releasing or inhibitory hormo…
aka tropic hormones; from pituitary; act on another endocrine…
Thymus in adulthood
afunctional
If thyoma, think what?
Myasthenia Gravis
118 terms
Endocrinology Lecture 2 Receptors
It is in a conformation that isn't act…
Activating protein kinases
Activating protein kinases
If the receptor is sitting in the membrane, why is it not wor…
What receptor activates adenylyl cyclase to produce quick eff…
What phosphorylates and turns on enzymes?
It is in a conformation that isn't act…
If the receptor is sitting in the membrane, why is it not wor…
Activating protein kinases
What receptor activates adenylyl cyclase to produce quick eff…
Endocrinology Lecture 2
Neurotransmitters
Peptides, protein hormones
Neuropeptide hormones
Primary Structure
hormones synthesized and released from neurons. Usually modif…
composed of a chain with more than one amino acid. Peptides a…
Peptides that are secreted from nerves
The amino acid structure, including disulfide bridges. The pr…
Neurotransmitters
hormones synthesized and released from neurons. Usually modif…
Peptides, protein hormones
composed of a chain with more than one amino acid. Peptides a…
Endocrinology Lecture 2 History of Endocrinology 8/26/15
order of learning
intercellular communication
1. It is secreted in active trace amou…
What are the three types of cell to ce…
endocrine and nervous
3. An endocrine gland is only enervated by the blood or capil…
(1) Nervous... (2) Neuroendocrine... (3) Endocrine
order of learning
intercellular communication
endocrine and nervous
Endocrinology Lecture 2
A hormone is
A hormone is
A hormone
A hormone has
synthesized by the body
secreted
travels (exceptions auto juxta and paracrine)
a receptor
A hormone is
synthesized by the body
A hormone is
secreted
47 terms
Behavioural endocrinology - Lecture 2
t/f: only water-soluble hormones can t…
_______ hormones are secreted by secre…
_____hormones diffuse in and out of ce…
which type of chemical communication r…
true
water-soluble
fat-soluble
a) intracrine mediation
t/f: only water-soluble hormones can t…
true
_______ hormones are secreted by secre…
water-soluble
43 terms
Lecture 2: Endocrinology, Hormones
2 types of hormones
Lipid soluble hormone examples
Lipid soluble hormones
Where is vitamin D synthesized?
1. water soluble (hydrophilic)... 2. lipid soluble (hydrophobic)…
steroids, vitamin D, retinpids, eicosanoids, cortisol
require a carrier protein to move in blood, diffuse across pl…
1. skin... 2. liver ... 3. kidneys
2 types of hormones
1. water soluble (hydrophilic)... 2. lipid soluble (hydrophobic)…
Lipid soluble hormone examples
steroids, vitamin D, retinpids, eicosanoids, cortisol
Endocrinology - Lecture 2 - Nuclear Receptors
Steroid Hormone Receptors
Thyroid Receptor
Retinoid Receptors
Vitamin D receptors
ER- estrogen receptor - estradiol... GR- glucocorticoid receptor…
TR- Thyroid Hormone receptor - triiodothyronine
Retinoic Acid receptor - all-trans-retinoic acid... Retinoid X r…
Vitamin D receptor - 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3
Steroid Hormone Receptors
ER- estrogen receptor - estradiol... GR- glucocorticoid receptor…
Thyroid Receptor
TR- Thyroid Hormone receptor - triiodothyronine
69 terms
Lecture 2: Principles of Endocrinology
The endocrine system is composed of __…
What is the purpose of the endocrine g…
What is a hormone?
