Study sets matching "endocrinology"

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Study sets matching "endocrinology"

369 terms
Endocrinology
binding to receptors ... binding onto cel…
maximum biologic response... Max biologic…
within a target cell... The extent of the…
Large
Hormones... Secreted directly into circulation... Exert effects by:
Hormones... There are more receptors in cell membrane than nee…
Hormones... There are a low number of nuclear receptors
Hormone size... Polypeptides
binding to receptors ... binding onto cel…
Hormones... Secreted directly into circulation... Exert effects by:
maximum biologic response... Max biologic…
Hormones... There are more receptors in cell membrane than nee…
75 terms
Endocrinology
lact/o
epinephrine
parathyroid
poly-
root word for milk
hormone made by the adrenal medulla
gland that controls calcium levels
prefix for many
lact/o
root word for milk
epinephrine
hormone made by the adrenal medulla
254 terms
Endocrinology
hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis
hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis
hyopthalamic pituitary gonadal axis
Target tissues have receptors. Recepto…
Hypothal: CRF... Pit: ACTH... Adrenal: Glucocorticoids
hypothal: TRH... Pit: TSH... Thyroid: T4 (80%), T3 (20%)
hypothal: GnRH... Pit: LH/FSH... Gonads: Steroids (ie. Estrogen)
-Specificity - determines which organ responds... -Transduce the…
hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis
Hypothal: CRF... Pit: ACTH... Adrenal: Glucocorticoids
hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis
hypothal: TRH... Pit: TSH... Thyroid: T4 (80%), T3 (20%)
350 terms
Endocrinology
Broad classes of hormones
Peptide hormone synthesis
Steroid hormone synthesis
Amino acid-derived hormone synthesis
Peptide hormones... Steroid hormones... Amino acid-derived hormones
Preprohormone synthesized in ER... Cleaved to prohormone and tra…
Derived from cholesterol and synthesized in adrenals and gonads
Derived from tyrosine (e.g., epinephrine and thyroxine)
Broad classes of hormones
Peptide hormones... Steroid hormones... Amino acid-derived hormones
Peptide hormone synthesis
Preprohormone synthesized in ER... Cleaved to prohormone and tra…
40 terms
Endocrinology
Hormone
Endocrine signaling
Autocrine signaling
Paracrine signaling
Chemical messenger transported in the blood ... *Steroids, amino…
Hormone
Chemical messenger transported in the blood ... *Steroids, amino…
Endocrine signaling
51 terms
Endocrinology
Endocrine glands secrete their hormone…
Which of the following is a steroid ho…
Which of the following is true of the…
Diabetes is caused primarily by a diso…
Bloodstream
Progesterone
Negative feedback is the most common feedback mechanism
Pancreas
Endocrine glands secrete their hormone…
Bloodstream
Which of the following is a steroid ho…
Progesterone
114 terms
Endocrinology
What is endocrinology?
Skin derived form what germ layer?
hormones affect what?
Secreting of milk pathway is what?
Study of endocrine glands, the hormones produced, & the effec…
ectoderm
Mucus glands (estrogen)... Mammary glands (myriad of hormones)
exo
What is endocrinology?
Study of endocrine glands, the hormones produced, & the effec…
Skin derived form what germ layer?
ectoderm
Endocrinology
What is a Hormone?
What are the 2 components of pituitary…
What are the 2 class of hormone produc…
How is the anterior pituitary gland re…
A chemical secreted by glands and travel via blood to target…
Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis) and Posterior Pituitary…
Glycoproteins TROPHIC HORMONES and PEPTIDE HORMONE.
It is regulated via HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROPEPTIDES that activate…
What is a Hormone?
A chemical secreted by glands and travel via blood to target…
What are the 2 components of pituitary…
Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis) and Posterior Pituitary…
78 terms
Endocrinology
A chemical that has a local effect on…
A chemical that has an effect on the s…
Secretes their products into ducts.
Secretes their products into blood str…
Paracrine
Autocrine
Exocrine
Endocrine
A chemical that has a local effect on…
Paracrine
A chemical that has an effect on the s…
Autocrine
176 terms
Endocrinology
CHAPTER 1: HORMONE CLASSIFICATION AND…
Whats the difference between the endoc…
What are endocrine secretions?
