Study sets matching "endocrinology"

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Study sets matching "endocrinology"

76 terms
Endocrinology
My topics
Why do you get hypoglycemia with ACTH…
Causes of Hypopituitarism :
Management/Diagnostic Testing for Hypo…
Because both cortisol and growth hormone have opposing effect…
•Various midline structural anomalies... •Optic nerve hypoplasia…
•50 mg of hydrocortisone/m2/day (hydrocortisone IV infusion 1…
My topics
Why do you get hypoglycemia with ACTH…
Because both cortisol and growth hormone have opposing effect…
Endocrinology
17-alpha hydroxylase deficiency - chem…
11-beta hydroxylase deficiency - chemi…
most common cause of congenital adrena…
manifestations of CAH
mineralocorticoid excess (aldosterone) and glucocorticoid and…
low mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, excess androgens…
21-hydroxylase deficiency
hyperkalemia, acidosis, hyponatremia, ambiguous genitalia in…
17-alpha hydroxylase deficiency - chem…
mineralocorticoid excess (aldosterone) and glucocorticoid and…
11-beta hydroxylase deficiency - chemi…
low mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, excess androgens…
47 terms
endocrinology
endocrine glands
Disorders result from
Hormones of the hypothalamus and pitui…
posteirior pituitary
have systemic effects... act on specific target tissues in speci…
over or underproduction of hormones
look them up
Diabetes insipidus... oxytocin and prgnancy
endocrine glands
have systemic effects... act on specific target tissues in speci…
Disorders result from
over or underproduction of hormones
21 terms
Endocrinology
2 main kinds of hormones
Protein and Amine hormones
Steroids
Hypothalamus
Protein and Amine hormones ... Steriod hormones
binds normally with receptors and often alters gene expressio…
pass through cell membrane and alters gene expression inside…
Release corticotropin-releasing hormones to Pituitary gland t…
2 main kinds of hormones
Protein and Amine hormones ... Steriod hormones
Protein and Amine hormones
binds normally with receptors and often alters gene expressio…
Endocrinology
What is an endocrine gland?
What is an exocrine gland?
What are other names for posterior pit…
What are other names for anterior pitu…
Ductless glands that secrete hormone directly into blood. Lon…
Glands that secrete enzymes directly to target site. Short te…
Neurohypophysis
Adenohypophysis
What is an endocrine gland?
Ductless glands that secrete hormone directly into blood. Lon…
What is an exocrine gland?
Glands that secrete enzymes directly to target site. Short te…
16 terms
Endocrinology
What is dwarfism
What gland involves dwarfism
What gland causes ... Diabetes incepedius
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus
Hyper secretion of growth hormone in early years
Pituitary gland
Hypo thalamus
Glucose In the urin
What is dwarfism
Hyper secretion of growth hormone in early years
What gland involves dwarfism
Pituitary gland
Endocrinology
What is a Hormone?
What are the 2 components of pituitary…
What are the 2 class of hormone produc…
How is the anterior pituitary gland re…
A chemical secreted by glands and travel via blood to target…
Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis) and Posterior Pituitary…
Glycoproteins TROPHIC HORMONES and PEPTIDE HORMONE.
It is regulated via HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROPEPTIDES that activate…
What is a Hormone?
A chemical secreted by glands and travel via blood to target…
What are the 2 components of pituitary…
Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis) and Posterior Pituitary…
Endocrinology
Describe the regulation of the hypotha…
What are hypothalamic hormones?
What are the anterior pituitary hormon…
What is the function of growth hormone…
CNS sends signal to hypothalamus... (releasing/inhibiting hormon…
TRH, GnRH, CRH, GHRH, Somatostatin (-), PrlRH, Dopamine (-)
hormones that go to direct target: GH, PRL... tropic (act on ano…
Promotes growth of soft tissues, muscle, cartilage, bone via…
Describe the regulation of the hypotha…
CNS sends signal to hypothalamus... (releasing/inhibiting hormon…
What are hypothalamic hormones?
