Study sets matching "endocrinology reproductive system"

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Study sets matching "endocrinology reproductive system"

117 terms
endocrinology and the reproductive system
classes of chemical messengers?
differences between hydrophilic messen…
peptide hormones
amine hormones
peptide... steroid... amines... lipids... purines... gases
philic: ... stored in vesicles... secreted by exocytosis... transporte…
hydrophilic... rapid effects... 2-200 AA's long... synthesized in roug…
hydrophilic except for Thyroid hormones... diverse effects
classes of chemical messengers?
peptide... steroid... amines... lipids... purines... gases
differences between hydrophilic messen…
philic: ... stored in vesicles... secreted by exocytosis... transporte…
41 terms
Reproductive Systems and Endocrinology
Testes/Seminiferous Tubules
sertoli cells
leydig cell/interstitial cells
Seminiferous Tubules
-site of sperm production... -testosterone production
-aid in the making of sperm... -form the blood-testes barrier: f…
secrete testosterone
unbroken ring of sertoli cells... blood-testes barrier... spermatog…
Testes/Seminiferous Tubules
-site of sperm production... -testosterone production
sertoli cells
-aid in the making of sperm... -form the blood-testes barrier: f…
Reproductive System and Endocrinology
gametes
gonads (testes and ovary)
secondary sex organs
epididymis, ductus deferentia, ejacula…
sex cells
primary sex organs... produce and secrete sex hormones/gametes
in males: essential for caring for and transporting sperm... in…
ducts to transport sperm
gametes
sex cells
gonads (testes and ovary)
primary sex organs... produce and secrete sex hormones/gametes
endocrinology and female reproductive system
hormonal axis
FSH and LH
progesterone and estrodial
menarchy
hormones thats purpose is to produce other hormones
secreted in anterior PG, work in female ovaries
produced in ovary and work in endometrium of uterus
first ovarian cycle that occur about age 13
hormonal axis
hormones thats purpose is to produce other hormones
FSH and LH
secreted in anterior PG, work in female ovaries
Endocrinology of the Reproductive System
dopamine role in reproductive system
5-alpha reductase
Default is female. Need two hormones:
XX/XY --> development of external geni…
• Dopamine is continuously produced to inhibit production of…
• 5-alpha reductase is required for development of external g…
• Testosterone and a glycoprotein hormone called mullerin inh…
• XX ovaries female external genitalia female... • XY testes…
dopamine role in reproductive system
• Dopamine is continuously produced to inhibit production of…
5-alpha reductase
• 5-alpha reductase is required for development of external g…
24 terms
Reproductive Systems & Endocrinology
Gametes
Gametogenesis
Gonads
Copulation/Coitus
cells that fuse with other cells to make an embryo
making gametes
organs that produce gametes
sex
Gametes
cells that fuse with other cells to make an embryo
Gametogenesis
making gametes
23 terms
40. Endocrinology (Reproductive system female)
2x10^6
300,000
Follicular and Luteal
Preantral, Antral, Luteal, Preovulatory
How many primary oocytes are found at birth?
How many primary oocytes survive till puberty?
What are the two phases of the menstrual cycle?
What are the phases of Follicle development?
2x10^6
How many primary oocytes are found at birth?
300,000
How many primary oocytes survive till puberty?
47 terms
Male and female reproductive systems: endocrinology
Gametes
Spermatozoa
Ova
Haploid
-Sex cells... -Have a copy of half of genetic material
Male gametes
Female gametes
n chromosomes (sex cells)
Gametes
-Sex cells... -Have a copy of half of genetic material
Spermatozoa
Male gametes
22 terms
Endocrinology of male and female reproductive systems
gonadal differentiation is largely dri…
Presence of androgens induces what in…
lower levels of androgens leads to ___…
Sex is defined as:
the presence of androgens in males and decrease amounts in fe…
genital differentiation; during puberty, develop secondary ch…
female genital differentiation, and secondary characteristics
biological and physiological charcteristics that define women…
gonadal differentiation is largely dri…
the presence of androgens in males and decrease amounts in fe…
Presence of androgens induces what in…
genital differentiation; during puberty, develop secondary ch…
178 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
What does the Seminal Vesicle give to…
Pathway of sperm during ejaculation—
What do the Bulbourethral = Cowper's g…
What does the Prostate secrete?