The binding of hormone to its receptor…
ductless glands
Maintains the body's homeostasis
Acts on a target cell that expresses a receptor for that horm…
response to that hormone
The endocrine system is composed of __…
ductless glands
What is the purpose of the endocrine g…
Maintains the body's homeostasis
12 terms
Endocrinology and Metabolism Lecture 2
Neuroendocrine System
Functions of the Neuroendocrine System
Anterior Pituitary is made up of:... Post…
Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei-…
the interaction between the nervous and endocrine systems
1.maintenence of the internal environment... 2. growth and devel…
Ant: adenyhypophesis=glandular (epithelial) cells... Post: neuro…
posterior pituitary... axons run the full length to target desti…
Neuroendocrine System
the interaction between the nervous and endocrine systems
Functions of the Neuroendocrine System
1.maintenence of the internal environment... 2. growth and devel…
67 terms
Lecture 2-Reproductive Endocrinology
characteristics of hormones
know chemical structure of
example of a fatty acid
protein homone metabolism
~do not supply energy... ~regulates rates of specific processes…
protein (peptides)... steroid... fatty acids
PGF2a
hormone binds to receptor and is internalized ... metabolism an…
characteristics of hormones
~do not supply energy... ~regulates rates of specific processes…
know chemical structure of
protein (peptides)... steroid... fatty acids
30 terms
ENDOCRINOLOGY. Lecture 2
HORMONE RECEPTORS
LIGAND BINDING SPECIFICITY
LIGAND
HORMONE ANALOGS (parmaceutically made)
Are protein molecules located either on the cell surface or i…
Is the ability of a receptor to distinguish between different…
Any molecule that binds to a particular receptor.
AGONISTS. Bind to receptors and mimic a hormone activity... ANTA…
HORMONE RECEPTORS
Are protein molecules located either on the cell surface or i…
LIGAND BINDING SPECIFICITY
Is the ability of a receptor to distinguish between different…
37 terms
Endocrinology: Lecture 2
Which releasing hormone stimulates rel…
The releasing hormones bind to cells i…
What are the 6 hormones released by th…
GH and Prolactin are both _____ hormon…
GnRH releases FSH and LH
Ca2+, IP3, and PKC linked
Growth hormone: Bone, Muscle, Adipose... Prolactin: Mammary glan…
Protein; JAK/STAT
Which releasing hormone stimulates rel…
GnRH releases FSH and LH
The releasing hormones bind to cells i…
Ca2+, IP3, and PKC linked
109 terms
Endocrinology Lecture 2 and 3
What is the role of the hypothalamus?
In the hypothalamus hormones are trans…
The posterior pituitary is connected t…
What are the two parts of the anterior…
integrates functions that maintain chemical and temperature h…
1. Axon... 2. nerve endings... 3. Pulses
1. Infundibulum... 2. Stores hormones released by the hypothalamus
Pars distalis and pars tuberalis
What is the role of the hypothalamus?
integrates functions that maintain chemical and temperature h…
In the hypothalamus hormones are trans…
1. Axon... 2. nerve endings... 3. Pulses
Endocrinology Lecture 2 (Francis)
protein
5%
negative feedback
internally degraded
this is the only type of hormone in which ALL of its types ar…
typically only ____ of the total hormone molecules are needed…
this is a body mechanism that is used to stop or reduce the i…
what is special about the degradation of protein and amine ho…
protein
this is the only type of hormone in which ALL of its types ar…
5%
typically only ____ of the total hormone molecules are needed…
53 terms
Endocrinology (Lecture 2 - Exam 2)
Pituitary
1. Anterior Pituitary (AL)
2. Posterior Pituitary (PL)
Posterior Pituitary is responsible to…
Comprised of 2 lobes:... 1. Anterior Pituitary... 2. Posterior Pitu…
Also known as 'Adenohypophysis'
Also known as 'Neurohypophysis'
1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)... 2. Oxytocin
Pituitary
Comprised of 2 lobes:... 1. Anterior Pituitary... 2. Posterior Pitu…
1. Anterior Pituitary (AL)
Also known as 'Adenohypophysis'
Lecture 2 - Intro to Behavior Endocrinology
Intracrine Mediation
Autocrine Mediation
Paracrine Mediation
Endocrine Mediation
Intracrine substances regulate intracellular events...2nd mes…
Autocrine substances feed back to influence same cells that s…
Paracrine cells secrete chemicals that affect adjacent cells
Endocrine cells secrete chemicals into the bloodstream where…
Intracrine Mediation
Intracrine substances regulate intracellular events...2nd mes…
Autocrine Mediation
Autocrine substances feed back to influence same cells that s…
67 terms
Endocrinology Lecture 2: Hormones and Signalling
False
Peptide, Steroid, and Amine
amino acids
cholesterol
True or False: Neural control is slow and sustained while hor…
What are the three main chemical classes of which hormones ar…
The peptide/protein hormones are composed of linked ______ __…
The steroid hormones are all derived from ______.
