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Study sets matching "endocrinology"

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Study sets matching "endocrinology"

75 terms
Endocrinology
lact/o
epinephrine
parathyroid
poly-
root word for milk
hormone made by the adrenal medulla
gland that controls calcium levels
prefix for many
lact/o
root word for milk
epinephrine
hormone made by the adrenal medulla
369 terms
Endocrinology
binding to receptors ... binding onto cel…
maximum biologic response... Max biologic…
within a target cell... The extent of the…
Large
Hormones... Secreted directly into circulation... Exert effects by:
Hormones... There are more receptors in cell membrane than nee…
Hormones... There are a low number of nuclear receptors
Hormone size... Polypeptides
binding to receptors ... binding onto cel…
Hormones... Secreted directly into circulation... Exert effects by:
maximum biologic response... Max biologic…
Hormones... There are more receptors in cell membrane than nee…
363 terms
Endocrinology
What do autocrine, paracrine, and endo…
What is the only dipeptide that binds…
What is the primary effect of somatost…
Which pancreatic cells produce somatos…
Autocrine - Chemical self-regulation... Paracrine - Chemical reg…
Thyroid hormone is a dipeptide with a nuclear receptor
Suppression of GH and TSH
δ islet cells release somatostatin, which suppresses release…
What do autocrine, paracrine, and endo…
Autocrine - Chemical self-regulation... Paracrine - Chemical reg…
What is the only dipeptide that binds…
Thyroid hormone is a dipeptide with a nuclear receptor
254 terms
Endocrinology
hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis
hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis
hyopthalamic pituitary gonadal axis
Target tissues have receptors. Recepto…
Hypothal: CRF... Pit: ACTH... Adrenal: Glucocorticoids
hypothal: TRH... Pit: TSH... Thyroid: T4 (80%), T3 (20%)
hypothal: GnRH... Pit: LH/FSH... Gonads: Steroids (ie. Estrogen)
-Specificity - determines which organ responds... -Transduce the…
hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis
Hypothal: CRF... Pit: ACTH... Adrenal: Glucocorticoids
hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis
hypothal: TRH... Pit: TSH... Thyroid: T4 (80%), T3 (20%)
350 terms
Endocrinology
Broad classes of hormones
Peptide hormone synthesis
Steroid hormone synthesis
Amino acid-derived hormone synthesis
Peptide hormones... Steroid hormones... Amino acid-derived hormones
Preprohormone synthesized in ER... Cleaved to prohormone and tra…
Derived from cholesterol and synthesized in adrenals and gonads
Derived from tyrosine (e.g., epinephrine and thyroxine)
Broad classes of hormones
Peptide hormones... Steroid hormones... Amino acid-derived hormones
Peptide hormone synthesis
Preprohormone synthesized in ER... Cleaved to prohormone and tra…
37 terms
Endocrinology
Pituitary gland
Thyroid gland
Parathyroid gland
Adrenal gland
An endocrine gland at the base of the hypothalamus; consists…
a gland which regulates body metabolism and requires iodine... C…
any one of four endocrine glands situated above or within the…
Produces Hormones: Epinephrine, Corticosteroids, and Norepine…
Pituitary gland
An endocrine gland at the base of the hypothalamus; consists…
Thyroid gland
a gland which regulates body metabolism and requires iodine... C…
40 terms
Endocrinology
Hormone
Endocrine signaling
Autocrine signaling
Paracrine signaling
Chemical messenger transported in the blood ... *Steroids, amino…
Hormone
Chemical messenger transported in the blood ... *Steroids, amino…
Endocrine signaling
86 terms
Endocrinology
Vitamin D... FSH... LH... Steroid Hormones
message to nucleus
FSH: follicle maturation... spermatogene…
LH: ovulation females... testosterone ma…
Rely on Binding Globulins!
RAS
Anterior Pituitary
...