TRH, GnRH, CRH, GHRH, Somatostatin (-), PrlRH, Dopamine (-)
67 terms
Endocrinology
endocrine system vs nervous system
Major classes of hormones and solubility
Peptides... -peptide hormones... -polypeptid…
Peptide synthesis
endocrine: ... -travels throughout body... -slower... -longer duration…
1) Peptides (water soluble)... 2) Steroids (lipid soluble)... 3) Am…
-water soluble... -most hormones... -chains of amino acids ... 1) Pept…
synthesized as preprohormone... 1) preprohormone... 2) Cleavage int…
endocrine system vs nervous system
endocrine: ... -travels throughout body... -slower... -longer duration…
Major classes of hormones and solubility
1) Peptides (water soluble)... 2) Steroids (lipid soluble)... 3) Am…
Endocrinology
Treat subacute thyroiditis.
When to treat for Osteoporosis?
What other secondary diseases should b…
Indications for parathyroidectomy>
beta-blockade
Treatment for low bone mass in postmenopausal women involves…
When vitamin D repletion efforts fail, secondary causes, such…
She also has evidence of kidney compromise with an elevated c…
Treat subacute thyroiditis.
beta-blockade
When to treat for Osteoporosis?
Treatment for low bone mass in postmenopausal women involves…
105 terms
Endocrinology
What is a Hormone?
What are the 2 components of pituitary…
What are the 2 class of hormone produc…
How is the anterior pituitary gland re…
A chemical secreted by glands and travel via blood to target…
Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis) and Posterior Pituitary…
Glycoproteins TROPHIC HORMONES and PEPTIDE HORMONE.
It is regulated via HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROPEPTIDES that activate…
What is a Hormone?
A chemical secreted by glands and travel via blood to target…
What are the 2 components of pituitary…
Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis) and Posterior Pituitary…
56 terms
Endocrinology
Define the 3 diagnostic categories of DM
What are the two major concerns with M…
Which DM agents promote weight loss?
Which DM agents can cause weight gain?
A1c of 6.5... Fasting 126 on two occasions... +200 random with symp…
Renal dysfunction... Lactic acidosis
GLP-1 agents like Exenatide... Metformin
Sulfonylureas like glipizide, glyburide
Define the 3 diagnostic categories of DM
A1c of 6.5... Fasting 126 on two occasions... +200 random with symp…
What are the two major concerns with M…
Renal dysfunction... Lactic acidosis
214 terms
Endocrinology
pharynx;... thyroglossal;... foramen cecum…
thyroglossal duct cyst
branchial cleft cysts
mesoderm;... neural crest
Thyroid Embryology... Thyroid diverticulum arises from the floo…
_________ ______ ____ presents as an anterior midline neck ma…
Congenital lesions that arise from remnants of a slight cleft…
Adrenal gland embryology:... cortex derives from the _______,... m…
pharynx;... thyroglossal;... foramen cecum…
Thyroid Embryology... Thyroid diverticulum arises from the floo…
thyroglossal duct cyst
_________ ______ ____ presents as an anterior midline neck ma…
94 terms
Endocrinology
What hormones produced by the anterior…
What are the two hormones secreted by…
What is the most common type of pituit…
What disease, associated with pituitar…
fat plg... (1) FSH ... (2) LH ... (3) ACTH... (4) TSH ... (5) Prolactin ... (6)…
(1) Oxytocin ... (2) ADH
Prolactinoma; ... Macroadenoma
Prolactinoma; ... Prolactin
What hormones produced by the anterior…
fat plg... (1) FSH ... (2) LH ... (3) ACTH... (4) TSH ... (5) Prolactin ... (6)…
What are the two hormones secreted by…
(1) Oxytocin ... (2) ADH
endocrinology
A molecular that carries a hormone in…
Insulin mediated muscle glucose uptake…
The most common mechanism by which... hor…
One classic endocrine we will discuss…
carrier
alter cell membrane transport
negative feedback loop
renal gland
A molecular that carries a hormone in…
carrier
Insulin mediated muscle glucose uptake…