False
True or False: Neural control is slow and sustained while hor…
Peptide, Steroid, and Amine
What are the three main chemical classes of which hormones ar…
Lecture 2: Methods in Behavioral Endocrinology
What is the purpose of an Assay?
What is the purpose of a Bioassay?
A _________ is based on a relatively u…
What are the 2 uses of a Bioassay?
Identification and Measurement of a molecule/hormone.
To test of the effects of a hormone on a... living animal.
Bioassay
1. To detect the presence/absence of a hormone ("rabbit test"…
What is the purpose of an Assay?
Identification and Measurement of a molecule/hormone.
What is the purpose of a Bioassay?
To test of the effects of a hormone on a... living animal.
71 terms
Lecture 2: Methods in Behavioral Endocrinology
What is the purpose of an Assay?
What is the purpose of a Bioassay?
A _________ is based on a relatively u…
What are the 2 uses of a Bioassay?
Identification and Measurement of a molecule/hormone.
To test of the effects of a hormone on a... living animal.
Bioassay
1. To detect the presence/absence of a hormone ("rabbit test"…
What is the purpose of an Assay?
Identification and Measurement of a molecule/hormone.
What is the purpose of a Bioassay?
To test of the effects of a hormone on a... living animal.
84 terms
Endocrinology Exam 1: Lecture 2
humoral
somatic
neural
each tissue has what 3 things
fluid
body
nervous system
connective tissue, blood vessels, & nerves
humoral
fluid
somatic
body
Lecture 2: Endocrinology Receptors Function and Structure
Where are Estrogen Receptors Present ?
What is ERb responsible for in the CNS?
What are the characteristics of Recept…
High Affinity
CNS, Cardiovascular, Urogenital,Liver, Breast, Gastrogenitial…
Cognition and learning
High and Low Affinity, High Specificity and Hormone spill ove…
It requires less hormone to receptor binding to stimulate an…
Where are Estrogen Receptors Present ?
CNS, Cardiovascular, Urogenital,Liver, Breast, Gastrogenitial…
What is ERb responsible for in the CNS?
Cognition and learning
12 terms
Endocrinology-Exam 1-Lecture 2
Neurotransmitters
Peptide Hormones
Thyroid Hormones
Steroid Hormones
Hormones synthesized and released from neurons (nonpeptidergi…
Composed of a chain containing more than one amino acid or of…
Thyroxine (T4) amd Triiodothyronine (T3) hormones synthesized…
Small molecules derived from lipid cholesterol. Hydrophobic.
Neurotransmitters
Hormones synthesized and released from neurons (nonpeptidergi…
Peptide Hormones
Composed of a chain containing more than one amino acid or of…
22 terms
Neuro-endocrinology - PBACHP lecture 2
What is neuro-endocrinology?
What controls the activity of the peri…
What influences the hypothalamus to re…
Where are hormones made?
The focus on the brain as a target and source of hormones
The brain; a major source being the hypothalamus through rele…
Many brain regions; the pituitary is a major route, which is…
Glands (thyroid, adrenal, ovary, testies)
What is neuro-endocrinology?
The focus on the brain as a target and source of hormones
What controls the activity of the peri…
The brain; a major source being the hypothalamus through rele…
133 terms
Lecture 2 OB-Endocrinology of Pregnancy, Normal Pregnancy, Puerperium and Lactation
*The most important endocrine changes,…
*Maternal hormone levels, compared to…
What is the chemical nature of hCG?