Vitamin D... FSH... LH... Steroid Hormones
Rely on Binding Globulins!
message to nucleus
RAS
111 terms
Endocrinology
Endocrine system is the 2nd important…
Endocrine system is what type of syste…
Hormones are secreted by?... Act from the…
Every hormone has a specific
regulates body's functions... [1st = nervous sys] ... -regulating o…
Humoral... ----... its based on the action of hormones (chemical me…
glands into internal body fluids (ex: blood)... ----... production…
Receptor in "Target Organ"... -acts only on specific "Target Tis…
Endocrine system is the 2nd important…
regulates body's functions... [1st = nervous sys] ... -regulating o…
Endocrine system is what type of syste…
Humoral... ----... its based on the action of hormones (chemical me…
114 terms
Endocrinology
What is endocrinology?
Skin derived form what germ layer?
hormones affect what?
Secreting of milk pathway is what?
Study of endocrine glands, the hormones produced, & the effec…
ectoderm
Mucus glands (estrogen)... Mammary glands (myriad of hormones)
exo
What is endocrinology?
Study of endocrine glands, the hormones produced, & the effec…
Skin derived form what germ layer?
ectoderm
101 terms
Endocrinology
Polydipsia definiton
Define Polyuria
What are the causes of Hirsutism?
What is Metabolic Syndrome?
Thirsty
Passage of excessive urine... (check the patient does not mean f…
- Most cases are idopathic... - Some drugs (anabolic steroids, c…
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions — increased blo…
Polydipsia definiton
Thirsty
Define Polyuria
Passage of excessive urine... (check the patient does not mean f…
411 terms
Endocrinology
1. All are causes of hyperprolactinemi…
2. Which of the following is true rega…
3. Investigation of choice of hyperpro…
4. Which drug is essential in Sheehan'…
1) Bromocriptine
4) ac... a) Bilateral... c) Associated with prolactinomas and othe…
3) Prolactin estimation
2) Cortisone
1. All are causes of hyperprolactinemi…
1) Bromocriptine
2. Which of the following is true rega…
4) ac... a) Bilateral... c) Associated with prolactinomas and othe…
19 terms
Endocrinology
Which of the thyroid hormones is the a…
Which of thr thyroid hormones is the p…
How are levels of hormones different i…
Headache... Bitemporal hemianopia... Cranial…
T3 (triiodotrionine)
thyroxine (T4)
Low cortisol and aldosterone
Enlarged pituitary
Which of the thyroid hormones is the a…
T3 (triiodotrionine)
Which of thr thyroid hormones is the p…
thyroxine (T4)
108 terms
Endocrinology
What is a Hormone?
What are the 2 components of pituitary…
What are the 2 class of hormone produc…
How is the anterior pituitary gland re…
A chemical secreted by glands and travel via blood to target…
Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis) and Posterior Pituitary…
Glycoproteins TROPHIC HORMONES and PEPTIDE HORMONE.
It is regulated via HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROPEPTIDES that activate…
What is a Hormone?
A chemical secreted by glands and travel via blood to target…
What are the 2 components of pituitary…
Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis) and Posterior Pituitary…
162 terms
Endocrinology
What are 7 things to know about every…
What is an example of a paracrine enzy…
What is an example of an autocrine enz…
Define Apocrine (merocrine). Give an e…
1. name and where it comes from ... 2. main stimulus - who ... 3. m…
· GI somatostatin only works on the GI hormones ... · Hypothalam…
Thymosin and thymopoietin are secreted by the thymus and only…
Tip of cell is secreted with the substance ... 90% sweat glands
What are 7 things to know about every…
1. name and where it comes from ... 2. main stimulus - who ... 3. m…
What is an example of a paracrine enzy…
· GI somatostatin only works on the GI hormones ... · Hypothalam…
78 terms
Endocrinology
A chemical that has a local effect on…
A chemical that has an effect on the s…
Secretes their products into ducts.