alter cell membrane transport
42 terms
Endocrinology
What are 3 manifestations of PRIMARY A…
What is the classic triad of pheochrom…
What 3 medical manifestations would le…
The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is t…
Hypertension, hypokalemia & secondary HTN
(1) Sweating... (2) Episodic headache... (3) Tachycardia... "SET"
-Hyperadrenergic spells... -Resistant/secondary hypertension... -Ne…
Urinary and plasma fractionated metanephrines and catecholami…
What are 3 manifestations of PRIMARY A…
Hypertension, hypokalemia & secondary HTN
What is the classic triad of pheochrom…
(1) Sweating... (2) Episodic headache... (3) Tachycardia... "SET"
Endocrinology
What are BS levels for impaired glucos…
T/F: Lithium, steriods, estrogen and t…
Dx DM type 11: What 6 labs could you o…
T/F: Vitamin C can affect a pt's A1C
fasting BG: 100-125... 2 HR BG: 140-199... A1C: 5.7-6.4
True
1. random BS + 2/2 ... 2. Fasting glcuose ... 3. 2 hour plasma gluc…
true
What are BS levels for impaired glucos…
fasting BG: 100-125... 2 HR BG: 140-199... A1C: 5.7-6.4
T/F: Lithium, steriods, estrogen and t…
True
ENDOCRINOLOGY
What are the 2 systems of communication?
What does the ES help the body to adap…
What are the 4 ways that cells communi…
What are hormones
Nervous and Endocrine
Stress
Gap Junctions... Neurotransmitters... Paracrine Hormones... Hormones
Chemical messengers that are transported through the bloodstr…
What are the 2 systems of communication?
Nervous and Endocrine
What does the ES help the body to adap…
Stress
45 terms
Endocrinology
What are the organs/glands that have e…
What is the ultimate goal of the endoc…
What is the difference between endocri…
What is the function of the hypothalam…
adrenal... heart... hypothalamus... pituitary... kidneys - stimulates pro…
to maintain homeostasis
endocrine - gets into blood stream; diffuse effect
"Master gland" - the major producer of releasing hormones tha…
What are the organs/glands that have e…
adrenal... heart... hypothalamus... pituitary... kidneys - stimulates pro…
What is the ultimate goal of the endoc…
to maintain homeostasis
Endocrinology
Diabetic Ketoacidosis... 1. Cause?... 2. Sx…
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia (HHS)... 1. Ca…
Diabetes Pharmacotherapy (chart pg 85…
Pseudohypoparathyroidism... 1. What is it…
1. Cause: In Type 1 Diabetics, infections, trauma, alcohol, s…
1. Cause: same as DKA... 2. Sx: Profound mental status change, d…
- Metformin: incr insulin sensitivity, decr hepatic GNG... - Suf…
1. PTH resistance; will see elevated PTH but low calcium and…
Diabetic Ketoacidosis... 1. Cause?... 2. Sx…
1. Cause: In Type 1 Diabetics, infections, trauma, alcohol, s…
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia (HHS)... 1. Ca…
1. Cause: same as DKA... 2. Sx: Profound mental status change, d…
Endocrinology
What is the most common disease cause…
How much more common is cardiovascular…
What distribution is the peripheral ne…
What does the HbA1c level correlate be…
95-97% of hypothyroidism is primary - caused by the gland its…
2x more common
Peripheral - glove and stocking distribution
Microvascular complications - especially retinopathy
What is the most common disease cause…
95-97% of hypothyroidism is primary - caused by the gland its…
How much more common is cardiovascular…
2x more common
Endocrinology
What is insulin secretion triggered by?
By which receptor does glucose enter b…
Which channel closes in the beta cells…
What are the four main actions of insu…
High blood glucose
GLUT2
ATP dependent potassium channel
Suppresses glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen) ... Suppresses…
What is insulin secretion triggered by?
High blood glucose
By which receptor does glucose enter b…
GLUT2
40 terms
Endocrinology
What are Hormones?
What are the Major Endocrine glands?
What does the Hypothalamus do?