Food (fructose) and clothes (semen)
SEVEN UP:... Seminiferous tubules... Epididymis... Vas deferens... Ejacul…
Bicarbonate (neutralize lactobacilli)
"The prostate HAZ it"... Hyaluronidase- eat through corona radia…
What does the Seminal Vesicle give to…
Food (fructose) and clothes (semen)
Pathway of sperm during ejaculation—
SEVEN UP:... Seminiferous tubules... Epididymis... Vas deferens... Ejacul…
35 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
Define PCOS
What may cause PCOS?
What are the symptoms of PCOS?
DDx of PCOS?
"Heterogeneous syndrome characterized by hyperandrogenism, ov…
• Hypothalamus and pituitary - change in pulsatile secretions…
• Oligo / Amenorrhoea ... o Primary Amenorrhoea - not having per…
Thyroid disorder (particularly hypothyroidism).... Hyperprolacti…
Define PCOS
"Heterogeneous syndrome characterized by hyperandrogenism, ov…
What may cause PCOS?
• Hypothalamus and pituitary - change in pulsatile secretions…
Reproductive Endocrinology
Hirsutism
Virilization
Defeminization
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, CAH
male hair pattern
frontal balding, muscularity, clitoromegaly, and voice deepen…
Decreased breast size, loss of feminine adipose tissue
A deficiency of at least 1 enzyme required for the biochemica…
Hirsutism
male hair pattern
Virilization
frontal balding, muscularity, clitoromegaly, and voice deepen…
Repro 3 - Endocrinology of the Male Reproductive System
All steroids are derived from what?
Which hormone provides a negative feed…
What percentage of testosterone become…
What does androgen mean?
Cholesterol
Testosterone
30% Bound to Plasma Albumin... 67.5% Bound to Sex Hormone-Bindin…
Any steroid that has masculinizing effects
All steroids are derived from what?
Cholesterol
Which hormone provides a negative feed…
Testosterone
Reproductive Endocrinology
Name the female reproductive cycles
Ovarian Cycle phases
Uterine Cycle phases
MALE LH
Ovarian cycle, uterine (menstrual) cycle, and hormonal cycle.
Primordial follicle, primary follicles, secondary follicule,…
Stratum functionals
...
Name the female reproductive cycles
Ovarian cycle, uterine (menstrual) cycle, and hormonal cycle.
Ovarian Cycle phases
Primordial follicle, primary follicles, secondary follicule,…
178 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
What does the Seminal Vesicle give to…
Pathway of sperm during ejaculation—
What do the Bulbourethral = Cowper's g…
What does the Prostate secrete?
Food (fructose) and clothes (semen)
SEVEN UP:... Seminiferous tubules... Epididymis... Vas deferens... Ejacul…
Bicarbonate (neutralize lactobacilli)
"The prostate HAZ it"... Hyaluronidase- eat through corona radia…
What does the Seminal Vesicle give to…
Food (fructose) and clothes (semen)
Pathway of sperm during ejaculation—
SEVEN UP:... Seminiferous tubules... Epididymis... Vas deferens... Ejacul…
178 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
What does the Seminal Vesicle give to…
Pathway of sperm during ejaculation—
What do the Bulbourethral = Cowper's g…
What does the Prostate secrete?
Food (fructose) and clothes (semen)
SEVEN UP:... Seminiferous tubules... Epididymis... Vas deferens... Ejacul…
Bicarbonate (neutralize lactobacilli)
"The prostate HAZ it"... Hyaluronidase- eat through corona radia…
What does the Seminal Vesicle give to…
Food (fructose) and clothes (semen)
Pathway of sperm during ejaculation—
SEVEN UP:... Seminiferous tubules... Epididymis... Vas deferens... Ejacul…
18 terms
Endocrinology and Reproductive System Final Exam Study Guide
1. Know the anatomy of the hypothalamu…
2. Discuss the distinction between hom…
3. Know the physiological functions of…
4. Review the steps of gametogenesis f…
STUDY HANDOUT!