Secretes their products into blood str…
Paracrine
Autocrine
Exocrine
Endocrine
A chemical that has a local effect on…
Paracrine
A chemical that has an effect on the s…
Autocrine
51 terms
Endocrinology
Endocrine glands secrete their hormone…
Which of the following is a steroid ho…
Which of the following is true of the…
Diabetes is caused primarily by a diso…
Bloodstream
Progesterone
Negative feedback is the most common feedback mechanism
Pancreas
Endocrine glands secrete their hormone…
Bloodstream
Which of the following is a steroid ho…
Progesterone
10 terms
Endocrinology
Hypothalamus
Hypophysis
Pineal Gland
Thyroid Gland
Hypothalamus
Hypophysis
46 terms
Endocrinology
↑Prolactinemia
Microadenoma
Acromegaly
Octreotide Side Effect
(+) TRH... (-) Dopamine... Manage: Check for pregnancy, hypothyroi…
Prolactinoma- 50-60% = most common endocrine tumor... Growth H…
Cx: Osteoarthropathy, Menstrual prblems, Obstructive sleep ap…
Cholestasis
↑Prolactinemia
(+) TRH... (-) Dopamine... Manage: Check for pregnancy, hypothyroi…
Microadenoma
Prolactinoma- 50-60% = most common endocrine tumor... Growth H…
14 terms
Endocrinology
Endocrinology
Hormone
Target Cell
Receptor
-Branch of Physiology. ... -Study of hormones and their effect o…
Released by endocrine glands (pineal gland, pituitary gland,…
cells that have receptors for hormones
Area on a cell where a hormone binds and causes a reaction wi…
Endocrinology
-Branch of Physiology. ... -Study of hormones and their effect o…
Hormone
Released by endocrine glands (pineal gland, pituitary gland,…
30 terms
Endocrinology
chemical composition of hormones
sites of action of hormones
Hypothalamus/Pituitary
Pituitary Hormones
-Peptide hormones: Many made in pituitary and elsewhere... -Sub…
-Autocrine - acting on self... -Paracrine - acting locally... -Exoc…
-Hypothalamus has a direct anatomic connection to the pituita…
-Anterior Lobe: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Growth Ho…
chemical composition of hormones
-Peptide hormones: Many made in pituitary and elsewhere... -Sub…
sites of action of hormones
-Autocrine - acting on self... -Paracrine - acting locally... -Exoc…
23 terms
Endocrinology
DM-II
DM-II: Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrom…
DM-II: Patient Management
DM-I
• Peripheral tissue resistance to insulin with relative... impai…
- ↑↑ glucose (600-2,000), ↑↑ plasma osmolality... - profound deh…
• Goals... -HgbA1C < 7%, LDL < 100, BP < 140/80... - BP goal change…
• Cause is usually autoimmune... • No endogenous insulin due to…
DM-II
• Peripheral tissue resistance to insulin with relative... impai…
DM-II: Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrom…
- ↑↑ glucose (600-2,000), ↑↑ plasma osmolality... - profound deh…
11 terms
endocrinology
hyperpituitarism
hypopituitarism
diabetes insipidous
hyperthyroidism
hypersecretion of one or more hormones in anterior pituitary…
hyposecretion of one of more hormones in anterior pituitary g…
hyposecretion of ADH
hypersecretion of T3 &T4
hyperpituitarism
hypersecretion of one or more hormones in anterior pituitary…
hypopituitarism
hyposecretion of one of more hormones in anterior pituitary g…
81 terms
endocrinology
pituitary gland
neurohypophysis
adrenohypophysis
infundibulum
on the left
The hypothalamus is connected to pituitary gland (hypophysis)…
pituitary gland
neurohypophysis
50 terms
Endocrinology
Hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland
Sphenoid Bone
Sella Turcica
Major Link system between nervous and endocrine system
Controlled by Hypothalamus, also called hypophysis
a compound bone that forms the base of the cranium
Resting place for the Pituitary in the Sphenoid Bone
Hypothalamus
Major Link system between nervous and endocrine system
Pituitary Gland
Controlled by Hypothalamus, also called hypophysis
113 terms
Endocrinology
homeostasis
what two systems work together to regu…
nervous system
endocrine system
tendency of an organism to maintain constant internal environ…
Endocrine and Nervous system
controls homeostasis, stimulates or inhibits release of neuro…
controls homeostasis through release of hormones into bloodst…
homeostasis