What does the Pituitary Gland do?
chemical substances that are released directly into the blood…
- Hypothalamus... - Pituitary Gland... - Thyroid Gland... - Parathyroi…
Links the nervous system to the pituitary gland
Functions in growth, BP, breast milk production, sex organ fu…
What are Hormones?
chemical substances that are released directly into the blood…
What are the Major Endocrine glands?
- Hypothalamus... - Pituitary Gland... - Thyroid Gland... - Parathyroi…
12 terms
Endocrinology
What is the difference between endocri…
What is the difference between Endocri…
What is a hormone?
What is a Factor?
bloodborne substance, released by endocrine gland to act on a…
Produces a structure whose structure is unknown yet
What is the difference between endocri…
What is the difference between Endocri…
Endocrinology
How does IPF present on CXR?
How will Pancoast tumour present?
What are the diseases in MEN I syndrome?
What is the associated condition to ME…
changes seen mainly in bases, interstitial parenchymal changes
apical lung cancer, invading into the plexus of the neck, ips…
Parathyroid, pituitary (prolactinoma), gastropancreatic (insu…
Zollinger-ellison syndrom
How does IPF present on CXR?
changes seen mainly in bases, interstitial parenchymal changes
How will Pancoast tumour present?
apical lung cancer, invading into the plexus of the neck, ips…
31 terms
Endocrinology
What are the 3 classes of hormones?
How are T3 and T4 synthesised?
Is T3 or T4 more active?
How does the hypothalamus effect the a…
Peptides - vary from small peptides to long chain proteins... Am…
Thyroglobulin made in follicle and is then transported into c…
T3 (x5 more active)
The hypothalamus releases thyrotropin-releasing hormone to th…
What are the 3 classes of hormones?
Peptides - vary from small peptides to long chain proteins... Am…
How are T3 and T4 synthesised?
Thyroglobulin made in follicle and is then transported into c…
30 terms
Endocrinology
Adrenals
HYPOTHALAMUS
OVARIES
PANCREAS
Adrenales
HIPOTÁLAMO
OVARIOS
PANCREAS
Adrenals
Adrenales
HYPOTHALAMUS
HIPOTÁLAMO
66 terms
Endocrinology
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
carcinoid syndrome
diabetic ketoacidosis
prolactin
gastrin-secreting tumor of pancreas or duodenum... recurrent ulc…
rare, caused by carcinoid tumors ... (neuroendocrine cells)... esp.…
↑insulin requirements from ↑stress (infection)... fat → FFA→ ket…
hypothalamic control... tonic inhibition by dopamine... ↑ by thyrot…
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
gastrin-secreting tumor of pancreas or duodenum... recurrent ulc…
carcinoid syndrome
rare, caused by carcinoid tumors ... (neuroendocrine cells)... esp.…
10 terms
Endocrinology
Hypothalamus
Hypophysis
Pineal Gland
Thyroid Gland
Hypothalamus
Hypophysis
18 terms
ENDOCRINOLOGY
T4
KI
Radioactive I
PTU
Increases O2 consumption and metabolism (DOC)
Inhibits TPO, inhibiting thyroid hormone release
Incorporates into thyroid storage follicles, inhibiting T3/T4…
Inhibits TPO; blocks D1 and iodine organification
T4
Increases O2 consumption and metabolism (DOC)
KI
Inhibits TPO, inhibiting thyroid hormone release
Endocrinology
pituitary
thyroid
adrenal
testis
hormone released: oxytocin... target tissue/organ: uterus... action…
hormone released: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)... target ti…
hormone released: zona reticularis... target tissue/organ: integ…
hormone released: testosterone... target tissue/organ: most cell…
pituitary
hormone released: oxytocin... target tissue/organ: uterus... action…
thyroid
hormone released: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)... target ti…
10 terms
Endocrinology
Hypophysial portal system of the anter…
Posterior pituitary gland blood supply
Hypophysial portal system
Anterior and posterior pituitary gland
Goes through the hypothalamus first
A single capillary bed, therefore the blood does not go throu…
...