*Where is the source of hCG?
hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)... hCS (human chorionic somat…
1. Presence of placenta... 2. Presence of fetus... 3. Presence of e…
- Glycoprotein with alpha and beta subunits.... - Alpha subunit…
Trophoblastic tissue: normal placental tissue (early as 6-8 d…
*The most important endocrine changes,…
hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)... hCS (human chorionic somat…
*Maternal hormone levels, compared to…
1. Presence of placenta... 2. Presence of fetus... 3. Presence of e…
Lecture 2 (behavioral endocrinology & neuropathology--exam 1)
Green= solitary form... Brown= social form
Ultimate
Proximate
Ultimate
Locusts turn from green to brown. ... Green= ______ form... Brown=…
Ultimate or proximate?... "What selection pressures have driven…
Ultimate or proximate?... "Bird's syrinx structure, the associat…
Ultimate or proximate?... "Why is that...?"
Green= solitary form... Brown= social form
Locusts turn from green to brown. ... Green= ______ form... Brown=…
Ultimate
Ultimate or proximate?... "What selection pressures have driven…
35 terms
Exam 2 Endocrinology Lecture 2 Pharmacology Pituitary Disorders (Pang)
What are the drugs used to address GH…
What are some specific drugs in the Gr…
What does GH do? What is it's overall…
Direct GH effects are most prominent w…
1. Growth Hormone... 2. Insulin-like Growth Factor-1
SomatoTROPIN (do not confuse with somatostatin, a GH antagoni…
Overall:... 1. It encourages the burning of fat for energy... 2. It…
False. Direct GH effects are prominent when there is a shorta…
What are the drugs used to address GH…
1. Growth Hormone... 2. Insulin-like Growth Factor-1
What are some specific drugs in the Gr…
SomatoTROPIN (do not confuse with somatostatin, a GH antagoni…
39 terms
Endocrinology lectures 1-2
compensatory hypertrophy
whose experiments with roosters led to…
describe the first crucial experiment…
who introduced the word hormone?
increase in the size of an organ to compensate functionally f…
Berthold 1849
Bayliss and Starling 1902... cut nerves to al digestive organs... i…
Starling 1905
compensatory hypertrophy
increase in the size of an organ to compensate functionally f…
whose experiments with roosters led to…
Berthold 1849
14 terms
Theme 2 Lecture 2 - Male and Female Reproductive Endocrinology
Explain the male endocrinology cycle w…
Where does testosterone travel?
What happens during pre-puberty in ter…
What happens during puberty in terms o…
The hypothalamus secretes gonadotrophin releasing hormone (Gn…
In the bloodstream
Testosterone secreted by the adrenal gland has a inhibitory e…
Testosterone secreted by the adrenal gland no longer has an i…
Explain the male endocrinology cycle w…
The hypothalamus secretes gonadotrophin releasing hormone (Gn…
Where does testosterone travel?
In the bloodstream
52 terms
Endocrinology lecture 11 part 2
Hyperprolactinemia upper limit of norm…
does food affect serum prolactin?
Pregnancy ranges of prolactin
Causes of elevated prolactin other tha…
20 nanogram per mL
No; does not need to fast to check
35 to 600
nipple stimulation, vigorous breast stimulation, breast impla…
Hyperprolactinemia upper limit of norm…
20 nanogram per mL
does food affect serum prolactin?
No; does not need to fast to check
Endocrinology Lecture #2
Other second cascade messenger
phospholipase C.
DAG
IP3
1) phospholipase C (PLC) cascade... 2) Right, so different G-pr…
1) Phospholipase C takes a lipid called phosphatidylinositol…
1) DAG stays in the plasma membrane where it activates protei…
The other second messenger in this cascade, IP3, is water-sol…
Other second cascade messenger
1) phospholipase C (PLC) cascade... 2) Right, so different G-pr…
phospholipase C.
1) Phospholipase C takes a lipid called phosphatidylinositol…
Endocrinology Lecture 4
To transduce a hormone's message throu…
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
(1) Growth factor receptors... (2) Insuli…
What is the main job of receptors?