tendency of an organism to maintain constant internal environ…
what two systems work together to regu…
Endocrine and Nervous system
65 terms
Endocrinology
hypothalamic-pituitary-axis: name the…
Tx of pituitary adenoma
hyperparathyroidism causes what lyte a…
MCC of primary vs. secondary hyperpara…
FSH/LH... GH (somatotropin)... ACTH... TSH... PRL... ADH (vasopressin)... Oxyt…
dopamine agonists (ie bromocriptine, cabergoline)
hypercalcemia
primary: benign parathyroid adenomas... secondary: CKD
hypothalamic-pituitary-axis: name the…
FSH/LH... GH (somatotropin)... ACTH... TSH... PRL... ADH (vasopressin)... Oxyt…
Tx of pituitary adenoma
dopamine agonists (ie bromocriptine, cabergoline)
18 terms
ENDOCRINOLOGY
T4
KI
Radioactive I
PTU
Increases O2 consumption and metabolism (DOC)
Inhibits TPO, inhibiting thyroid hormone release
Incorporates into thyroid storage follicles, inhibiting T3/T4…
Inhibits TPO; blocks D1 and iodine organification
T4
Increases O2 consumption and metabolism (DOC)
KI
Inhibits TPO, inhibiting thyroid hormone release
131 terms
Endocrinology
endocrine system
hormone
Berthold endocrine experiment (1849)
homeostasis
a number of glands which form hormones, cell signaling molecu…
a molecule synthesized by one cell which has an effect on ano…
Hypothesis: Intact testes are necessary for the development o…
cooperative effect of all the body's systems to maintain a co…
endocrine system
a number of glands which form hormones, cell signaling molecu…
hormone
a molecule synthesized by one cell which has an effect on ano…
42 terms
Endocrinology
Endocrine Glands
Hypothalamus
Anterior Pituitary
Posterior Pituitary
Ductless tissue; rich blood supply so hormones can be carried…
a region of the lower brain that integrates endocrine and ner…
not connected to the brain; releasing hormones from the hypot…
connected to the brain directly via the infundibilium
Endocrine Glands
Ductless tissue; rich blood supply so hormones can be carried…
Hypothalamus
a region of the lower brain that integrates endocrine and ner…
8 terms
Endocrinology
Big Picture
Peptide Hormone Synthesis
Peptide Hormones Characteristics
Steroid Hormones
Glands secrete hormones into blood stream to cause change in…
DNA...mRNA...ribosome (signal peptide for docking proteins)..…
extracellular receptor binding...leads to signaling cascascad…
derived from cholesterol...... produced by Adrenal Cortex and G…
Big Picture
Glands secrete hormones into blood stream to cause change in…
Peptide Hormone Synthesis
DNA...mRNA...ribosome (signal peptide for docking proteins)..…
32 terms
Endocrinology
Cellular Communication: ... gap junctions
Cellular Communication: neurotransmitt…
Cellular Communication: ... paracrine sig…
Cellular Communication: ... hormone signa…
molecules passing from one cell to the next through transmemb…
neurons diffused across a synaptic cleft binding to the surfa…
molecules diffusing to nearby cells in same tissue for stimul…
molecules go into blood and stimulates cells in other tissues
Cellular Communication: ... gap junctions
molecules passing from one cell to the next through transmemb…
Cellular Communication: neurotransmitt…
neurons diffused across a synaptic cleft binding to the surfa…
18 terms
ENDOCRINOLOGY
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia... MEN 1 (m…
Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors
Pheochromocytoma
Thyroid Cancer- Defining Characteris…
MEN1: melanin tumor suppressor gene, autosomal dominant.... - 3…
Gastrinoma: recurrent peptic ulcers and dyspepsia (Zollinge…
Neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (or…
Papillary (75%)- most common, "Orphan Annie eye" nuclear in…
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia... MEN 1 (m…
MEN1: melanin tumor suppressor gene, autosomal dominant.... - 3…
Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors
Gastrinoma: recurrent peptic ulcers and dyspepsia (Zollinge…
57 terms
Endocrinology
Pituitary dwarfism
C/S of pituitary dwarfism
Cause of Pituitary dwarfism
C/S Feline acromegaly
Skeletally stunted, retained teeth, maintain puppy coat & bar…
Low GH and Low TSH ... Can measure low TSH with subnormal T4... Low…