The pituitary gland is made up of two lobes called the
Hypophysial portal system of the anter…
Goes through the hypothalamus first
Posterior pituitary gland blood supply
A single capillary bed, therefore the blood does not go throu…
17 terms
Endocrinology
Endocrinology
Hormones
Target Tissues/Organs
Pituitary... Pineal... Thyroid... Parathyroid... T…
The study of the ductless glands and their secretions ("hormo…
Regulatory molecules secreted into the extracellular space th…
Cells, organs, or groups of tissues affected by a hormone
8 Endocrine Glands
Endocrinology
The study of the ductless glands and their secretions ("hormo…
Hormones
Regulatory molecules secreted into the extracellular space th…
30 terms
Endocrinology
chemical composition of hormones
sites of action of hormones
Hypothalamus/Pituitary
Pituitary Hormones
-Peptide hormones: Many made in pituitary and elsewhere... -Sub…
-Autocrine - acting on self... -Paracrine - acting locally... -Exoc…
-Hypothalamus has a direct anatomic connection to the pituita…
-Anterior Lobe: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Growth Ho…
chemical composition of hormones
-Peptide hormones: Many made in pituitary and elsewhere... -Sub…
sites of action of hormones
-Autocrine - acting on self... -Paracrine - acting locally... -Exoc…
8 terms
Endocrinology
Palpitations
Heat/cold intolerance
Hyperparathyroidism
Hyperthyroidism
...
...
...
...
Palpitations
...
Heat/cold intolerance
...
49 terms
Endocrinology
Function of Endocrine System
Endocrine glands
Exocrine glands
What are hormones
regulation and control of various functions are performed thr…
ductless glands... hormone-producing cells secrete hormones dire…
secertions released outside body or into GI tract... always have…
biologically active substances... endocrine - circulate in blood…
Function of Endocrine System
regulation and control of various functions are performed thr…
Endocrine glands
ductless glands... hormone-producing cells secrete hormones dire…
56 terms
Endocrinology
In what bone does the pituitary gland…
What is released by the posterior pitu…
what is the pathway for T3 and T4 rele…
What is the pathway for steroid release?
Sphenoid bone in the sella turicica
Oxytocin and ADH
TRH from hypothalamous, TSH from ant pit, T3 and T4 from thyr…
CRH from hypthalamous, ACTH from ant pit, stimulation of adre…
In what bone does the pituitary gland…
Sphenoid bone in the sella turicica
What is released by the posterior pitu…
Oxytocin and ADH
endocrinology
polycystic ovary disease
which lobe of the thyroid is larger th…
hashimoto thyroiditis or chronic lymph…
struma ovarii
causes increased levels of testosterone, hirsutism, infertili…
right lobe is larger
autoimmune disease... positive antimicrosomal antibodies and ant…
thyroid tissue contained in a dermoid ovarian tumor
polycystic ovary disease
causes increased levels of testosterone, hirsutism, infertili…
which lobe of the thyroid is larger th…
right lobe is larger
170 terms
endocrinology
Intracine
Autocrine
Paracrine
Endocrine
Messengers within cells that... typically influence other signal…
Secreted from cells and act on the... same cells... Mitogenic agent…
Secreted from cells and act on... adjacent cells... Somatostatin
Secreted into the blood and carried... to act at distant target…
Intracine
Messengers within cells that... typically influence other signal…
Autocrine
Secreted from cells and act on the... same cells... Mitogenic agent…
42 terms
Endocrinology
Classifications of Chemical Communicat…
Direct Intracellular Communication
Gap Junctions
Transient Direct Linkup
Gap Junctions & Transient Direct Linkup
Classifications of Chemical Communicat…
Direct Intracellular Communication
Gap Junctions & Transient Direct Linkup
10 terms
Endocrinology
Hyperparathyroidism
Hyperthyroidism
Thyroiditis
Adrenal insufficiency
...
...
...
...
Hyperparathyroidism
...
Hyperthyroidism
...