?
primary male organs: ... 1. testes= spermatogenesis... 2. epididymi…
Spermatogenesis... location: seminiferous tubules of testes... a. g…
1. Know the anatomy of the hypothalamu…
STUDY HANDOUT!
2. Discuss the distinction between hom…
?
178 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
What does the Seminal Vesicle give to…
Pathway of sperm during ejaculation—
What do the Bulbourethral = Cowper's g…
What does the Prostate secrete?
Food (fructose) and clothes (semen)
SEVEN UP:... Seminiferous tubules... Epididymis... Vas deferens... Ejacul…
Bicarbonate (neutralize lactobacilli)
"The prostate HAZ it"... Hyaluronidase- eat through corona radia…
What does the Seminal Vesicle give to…
Food (fructose) and clothes (semen)
Pathway of sperm during ejaculation—
SEVEN UP:... Seminiferous tubules... Epididymis... Vas deferens... Ejacul…
109 terms
Endocrinology Exam 2 The Female Reproductive System
The female reproductive system 3 purpo…
The female endocrine systems (operate…
What occurs in the follicle
what occurs in the corpus luteum
1. development of female gametes (ova)... 2. maintenance of the…
1. follicle... 2. Corpus luteum
1. oogenesis occurs... 2. estradiol synthesis
1. maintains fetus... 2. progesterone synthesis
The female reproductive system 3 purpo…
1. development of female gametes (ova)... 2. maintenance of the…
The female endocrine systems (operate…
1. follicle... 2. Corpus luteum
23 terms
Reproductive endocrinology
Epididymis & ductus deferens
Testes
Seminal vesicles
Prostate
involved in the maturation of sperm, storage and exit
produces sperm and testosterone
contain fructose, prostaglandins, the bulk of seminal fluid,…
secretions from this part of the male reproductive system alk…
Epididymis & ductus deferens
involved in the maturation of sperm, storage and exit
Testes
produces sperm and testosterone
57 terms
L1-2 Endocrinology and the Reproductive System
Peptide Hormones
Examples of Peptide Hormones
Amino Acid Hormones
Example of Amino Acid Hormones
Often synthesized large precursors termed prohormones. They a…
LH, ACTH, GnRH
Derived from tyrosine and stored in endocrine gland before se…
Dopamine, Epinephrine, Thyroxine
Peptide Hormones
Often synthesized large precursors termed prohormones. They a…
Examples of Peptide Hormones
LH, ACTH, GnRH
111 terms
reproductive endocrinology
Cholesterol to pregnenolone conversion…
Testosterone to estradiol conversion b…
Cytochrome P-450
Androgen binding protein
LH effect on Leydig cells
FSH effect on Sertoli cells
Aromatase enzyme type
Concentrates testosterone in seminiferous tubules
Cholesterol to pregnenolone conversion…
LH effect on Leydig cells
Testosterone to estradiol conversion b…
FSH effect on Sertoli cells
12 terms
reproductive endocrinology
endocrine system
endocrine glands
peptide
steroids
utilizes hormones produced in one body region that affect a d…
produce hormones directly into the bloodstream via thin walle…
must be taken by injection, binds to receptor in the plasma m…
can be taken orally, soluble in the cellular plasma membrane,…
endocrine system
utilizes hormones produced in one body region that affect a d…
endocrine glands
produce hormones directly into the bloodstream via thin walle…
34 terms
BIO 336 endocrinology and female reproductive system final
hormonal axis
FSH and LH
progesterone and estrodial
menarchy
hormones thats purpose is to produce other hormones
secreted in anterior PG, work in female ovaries
produced in ovary and work in endometrium of uterus
first ovarian cycle that occur about age 13
hormonal axis
hormones thats purpose is to produce other hormones
FSH and LH
secreted in anterior PG, work in female ovaries
61 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
sexual reproduction logistical hurdles
answer to problems of sexual reporduct…
hormones in coordination of reproduction
hypothalamus
-haploid gamete cell specialization... -timing of gamete product…
-use hormones to coordinate... -can also be used to manipulate
-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis
-at the base of the brain... -receives many different inputs fro…
sexual reproduction logistical hurdles
-haploid gamete cell specialization... -timing of gamete product…
answer to problems of sexual reporduct…
-use hormones to coordinate... -can also be used to manipulate
Reproductive Endocrinology
What produces GnRH?