Polyphagia, PUPD, Weight gain... Lion head, multiple lameness, O…
Pituitary dwarfism
C/S of pituitary dwarfism
Skeletally stunted, retained teeth, maintain puppy coat & bar…
93 terms
Endocrinology
Mixed gland
Constitutive secretion
Regulated secretion
Cord-type endocrine glands
Contain both exocrine and endocrine secretion (via ducts/into…
Secretory products are continuously released without intermed…
Secretory products are concentrated and stored until a signal…
Secretory cells form a cord around small capillaries and sinu…
Mixed gland
Contain both exocrine and endocrine secretion (via ducts/into…
Constitutive secretion
Secretory products are continuously released without intermed…
42 terms
Endocrinology
Classifications of Chemical Communicat…
Direct Intracellular Communication
Gap Junctions
Transient Direct Linkup
Gap Junctions & Transient Direct Linkup
Classifications of Chemical Communicat…
Direct Intracellular Communication
Gap Junctions & Transient Direct Linkup
41 terms
Endocrinology
Calcium Homeostasis chemical messengers
PTH, 1,25(OH)2D & Calcitonin SITES of…
Challenges to calcium homeostasis
PTH
• PTH... • 1,25(OH)2D ... • Calcitonin
Gut, Bone, Kidney
• Pregnancy and lactation... • Egg-laying... • Poor absorption (vit…
Works on bone, the kidney and, via vitamin D3, the gut to inc…
Calcium Homeostasis chemical messengers
• PTH... • 1,25(OH)2D ... • Calcitonin
PTH, 1,25(OH)2D & Calcitonin SITES of…
Gut, Bone, Kidney
78 terms
Endocrinology
2 lab values tested for rapid developi…
DKA dx
drug inducing SIADH
symptomatic hypovolemic hypernatremia…
DHEAS & testosterone lvls
fingerstick blood glucose lvls
NSAIDs
0.9% saline until euvolemic, then 5% dextrose (correct by 0.5…
2 lab values tested for rapid developi…
DHEAS & testosterone lvls
DKA dx
fingerstick blood glucose lvls
126 terms
Endocrinology
Purpose of endocrine signaling
Hormones travel _____ and are in _____…
Exocrine secretes
Endocrine secretes
Allow hormone to travel long distances
long distances; small amounts
Through duct
Through blood
Purpose of endocrine signaling
Allow hormone to travel long distances
Hormones travel _____ and are in _____…
long distances; small amounts
25 terms
Endocrinology
Hyperthyroidism,
Thyroiditis,
Graves Disease
Hypothyroid,
Low TSH, elevated T4 & T3.
Low uptake on radioactive scan, + thyroid antibodies
, Autoimmune: thyroid, ocular muscles, orbital fat and skin
High TSH, low T4. Use TSH to titrate dose of thyroid
Hyperthyroidism,
Low TSH, elevated T4 & T3.
Thyroiditis,
Low uptake on radioactive scan, + thyroid antibodies
146 terms
Endocrinology
Evaluation of pituitary function (5)
Classification of pituitary tumors by…
2 types of pituitary tumors
Functioning tumors
Prolactin... Cortisol... FT4... Testosterone/estradiol... FSH/LH
Macroadenomas (>10 mm)... Microadenomas (<10 mm)
Functioning... Non-functioning
Prolactinomas (Prolactin excess)... Acromegaly (GH excess)... Cushi…
Evaluation of pituitary function (5)
Prolactin... Cortisol... FT4... Testosterone/estradiol... FSH/LH
Classification of pituitary tumors by…
Macroadenomas (>10 mm)... Microadenomas (<10 mm)
49 terms
Endocrinology
Adenectomy
Adrenopathy
Hypogonadism
Pancreatectomy
Surgical excision of gland
Disease of adrenal gland
Process of dificient gonads (ovaries and testes)
Surgical excision of pancreas
Adenectomy
Surgical excision of gland
Adrenopathy
Disease of adrenal gland
15 terms
Endocrinology
Gap Junction
Neurotransmitters
Paracine Signaling
Hormone Signaling
Signaling molecules pass directly from one cell to next throu…
Released by neurons diffuse across a synaptic cleft and bind…
Molecules diffuse to nearby cells in same tissue to cause sti…
Molecules are secreted into the blood stream and stimulate ce…
Gap Junction
Signaling molecules pass directly from one cell to next throu…
Neurotransmitters
Released by neurons diffuse across a synaptic cleft and bind…
10 terms
Endocrinology
Hypophysial portal system of the anter…
Posterior pituitary gland blood supply
Hypophysial portal system
Anterior and posterior pituitary gland
Goes through the hypothalamus first
A single capillary bed, therefore the blood does not go throu…
...