What are paracrine secretions?
....
The exocrine system secretes its products into ducts and the…
Hormones that travel through blood to a target
They act locally via interstitial space and do not travel thr…
CHAPTER 1: HORMONE CLASSIFICATION AND…
....
Whats the difference between the endoc…
The exocrine system secretes its products into ducts and the…
15 terms
Endocrinology
Name the 3 principal functions of the…
name the 4 basic characteristics of ho…
name the 3 classes of hormones
all steroid hormones originate from a…
-maintain homeostasis... -integration and regulation of growth,…
-may have more than one target... -more than one hormone my affe…
steroid, protein/peptide hormones, and AA analogues and deriv…
cholesterol
Name the 3 principal functions of the…
-maintain homeostasis... -integration and regulation of growth,…
name the 4 basic characteristics of ho…
-may have more than one target... -more than one hormone my affe…
ENDOCRINOLOGY
THYROID HORMONES
THYROID HORMONES
THYROTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE
THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE
stimulates many cells metabolic processes
necessary for normal growth and development
stimulates the pituitary to release TSH
stimulates the thyroid gland to produce both thyroxine(T4) an…
THYROID HORMONES
stimulates many cells metabolic processes
THYROID HORMONES
necessary for normal growth and development
27 terms
Endocrinology
Growth Hormone (GH)
Prolactin (PRL)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Function: stimulates increase in size, promotes growth of lon…
Function: Sustains milk production after birth.... Regulation: i…
Function: controls secretion of hormones from the thyroid gla…
Function: controls secretion of certain hormones from adrenal…
Growth Hormone (GH)
Function: stimulates increase in size, promotes growth of lon…
Prolactin (PRL)
Function: Sustains milk production after birth.... Regulation: i…
403 terms
Endocrinology
autocrine secretion
paracrine secretion
example of autocrine secretion
example of paracrine secretion
released signal affects the cell from which it was secreted
released signal acts on neighboring cells w/ appropriate rece…
neoplastic growth advanced by growth factors released by and…
upon exposure to allergen, histamine is released and acts on…
autocrine secretion
released signal affects the cell from which it was secreted
paracrine secretion
released signal acts on neighboring cells w/ appropriate rece…
163 terms
Endocrinology
Endocrine gland types
Hormone storage and production
Hormone receptor types
Hypothalmic-hypophyseal nerve tract
Discrete glands... Endocrine components of other organs... Scattere…
Steroids... - Not stored... - SER, Golgi... AAs, peptides, glycoprote…
Membrane receptors... - Amine, peptide, and protein hormones... Cy…
Link between hypothalamus and neurohypophysis
Endocrine gland types
Discrete glands... Endocrine components of other organs... Scattere…
Hormone storage and production
Steroids... - Not stored... - SER, Golgi... AAs, peptides, glycoprote…
endocrinology
aden/o
adren/o
adrenal/o
crin/o
gland
adrenal glands
adrenal glands
secrete
aden/o
gland
adren/o
adrenal glands
363 terms
Endocrinology
What do autocrine, paracrine, and endo…
What is the only dipeptide that binds…
What is the primary effect of somatost…
Which pancreatic cells produce somatos…
Autocrine - Chemical self-regulation... Paracrine - Chemical reg…