What possesses intrinsic TK activity that is part of the rece…
What are two examples of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases?
To transduce a hormone's message throu…
What is the main job of receptors?
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
What possesses intrinsic TK activity that is part of the rece…
Endocrinology Lecture 5 - Pituitary 2
Anterior Pituitary hormones
Growth Hormone/Prolactin Superfamily -…
Growth Hormone/Prolactin Superfamily -…
Growth Hormone
Growth Hormone (GH)... Secreted by somatotropes... 191 amino acid…
Multiple CS and GH genes on human chromosome 17... GH - expres…
Three "classical" members... 1. Prolactin... 2. Placental lactoge…
Growth Hormone (GH) ... (or Somatotrophin/Somatotropin, STH or S…
Anterior Pituitary hormones
Growth Hormone (GH)... Secreted by somatotropes... 191 amino acid…
Growth Hormone/Prolactin Superfamily -…
Multiple CS and GH genes on human chromosome 17... GH - expres…
91 terms
Endocrinology Lecture
Overview of Nervous System Function
Overview of Endocrine System Function
Exocrine Glands
Duct
- Uses nerve impulses, neurotransmitters, & synapses... - Faster…
- Uses hormones that are released into the bloodstream... - Slow…
- Secrete their products into ducts... - Effects tend to be *l…
Tubing or pipework
Overview of Nervous System Function
- Uses nerve impulses, neurotransmitters, & synapses... - Faster…
Overview of Endocrine System Function
- Uses hormones that are released into the bloodstream... - Slow…
105 terms
Endocrinology Lecture 6
ligand-induced transcriptional factors
What are intracellular receptors?
ligand-induced transcriptional factors
What are intracellular receptors?
Endocrinology Lecture 3
3, so trimeric
the membrane
How many subunits do G proteins have?
G proteins are fluid within what?
3, so trimeric
How many subunits do G proteins have?
the membrane
G proteins are fluid within what?
7 terms
Lecture #2: Endocrinology Cont.
Speed of cell surface receptors vs. in…
2nd messenger system examples
What does adenylyl cyclase do?
Hormones that use the cAMP pathway
cell surface=fast... intracellular=slow
• adenylyl cyclase (cAMP),... • phospholipase C (calcium and/or…
1. Conformation change... 2. Release of GDP, replaced by GTP and…
E, NE, LH, FSH, TSH, calcitonin, PTH, ADH
Speed of cell surface receptors vs. in…
cell surface=fast... intracellular=slow
2nd messenger system examples
• adenylyl cyclase (cAMP),... • phospholipase C (calcium and/or…
Endocrinology Lecture 5
PTH... FSH... LH... ADH
proteases, degradation, cleavage
What is a hormone example for a GPCR?
How do you regulate GPCR hormones in the blood?
PTH... FSH... LH... ADH
What is a hormone example for a GPCR?
proteases, degradation, cleavage
How do you regulate GPCR hormones in the blood?
28 terms
Endocrinology Lecture
Integration of Body Functions
How are hormones used to regulate body…
Describe the endocrine gland
Describe the exocrine gland
• nervous and endocrine systems are similar ... • nervous system…
» growth (anabolic steroids) ... » lactation (GH or STH) ... » bi…
• A ductless gland ... • Secretes substances (hormones) into blo…
• A gland with ducts that are used for secretion
Integration of Body Functions
• nervous and endocrine systems are similar ... • nervous system…
How are hormones used to regulate body…
» growth (anabolic steroids) ... » lactation (GH or STH) ... » bi…
132 terms
Endocrinology Lecture 1
glucagon
Glucose is not available in the blood…
glycogen
(1) increase the transport to bring gl…
What stimulates glycogenolysis?
Glycogen is a big carbohydrate that requires a lot of glucose…
What does insulin convert glucose into?
What are the actions of insulin?
glucagon
What stimulates glycogenolysis?