41 terms
Endocrinology
Calcium Homeostasis chemical messengers
PTH, 1,25(OH)2D & Calcitonin SITES of…
Challenges to calcium homeostasis
PTH
• PTH... • 1,25(OH)2D ... • Calcitonin
Gut, Bone, Kidney
• Pregnancy and lactation... • Egg-laying... • Poor absorption (vit…
Works on bone, the kidney and, via vitamin D3, the gut to inc…
Calcium Homeostasis chemical messengers
• PTH... • 1,25(OH)2D ... • Calcitonin
PTH, 1,25(OH)2D & Calcitonin SITES of…
Gut, Bone, Kidney
122 terms
Endocrinology
Hormone Overview
Hormones of Anterior Pituitary
Hormones of Posterior Pituitary
Hormones of Hypothalamus
TSH... FSH... LH... ACTH... MSH... *Growth Hormone (GH)... Prolactin*
Oxytocin... ADH
TRH... CRH... GnRH... GHRH... Somatostatin... Dopamine
Hormone Overview
Hormones of Anterior Pituitary
TSH... FSH... LH... ACTH... MSH... *Growth Hormone (GH)... Prolactin*
23 terms
Endocrinology
General Hormone Control Pathways: Endo…
General Hormone Control Pathways: Neur…
General Hormone Control Pathways: Neur…
Pituitary Gland: Location
stimulus causes release of hormones directly into the circula…
neurosecretory cells synthesize hormones that are secreted by…
neuroendocrine cells receive NT from nerve cells or neurosecr…
attached to the bottom of the hypothalamus near the base of t…
General Hormone Control Pathways: Endo…
stimulus causes release of hormones directly into the circula…
General Hormone Control Pathways: Neur…
neurosecretory cells synthesize hormones that are secreted by…
6 terms
Endocrinology
hormones
endocrine
exocrine
paracrine
chemical messengers that function in extremely small concentr…
ductless glands that release secretions directly into the blo…
glands with ducts that release secretions into a lumen
local effect of chemical messengers (i.e. prostacyclin ~ inhi…
hormones
chemical messengers that function in extremely small concentr…
endocrine
ductless glands that release secretions directly into the blo…
Endocrinology
Adenohypophysis
Autocrine
Endocrine System
Paracrine
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland
A mode of hormone action in which a hormone binds to receptor…
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones)…
A type of hormone function in which hormone synthesized in an…
Adenohypophysis
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland
Autocrine
A mode of hormone action in which a hormone binds to receptor…
10 terms
Endocrinology
Glandular
Tropic hormones
Gonadotropic hormones
Supraoptic nucleus (SON)
produces hormones
target endocrine glands throughout body
tropic hormones that specifically target the gonads
secretes oxytocin... (hypothalamus)
Glandular
produces hormones
Tropic hormones
target endocrine glands throughout body
49 terms
Endocrinology
Formation, Storage, and Release of Thy…
Actions of Thyroid Hormones
Control of thyroid hormone secretion
Hormone produced by parafollicular cel…
1) Iodide trapping ... 2) Synthesis of thyroglobulin ... 3) Oxidati…
1) Thyroid hormones increase basal metabolic rate (BMR)... 2) St…
1) Low blood levels of T3 and T4 or low metabolic rate stimul…
calcitonin
Formation, Storage, and Release of Thy…
1) Iodide trapping ... 2) Synthesis of thyroglobulin ... 3) Oxidati…
Actions of Thyroid Hormones
1) Thyroid hormones increase basal metabolic rate (BMR)... 2) St…
Endocrinology
Red blood cell formation
Hormones
Thyroxine (T4)
Insulin/ Glucagon
Not a function of the endocrine system
Chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands
This thyroid gland helps regulate metabolism by influencing o…
These hormones are secreted by the endocrine cells of the pan…
Red blood cell formation
Not a function of the endocrine system
Hormones
Chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands
Endocrinology
Aden/o
Adren/o
Adrenal/o
Crin/o
Gland
Adrenal gland
Adrenal gland
To secrete
Aden/o
Gland
Adren/o
Adrenal gland
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