Thyroid hormone is a dipeptide with a nuclear receptor
Suppression of GH and TSH
δ islet cells release somatostatin, which suppresses release…
What do autocrine, paracrine, and endo…
Autocrine - Chemical self-regulation... Paracrine - Chemical reg…
What is the only dipeptide that binds…
Thyroid hormone is a dipeptide with a nuclear receptor
74 terms
Endocrinology
Intro
endocrinology
endocrine system:
Functions of hormones:
human body contains 10 trillion cells which lie more than 2 m…
study of hormones and disorders of these hormones
-hypothalamus and pituitary... -thyroid and parathyroid... -adrenal…
-homeostasis- constant internal environment... -regulate growth…
Intro
human body contains 10 trillion cells which lie more than 2 m…
endocrinology
study of hormones and disorders of these hormones
13 terms
Endocrinology
Type 1 diabetes
Type II diabetes
Secondary diabetes causes
Diestrus increases _____ which increas…
Insulin-dependent diabetes- the type dogs get
Non-Insuline dependent diabetes- occurs in cats
include pancreatic disease, hormonal, drug induced, insulin r…
Progesterone, GH
Type 1 diabetes
Insulin-dependent diabetes- the type dogs get
Type II diabetes
Non-Insuline dependent diabetes- occurs in cats
193 terms
Endocrinology
1. What are carpopedal spasms?... 2. Why…
1. What are normal calcium ranges?... 2.…
1. How is trosseau's sign elicited?... 2.…
1. What is a positive chvosteks sign l…
1. Violent, painful contractions of the hands or feet... 2. As a…
1. 9-11 mg/dl ... 2. <6.5 mg/dl
1. By inflating BP CUFF above systolic pressure (20 mm hg abo…
1. Abnormal unilateral spasm of the facial muscle when facial…
1. What are carpopedal spasms?... 2. Why…
1. Violent, painful contractions of the hands or feet... 2. As a…
1. What are normal calcium ranges?... 2.…
1. 9-11 mg/dl ... 2. <6.5 mg/dl
ENDOCRINOLOGY
Two major regulatory systems found in…
endocrinology
hormone
Exocrine gland
Nervous - short term quick response (neurotransmitters)... Endoc…
Study of hormones, hormone receptors and signaling pathways t…
A chemical secreted by a cell or group of cells into the bloo…
uses ducts to transport product to body surfaces or body cavi…
Two major regulatory systems found in…
Nervous - short term quick response (neurotransmitters)... Endoc…
endocrinology
Study of hormones, hormone receptors and signaling pathways t…
91 terms
Endocrinology
Hypothalamus hormones: Anti-diuretic h…
Hypothalamus hormones: Oxytocin
Hypothalamus hormones: Somatostatin
Hypothalamus hormones: Thyrotropin rel…
Regulates water levels in the body- it affects blood pressure…
Controls sexual arousal, recognition, trust, anxiety, mother-…
Inhibits growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone
Stimulates thyroid hormone
Hypothalamus hormones: Anti-diuretic h…
Regulates water levels in the body- it affects blood pressure…
Hypothalamus hormones: Oxytocin
Controls sexual arousal, recognition, trust, anxiety, mother-…
58 terms
Endocrinology
Normal fasting level glucose
Excess glucose is converted into what?…
What happens in insulin deficiency?
Early symptoms of hyperglycemia
80 - 90 mg/100mL
Fatty acids. Lipogenesis.
Uses fat for energy. Acetic acid is produced and can lead to…
Insidious onset, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, blurred vi…
Normal fasting level glucose
80 - 90 mg/100mL
Excess glucose is converted into what?…
Fatty acids. Lipogenesis.