The pituitary gland is made up of two lobes called the
Hypophysial portal system of the anter…
Goes through the hypothalamus first
Posterior pituitary gland blood supply
A single capillary bed, therefore the blood does not go throu…
42 terms
Endocrinology
Endocrinology, whats it all for
The endocrine system: functions
Blood-borne chemical messengers: Hormo…
Blood-borne chemical messengers: Neuro…
Control systems needed to maintain homeostasis across the ent…
Regulate metabolism, water and electrolyte balance... Allow body…
Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate processes in o…
A hormone such as vasopressin or noradrenaline produced by ne…
Endocrinology, whats it all for
Control systems needed to maintain homeostasis across the ent…
The endocrine system: functions
Regulate metabolism, water and electrolyte balance... Allow body…
41 terms
Endocrinology
Panhypopituitarism
Pan hypopituitarism Sxs
Kallman Syndrome:
Posterior Pit
2/2 compression or damage to the pituitary gland by ... tumors,…
Specific to deficiencies of hormones:... Prolactin def: nothing…
decr FSH and LH from decr GnRH... Anosmia/hyposmia 2/2 a failure…
2 hormones: ADH and oxytocin. ... ADH def: Central Diabetes ins…
Panhypopituitarism
2/2 compression or damage to the pituitary gland by ... tumors,…
Pan hypopituitarism Sxs
Specific to deficiencies of hormones:... Prolactin def: nothing…
18 terms
Endocrinology
pituitary
thyroid
adrenal
testis
hormone released: oxytocin... target tissue/organ: uterus... action…
hormone released: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)... target ti…
hormone released: zona reticularis... target tissue/organ: integ…
hormone released: testosterone... target tissue/organ: most cell…
pituitary
hormone released: oxytocin... target tissue/organ: uterus... action…
thyroid
hormone released: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)... target ti…
71 terms
Endocrinology
What is it?
How does the endocrine system work?
What is the brain of the endocrine sys…
Pituitary Gland
study of ductless glands... - influence almost every cell, organ…
Glands produce/secrete hormones -> hormones transfer info to…
the hypothalamus
Master gland, makes hormones that control other endocrine gla…
What is it?
study of ductless glands... - influence almost every cell, organ…
How does the endocrine system work?
Glands produce/secrete hormones -> hormones transfer info to…
38 terms
endocrinology
polycystic ovary disease
which lobe of the thyroid is larger th…
hashimoto thyroiditis or chronic lymph…
struma ovarii
causes increased levels of testosterone, hirsutism, infertili…
right lobe is larger
autoimmune disease... positive antimicrosomal antibodies and ant…
thyroid tissue contained in a dermoid ovarian tumor
polycystic ovary disease
causes increased levels of testosterone, hirsutism, infertili…
which lobe of the thyroid is larger th…
right lobe is larger
170 terms
endocrinology
Intracine
Autocrine
Paracrine
Endocrine
Messengers within cells that... typically influence other signal…
Secreted from cells and act on the... same cells... Mitogenic agent…
Secreted from cells and act on... adjacent cells... Somatostatin
Secreted into the blood and carried... to act at distant target…
Intracine
Messengers within cells that... typically influence other signal…
Autocrine
Secreted from cells and act on the... same cells... Mitogenic agent…
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