What produces Oxytocin?
Where is Oxytocin stored?
Where is LH produced?
Surge & Tonic Centers of Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus
Posterior lobe of pituitary gland
Anterior lobe of pituitary gland
What produces GnRH?
Surge & Tonic Centers of Hypothalamus
What produces Oxytocin?
Hypothalamus
28 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
How do protein and steroid hormones si…
Why do protein hormones utilize membra…
Why do steroid hormones attach to spec…
How do steroid hormones attach to spec…
- require presence of receptor in target tissue... - protein hor…
...
...
...
How do protein and steroid hormones si…
- require presence of receptor in target tissue... - protein hor…
Why do protein hormones utilize membra…
...
79 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
Endocrinology
Endocrine gland
Hormone
Characteristics of hormones: ... - presen…
study of structure and function of endocrine glands and the r…
organs or groups of cells which produce hormones and secrete…
a chemical messenger which travels via the circulation to rea…
- circulation; low... - inhibit; accelerate... - secreted... - receptor
Endocrinology
study of structure and function of endocrine glands and the r…
Endocrine gland
organs or groups of cells which produce hormones and secrete…
13 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Estrogen
*Produced by the hypothalamus... *Targets the anterior pituitary…
*Produced by the anterior pituitary... Female:... *Targets the lute…
*Produced by the anterior pituitary ... Female:... *Targets the gra…
*Produced by the follicle and placenta... *Targets the uterus, h…
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
*Produced by the hypothalamus... *Targets the anterior pituitary…
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
*Produced by the anterior pituitary... Female:... *Targets the lute…
Reproductive Endocrinology
Reproductive Physiology Overview
Spermatogenesis
Effect of Inhibin
Sufficient Sperm Production
-Controlled by Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis... -Males:…
-Controlled by the hypothalamus ... 1. LH stimulates Leydig cell…
-Produced by Sertoli Cells ... -Controls spermatogenesis based o…
-Sertoli cells release inhibin... -Inhibits FSH secretion by a…
Reproductive Physiology Overview
-Controlled by Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis... -Males:…
Spermatogenesis
-Controlled by the hypothalamus ... 1. LH stimulates Leydig cell…
Reproductive Endocrinology
GnRH
LH
FSH
Placenta
Prod. by hypothalamus, stim. anterior pituitary... Pulsatile prod.
Prod. by anterior pituitary... Stim. gonadal hormone prod. (andr…
Prod. by anterior pituitary... Stim. egg, sperm prod., aids in o…
Prod. estrogens, progesterone, hcG
GnRH
Prod. by hypothalamus, stim. anterior pituitary... Pulsatile prod.
LH
Prod. by anterior pituitary... Stim. gonadal hormone prod. (andr…
Reproductive endocrinology
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea
Primary ovarian insufficiency
Turner syndrome
46XY gonadal dysgenesis
Stress, weight loss, exercise... Low FSH, LH, oestradiol... Treatme…
Usually idiopathic, but can be autoimmune, genetic, chemo/rad…
45X karyotype most common... Short stature - can give GH ... 90% ha…
Normal female external/internal genitalia but no secondary se…
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea
Stress, weight loss, exercise... Low FSH, LH, oestradiol... Treatme…
Primary ovarian insufficiency
Usually idiopathic, but can be autoimmune, genetic, chemo/rad…
9 terms
reproductive endocrinology
Amenorrhea
Kallmann's Syndrome
Hyperprolactinemia
Hypogonadism
lack of menstrual cycle
GnRH deficiency, no sexual maturation
Dopamine fails to inhibit prolactin release
Male feminization
Amenorrhea
lack of menstrual cycle
Kallmann's Syndrome
GnRH deficiency, no sexual maturation
45 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
LHRH/GnRH storage
glycoprotein hormones
17-estrogen-dione
norepinephrine
in median pre-optic area and arcuate nucleus median eminence;…
have alpha and beta subunits--beta subunits confer biological…
primary ovarian estrogen generated by conversion of cholester…
stimulates LHRH release
LHRH/GnRH storage
in median pre-optic area and arcuate nucleus median eminence;…
glycoprotein hormones
have alpha and beta subunits--beta subunits confer biological…
Reproductive endocrinology
semen analysis
testosterone levels
low testosterone level, what next
surrogate marker for decline in testos…
3 or more samples in 48 hours
vary during the day due to LH pulses, HIGHEST LEVELS IN THE M…
CONFIRM!!!!