Glucose is not available in the blood…
Glycogen is a big carbohydrate that requires a lot of glucose…
62 terms
Endocrinology lectures 1 & 2
Kidney secretes
Heart secretes
Gut secretes
Adipocytes secretes
Erythropoietin
Atrial naturietic peptide (ANP)
gastrin, secretin
leptin and adiponectin
Kidney secretes
Erythropoietin
Heart secretes
Atrial naturietic peptide (ANP)
Endocrinology Lecture 9 - Adrenals 2
Adrenal Steroidogenesis
Adrenal Steroidogenesis definition
Cortisol
Cortisol Release
The precursor of steroid hormones is cholesterol.... ... Cholester…
A process of sequential and enzymatic modifications of choles…
major glucocorticoid in humans... essential for life... maintains…
episodic and variable... pulses follow ACTH pulses by ~15-30 m…
Adrenal Steroidogenesis
The precursor of steroid hormones is cholesterol.... ... Cholester…
Adrenal Steroidogenesis definition
A process of sequential and enzymatic modifications of choles…
97 terms
Endocrine Lecture 2: Pituitary & Hypothalamic Hormones
Hypothalamus
Pituitary gland (Hypophysis) contains…
What are the cells that are produced i…
What are the cells that are produced i…
Master control center of the endocrine system, regulates the…
Anterior lobe... Posterior lobe... Pituitary stalk
These are the true endocrine cells
Neuroendocrine cell type function
Hypothalamus
Master control center of the endocrine system, regulates the…
Pituitary gland (Hypophysis) contains…
Anterior lobe... Posterior lobe... Pituitary stalk
59 terms
Lecture one: Endocrinology
What are the two major control system…
How does the nervous system communicat…
What are three things the nervous syst…
What system provides faster communicat…
The endocrine system and the nervous system
The nervous system uses hard wired connections. The endocrine…
- Send chemical signals... - Affect specific target organs or ti…
Nervous system
What are the two major control system…
The endocrine system and the nervous system
How does the nervous system communicat…
The nervous system uses hard wired connections. The endocrine…
Endocrinology Lecture
nervous system integration
endocrine system integration
immune system integration
peptide hormones
point to point, sensory information, muscle control, cognititon
broadcast, fixed source to dispersed targets, coordination of…
broadcast, mobile sources and targets, detection of non-self…
short amino acid chains for neurosecretion
nervous system integration
point to point, sensory information, muscle control, cognititon
endocrine system integration
broadcast, fixed source to dispersed targets, coordination of…
Endocrinology - Lecture 1
Morphological Features of Endocrine Gl…
Definition of Classical Hormones
Amines
Thyroid Hormones
1. Ductless: They release hormones directly into the bloodstr…
- For a substance to be considered a classical hormone, it ... s…
Hormones derived from single amino acids... - derived from the…
Derived from the combination of two iodinated tyrosine amino…
Morphological Features of Endocrine Gl…
1. Ductless: They release hormones directly into the bloodstr…
Definition of Classical Hormones
- For a substance to be considered a classical hormone, it ... s…
19 terms
endocrinology lecture 3
three requirements for measurements of…
how do you purify an antigen/ hormone?
chromatography is based on
monoclonal antibodies- how are they pr…
1- purified antigen... 2-specific antibody... 3- labelled antigen o…
use tissues that synthesize and secrete sadi hormone, homogen…
partiitioning of a smaple between a moving (gas, liquid) stat…
injecting mice with hormone, fuse individual b-lymphocytes wi…
three requirements for measurements of…
1- purified antigen... 2-specific antibody... 3- labelled antigen o…
how do you purify an antigen/ hormone?
use tissues that synthesize and secrete sadi hormone, homogen…
67 terms
Lecture 2
Hormones
Hormone half life
Insulin
Cortisol
chemical signals recreated into the blood in small amounts by…
T 1/2 at which 50% of the hormone's initial concentration has…
- peptide hormone... -can test for c-peptide to see if people ar…
- steroid hormone... -makes sure glucose levels are at homeostat…
Hormones
chemical signals recreated into the blood in small amounts by…
Hormone half life
T 1/2 at which 50% of the hormone's initial concentration has…
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