77 terms
Endocrinology
Endocrine and nervous systems
Homeostasis
Nervous system
Endocrine system
What are the 2 systems that control a body functions and regu…
This is the term for the tendency of an organism to maintain…
This system controls homeostasis, nerve impulses, and excitat…
This system controls homeostasis through the release of hormo…
Endocrine and nervous systems
What are the 2 systems that control a body functions and regu…
Homeostasis
This is the term for the tendency of an organism to maintain…
8 terms
endocrinology
Goatflap
gOatflap
goAtflap
goaTflap
growth hormone... purpose:... affects metabolism in many tissues,…
oxytocin... purpose:... controls the ejaculation of milk during br…
vasopressin or ADH antidiuretic... purpose: acts on the kidneys…
thyrotropin stimulating hormone... purpose:... controls hormone sy…
Goatflap
growth hormone... purpose:... affects metabolism in many tissues,…
gOatflap
oxytocin... purpose:... controls the ejaculation of milk during br…
Endocrinology
Acromegaly
ACTH
Addison's Disease
ADH
Condition produced by hypersecretion of GH in adulthood; bone…
Adrenocorticoptropic hormone... Anterior Pituitary... Target Organ…
Condition of hyposecretion of aldosterone and cortisol
Posterior Pituitary ... Target Organ & Functions:... - Kidney-incre…
Acromegaly
Condition produced by hypersecretion of GH in adulthood; bone…
ACTH
Adrenocorticoptropic hormone... Anterior Pituitary... Target Organ…
49 terms
endocrinology
laser therapy for DM retinopathy
nonfunctioning adrenal mass >6 cm
adrenal mass <4 cm < 20 hounsfield units
hypercalcemia in granulomatous disease…
improved central vision, decreased peripheral vision and nigh…
25% malignant, Tx adrenalectomy
repeat scan 6-12 months
excess 1,25 vitamin D
laser therapy for DM retinopathy
improved central vision, decreased peripheral vision and nigh…
nonfunctioning adrenal mass >6 cm
25% malignant, Tx adrenalectomy
Endocrinology
hyperpituitarism
hypopituitarism
panhypopituitarism
galactorrhea
hypersecretion of one of all hormones of the anterior pituita…
hyposecretion of one or more hormones of the anterior pituita…
hyposecretion of all hormones
hypersecretion of prolactin caused by an adenoma
hyperpituitarism
hypersecretion of one of all hormones of the anterior pituita…
hypopituitarism
hyposecretion of one or more hormones of the anterior pituita…
22 terms
Endocrinology
aden/o
adren/o
adrenal/o
crin/o
gland
adrenal glands
adrenal glands
secrete
aden/o
gland
adren/o
adrenal glands
Endocrinology
Endocrine system is the 2nd important…
Endocrine system is what type of syste…
Hormones are secreted by?... Act from the…
Every hormone has a specific
regulates body's functions... [1st = nervous sys] ... -regulating o…
Humoral... ----... its based on the action of hormones (chemical me…
glands into internal body fluids (ex: blood)... ----... production…
Receptor in "Target Organ"... -acts only on specific "Target Tis…
Endocrine system is the 2nd important…
regulates body's functions... [1st = nervous sys] ... -regulating o…
Endocrine system is what type of syste…
Humoral... ----... its based on the action of hormones (chemical me…
101 terms
Endocrinology
Polydipsia definiton
Define Polyuria
What are the causes of Hirsutism?
What is Metabolic Syndrome?
Thirsty
Passage of excessive urine... (check the patient does not mean f…
- Most cases are idopathic... - Some drugs (anabolic steroids, c…
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions — increased blo…
Polydipsia definiton
Thirsty
Define Polyuria
Passage of excessive urine... (check the patient does not mean f…
411 terms
Endocrinology
1. All are causes of hyperprolactinemi…
2. Which of the following is true rega…
3. Investigation of choice of hyperpro…
4. Which drug is essential in Sheehan'…
1) Bromocriptine
4) ac... a) Bilateral... c) Associated with prolactinomas and othe…
3) Prolactin estimation
2) Cortisone
1. All are causes of hyperprolactinemi…
1) Bromocriptine
2. Which of the following is true rega…
4) ac... a) Bilateral... c) Associated with prolactinomas and othe…
32 terms
Endocrinology
Thyroid Cancer
Pheochromocytoma
Hyperprolactinemia
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
Single large nodule >2.5cm. The 24 hour radioactive iodine up…
Random episodes of severe hypertension SBP>200 and/or DBP>100…
Can be a sign of pituitary adenoma. Slow onset. If tumor caus…
TSH, FSH, LH, GH, Prolactin, ACTH
Thyroid Cancer
Single large nodule >2.5cm. The 24 hour radioactive iodine up…
Pheochromocytoma
Random episodes of severe hypertension SBP>200 and/or DBP>100…
46 terms
Endocrinology
↑Prolactinemia
Microadenoma
Acromegaly
Octreotide Side Effect
(+) TRH... (-) Dopamine... Manage: Check for pregnancy, hypothyroi…
Prolactinoma- 50-60% = most common endocrine tumor... Growth H…
Cx: Osteoarthropathy, Menstrual prblems, Obstructive sleep ap…
Cholestasis
↑Prolactinemia
(+) TRH... (-) Dopamine... Manage: Check for pregnancy, hypothyroi…
Microadenoma
Prolactinoma- 50-60% = most common endocrine tumor... Growth H…
Endocrinology
How does growth hormone affect bone gr…
Discuss the hormones involved in the p…
What disorders result from excesses or…
What disorders result from excesses or…
2 isoforms of GH 22kDa (75%) and 20kDa (10-15%) ... (V-i fig 21-…
Due to several different actions.... 1. protein anabolic action…
Child Excess- Gigantism:... excess GH in children--> /\ growth o…
Adult Excess- Acromegaly:... Excess GH in adult /\ height is not…
How does growth hormone affect bone gr…
2 isoforms of GH 22kDa (75%) and 20kDa (10-15%) ... (V-i fig 21-…
Discuss the hormones involved in the p…
Due to several different actions.... 1. protein anabolic action…
56 terms
Endocrinology
MC pituitary adenoma?