decline in morning erections, if normal T is probably normal
semen analysis
3 or more samples in 48 hours
testosterone levels
vary during the day due to LH pulses, HIGHEST LEVELS IN THE M…
78 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
male reproductive system parts
main job of testis (2)
why do testis have to be suspended out…
benign prostatic hypertrophy
testes, Vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis
1. spermatogenesis— happens in testis, maturation of sperm... 2.…
spermatogenesis has to be 2 degrees lower than body temp to p…
prostate enlarges and pinches urethra which can lead to them…
male reproductive system parts
testes, Vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis
main job of testis (2)
1. spermatogenesis— happens in testis, maturation of sperm... 2.…
47 terms
reproductive endocrinology
oxytocin important for
prolactin important for
prolactin released from ____ pituitary
oxytocin and AHD produced in ______ pi…
labor
milk lactation
anterior
posterior
oxytocin important for
labor
prolactin important for
milk lactation
39 terms
Endocrinology - Reproductive Endocrinology I
Human chorionic gonadotrophin... A Has a…
Maternal serum HCG levels at the time…
Peak maternal serum HCG concentration…
Human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)…
C Is a glycoprotein... HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (HCG)... - Gly…
B 100 IU/L... - Maternal HCG ~100IU/L at the time of the first…
C 100,000 IU/L... - Maternal HCG ~100IU/L at the time of the fi…
A Is mainly excreted by the kidneys... - Maternal HCG ~100IU/L…
Human chorionic gonadotrophin... A Has a…
C Is a glycoprotein... HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (HCG)... - Gly…
Maternal serum HCG levels at the time…
B 100 IU/L... - Maternal HCG ~100IU/L at the time of the first…
13 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
Physiology
GnRH MOA
LH
FSH
1. Hypothalamus secretes GnRH and Dopamine... 2. GnRH and Dopami…
binds to G-protein linked IP3-Ca2+ signal transduction pathwa…
Males = acts on Leydig cells --> androgen synthesis... Females =…
Males = acts on Sertoli cells --> nutrient production for spe…
Physiology
1. Hypothalamus secretes GnRH and Dopamine... 2. GnRH and Dopami…
GnRH MOA
binds to G-protein linked IP3-Ca2+ signal transduction pathwa…
Reproductive endocrinology
Endocrine system
comes from Greek word horman which mea…
interaction of these three things allo…
controlled by feedback mechanisms
there is no "wiring" like that found like that in the nervous…
hormone
anatomical structures ... hormones ... target tissues
secretion, transport, and clearance
Endocrine system
there is no "wiring" like that found like that in the nervous…
comes from Greek word horman which mea…
hormone
Reproductive Endocrinology
GnRH
LH in males
FSH in males
Testosterone
From Hypothal Arcuate Nucleus ... Binds to receptor on AP... -Gq ... -…
binds to leydig cells... -Gs... -increased production of testosterone
Binds to Sertoli Cells... -Gs... -increases production of Inhibin (…
differentiation of epididymis, vas def, seminal vesicles... -pub…
GnRH
From Hypothal Arcuate Nucleus ... Binds to receptor on AP... -Gq ... -…
LH in males
binds to leydig cells... -Gs... -increased production of testosterone
Reproductive Endocrinology
Mentrual Cycle
Estrous Cycle
Estrogens
Progesterone
Occur in humans and primates if no pregnancy occurs. The endo…
If no pregnancy occurs, the endometrium, is reabsorbed; exten…
A Steroid hormone responsible for sex characteristics of fema…
Stimulates breast growth. Inhibits milk-producing effects of…
Mentrual Cycle
Occur in humans and primates if no pregnancy occurs. The endo…
Estrous Cycle
If no pregnancy occurs, the endometrium, is reabsorbed; exten…
28 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
Hormonal Axis
FSH
LH
Ovarian Cycle