Tx for MC pituitary adenoma?
1st hormones lost in hypopituitarism?
2nd hormones lost in hypopituitarism?
Prolactinoma
Bromocriptine or cabergoline
FSH and LH
GRH
MC pituitary adenoma?
Prolactinoma
Tx for MC pituitary adenoma?
Bromocriptine or cabergoline
79 terms
Endocrinology
hypothalamic-pituitary-axis: name the…
Tx of pituitary adenoma
calcium opposes which electrolyte
hyperparathyroidism causes what lyte a…
FSH... LH... ACTH... TSH... PRL... GH (somatotropin)... ADH (vasopressin)... Oxyt…
dopamine agonists (ie bromocriptine, cabergoline)
phosphate
hypercalcemia
hypothalamic-pituitary-axis: name the…
FSH... LH... ACTH... TSH... PRL... GH (somatotropin)... ADH (vasopressin)... Oxyt…
Tx of pituitary adenoma
dopamine agonists (ie bromocriptine, cabergoline)
19 terms
Endocrinology
Which of the thyroid hormones is the a…
Which of thr thyroid hormones is the p…
How are levels of hormones different i…
Headache... Bitemporal hemianopia... Cranial…
T3 (triiodotrionine)
thyroxine (T4)
Low cortisol and aldosterone
Enlarged pituitary
Which of the thyroid hormones is the a…
T3 (triiodotrionine)
Which of thr thyroid hormones is the p…
thyroxine (T4)
Endocrinology
Exocrine glands
endocrine glands
neuroendocrine glands
The secretions of endocrine and neuroe…
external secretion
internal secretion
formed by neurons, do not secrete product across synapse, sec…
hormones
Exocrine glands
external secretion
endocrine glands
internal secretion
162 terms
Endocrinology
What are 7 things to know about every…
What is an example of a paracrine enzy…
What is an example of an autocrine enz…
Define Apocrine (merocrine). Give an e…
1. name and where it comes from ... 2. main stimulus - who ... 3. m…
· GI somatostatin only works on the GI hormones ... · Hypothalam…
Thymosin and thymopoietin are secreted by the thymus and only…
Tip of cell is secreted with the substance ... 90% sweat glands
What are 7 things to know about every…
1. name and where it comes from ... 2. main stimulus - who ... 3. m…
What is an example of a paracrine enzy…
· GI somatostatin only works on the GI hormones ... · Hypothalam…
6 terms
endocrinology
Drug of choice for hyperthyroidism
HYPERTHYROIDISM during pregnancy
Graves disease
men 2A syndrome
methimazole : preferred agent in patients with hyperthyroidis…
PTU
diffuse thyromegaly... thyroid bruit... elevated thyroid-stimulatin…
Medullary thyroid cancer... pheochromocytoma... primary hyperparath…
Drug of choice for hyperthyroidism
methimazole : preferred agent in patients with hyperthyroidis…
HYPERTHYROIDISM during pregnancy
PTU
8 terms
Endocrinology
Big Picture
Peptide Hormone Synthesis
Peptide Hormones Characteristics
Steroid Hormones
Glands secrete hormones into blood stream to cause change in…
DNA...mRNA...ribosome (signal peptide for docking proteins)..…
extracellular receptor binding...leads to signaling cascascad…
derived from cholesterol...... produced by Adrenal Cortex and G…
Big Picture
Glands secrete hormones into blood stream to cause change in…
Peptide Hormone Synthesis
DNA...mRNA...ribosome (signal peptide for docking proteins)..…
14 terms
Endocrinology
Endocrinology
Hormone
Target Cell
Receptor
-Branch of Physiology. ... -Study of hormones and their effect o…
Released by endocrine glands (pineal gland, pituitary gland,…
cells that have receptors for hormones
Area on a cell where a hormone binds and causes a reaction wi…
Endocrinology