Series of hormones come down and release other hormones
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Lutenizing Hormone: Ovulation and formation of corps lutum
Follicular ( 1-13/ 5-13 is the increase in estradiol) ... Ovulat…
Hormonal Axis
Series of hormones come down and release other hormones
FSH
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
85 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
Leydig cells
Sertoli cells
Granulosa cells
Theca cells
Produce testosterone; CT in testes
produce androgen-binding protein and inhibin
produce estrogen
Produce progesterone after ovulation
Leydig cells
Produce testosterone; CT in testes
Sertoli cells
produce androgen-binding protein and inhibin
reproductive endocrinology
hormones from ovaries
histology of follicle
regulation of menstrual cycle
follicular phase
- estrogen and progesterone: dvpmt and maintenance of female…
- oocyte in center... - granulosa and thecal cells surround
- follicular and ovulatory phases: hypothalamus secretes GnRH…
dvpmt of follicle
hormones from ovaries
- estrogen and progesterone: dvpmt and maintenance of female…
histology of follicle
- oocyte in center... - granulosa and thecal cells surround
Reproductive Endocrinology
Cons of mammalian reproduction
Pros of avian reproduction
Follicular Hierarchy
Atresia
1.) difficult to view follicular development, eggs, etc. micr…
1.) large viewable follicles ... 2. can visualize the follicular…
F1... F2... F3... Small yellow (4-8)... large white (10-15)... small white (…
Follicular death, regression and reabsorption of follicle
Cons of mammalian reproduction
1.) difficult to view follicular development, eggs, etc. micr…
Pros of avian reproduction
1.) large viewable follicles ... 2. can visualize the follicular…
Reproductive Endocrinology
Nagles rule (Estimated day of confinem…
Term Pregnancy
Birth weight
Whartons Jelly
LMP + 9 months or - 3 months + 1 week +/- varriance from 28 d…
37 to 42 weeks
2500 to 3500 g (5 to 7 lbs)
Dries after 42 weeks and leads to ischemia
Nagles rule (Estimated day of confinem…
LMP + 9 months or - 3 months + 1 week +/- varriance from 28 d…
Term Pregnancy
37 to 42 weeks
Reproductive Endocrinology
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
Oxytocin
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Stimulates the release of LH and FSH
Stimulates PGF2a synthesis, (smooth) muscle contraction
males: sertoli cell function, spermatogenesis; females: folli…
Females: stimulates ovulation, induces formation of CL and pr…
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
Stimulates the release of LH and FSH
Oxytocin
Stimulates PGF2a synthesis, (smooth) muscle contraction
26 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
Function of estrogen
function of progesterone
inhibin
Leutinizing Hormone
support of ovulation... pubertal chagnes... growth of breasts... femal…
secretory changes in endometrium... increase secretory function…
hormone secreted that has a negative feedback on FSH
secreted by the anterior pituitary to the theca interna and g…
Function of estrogen
support of ovulation... pubertal chagnes... growth of breasts... femal…
function of progesterone
secretory changes in endometrium... increase secretory function…
64 terms
Reproductive Endocrinology
The testis and ovary are __ structures
Testes must descend into the scrotum b…
two systems are responsible for mainta…
Pampiniform Venous Plexus
homologous (1 embryonic structure with 2 end products)
body temp is 37 degrees but spermatogenesis (production of sp…
Pampiniform Venous Plexus and Cremaster muscle
countercurrent blood flow to and from the testes... The blood le…
The testis and ovary are __ structures
homologous (1 embryonic structure with 2 end products)
Testes must descend into the scrotum b…
body temp is 37 degrees but spermatogenesis (production of sp…
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