-Branch of Physiology. ... -Study of hormones and their effect o…
Hormone
Released by endocrine glands (pineal gland, pituitary gland,…
18 terms
ENDOCRINOLOGY
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia... MEN 1 (m…
Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors
Pheochromocytoma
Thyroid Cancer- Defining Characteris…
MEN1: melanin tumor suppressor gene, autosomal dominant.... - 3…
Gastrinoma: recurrent peptic ulcers and dyspepsia (Zollinge…
Neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (or…
Papillary (75%)- most common, "Orphan Annie eye" nuclear in…
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia... MEN 1 (m…
MEN1: melanin tumor suppressor gene, autosomal dominant.... - 3…
Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors
Gastrinoma: recurrent peptic ulcers and dyspepsia (Zollinge…
11 terms
endocrinology
hyperpituitarism
hypopituitarism
diabetes insipidous
hyperthyroidism
hypersecretion of one or more hormones in anterior pituitary…
hyposecretion of one of more hormones in anterior pituitary g…
hyposecretion of ADH
hypersecretion of T3 &T4
hyperpituitarism
hypersecretion of one or more hormones in anterior pituitary…
hypopituitarism
hyposecretion of one of more hormones in anterior pituitary g…
131 terms
Endocrinology
endocrine system
hormone
Berthold endocrine experiment (1849)
homeostasis
a number of glands which form hormones, cell signaling molecu…
a molecule synthesized by one cell which has an effect on ano…
Hypothesis: Intact testes are necessary for the development o…
cooperative effect of all the body's systems to maintain a co…
endocrine system
a number of glands which form hormones, cell signaling molecu…
hormone
a molecule synthesized by one cell which has an effect on ano…
42 terms
Endocrinology
Endocrine Glands
Hypothalamus
Anterior Pituitary
Posterior Pituitary
Ductless tissue; rich blood supply so hormones can be carried…
a region of the lower brain that integrates endocrine and ner…
not connected to the brain; releasing hormones from the hypot…
connected to the brain directly via the infundibilium
Endocrine Glands
Ductless tissue; rich blood supply so hormones can be carried…
Hypothalamus
a region of the lower brain that integrates endocrine and ner…
23 terms
Endocrinology
DM-II
DM-II: Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrom…
DM-II: Patient Management
DM-I
• Peripheral tissue resistance to insulin with relative... impai…
- ↑↑ glucose (600-2,000), ↑↑ plasma osmolality... - profound deh…
• Goals... -HgbA1C < 7%, LDL < 100, BP < 140/80... - BP goal change…
• Cause is usually autoimmune... • No endogenous insulin due to…
DM-II
• Peripheral tissue resistance to insulin with relative... impai…
DM-II: Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrom…
- ↑↑ glucose (600-2,000), ↑↑ plasma osmolality... - profound deh…
78 terms
Endocrinology
2 lab values tested for rapid developi…
DKA dx
drug inducing SIADH
symptomatic hypovolemic hypernatremia…
DHEAS & testosterone lvls
fingerstick blood glucose lvls
NSAIDs
0.9% saline until euvolemic, then 5% dextrose (correct by 0.5…
2 lab values tested for rapid developi…
DHEAS & testosterone lvls
DKA dx
fingerstick blood glucose lvls
81 terms
endocrinology
pituitary gland
neurohypophysis
adrenohypophysis
infundibulum
on the left
The hypothalamus is connected to pituitary gland (hypophysis)…
pituitary gland
neurohypophysis
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