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Study sets matching "energy balance"

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Study sets matching "energy balance"

17 terms
Energy Balance
BMR/RMR
Ketosis
Starches
Glucose
The basic amount of caloric energy needed to run the body's o…
Fat breakdown during fasting, creates ketones, elevating bloo…
Long chain carbohydrates found in potato, rice, grains, etc.
A simple sugar, the body's primary and preferred source of en…
BMR/RMR
The basic amount of caloric energy needed to run the body's o…
Ketosis
Fat breakdown during fasting, creates ketones, elevating bloo…
12 terms
Energy Balance
Energy Balance
Positive energy balance
Negative energy balance
Hunger
Energy consumed compared with amount expended
Consuming more energy (Calories) than expending
Consuming less energy (Calories) than expending
Desire to consume food triggered by physiological signals.
Energy Balance
Energy consumed compared with amount expended
Positive energy balance
Consuming more energy (Calories) than expending
10 terms
Energy balance/nutrition
Calorie
Carbohydrate
Calories in a gram of fat
Calories in a gram of carbohydrate
a unit of heat used to indicate the amount of energy that foo…
the most preferred source of energy from food
9
4
Calorie
a unit of heat used to indicate the amount of energy that foo…
Carbohydrate
the most preferred source of energy from food
27 terms
Energy Balance
Early atmospheric composition
Current atmospheric composition
Global Scale Features
synoptic scale features
80% carbon dioxide, 10% nitrogen, 10% water
78%nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases
occur in scales from thousands of kilometers to planetary mot…
occur on sales from a few hundred kilometers to thousands of…
Early atmospheric composition
80% carbon dioxide, 10% nitrogen, 10% water
Current atmospheric composition
78%nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases
41 terms
Energy Balance
Energy Balance
Positive Energy Balance
Negative Energy Balance
4
This is when the energy in equals the amount of energy out
This is when the energy in is greater than the energy out
This is when the energy in is less than the energy out
How many kcal/gram in carbs?
Energy Balance
This is when the energy in equals the amount of energy out
Positive Energy Balance
This is when the energy in is greater than the energy out
43 terms
Energy Balance
energy balance
positive energy balance
negative energy balance
bomb calorimeter
The state at which energy (kilocalorie) intake from food and…
the state in whcih energy intake is greater than energy expen…
the state in which energy intake is less than energy expendit…
an instrument used to measure the amount of heat released fro…
energy balance
The state at which energy (kilocalorie) intake from food and…
positive energy balance
the state in whcih energy intake is greater than energy expen…
22 terms
Energy balance
heat balance
constant body temperature
temperature receptors
hypothalamus
when heat gained in the body is balanced by heat loss
37 C (on average)
detect the temperature of the blood in the skin and brain
the temperature control centre
heat balance
when heat gained in the body is balanced by heat loss
constant body temperature
37 C (on average)
34 terms
Energy Balance
photosynthesis
cellular respiration
organic compound
digestion
a process in which plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to…
the process by which oxygen to produce food
a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon
a process in which food is broken down into smaller pieces
photosynthesis
a process in which plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to…
cellular respiration
the process by which oxygen to produce food
48 terms
Energy Balance
external work
internal work
transforms into HEAT
50%
refers to energy expended when skeletal muscles contract to m…
constitutes all other forms of energy expenditure that does n…
Not all energy in nutrient molecules can be harnessed to perf…
only about __% of energy in nutrient molecules transferred to…
external work
refers to energy expended when skeletal muscles contract to m…
internal work
constitutes all other forms of energy expenditure that does n…
23 terms
Energy Balance
Hall's study on energy balance
Hall's study - New rule of thumb
Hall's Study - What are the limitation…
Hall Study - How precise are the tools…
Evaluates the 3500 calorie rule which says you need to burn t…
-10kcal in Energy Input/day = 1 lb decrease when bodyweight r…
Reporting correctly, expensive, hard to find subjects for lon…
Uncertainty >100 kcal/d in estimates of Energy Output. An int…
Hall's study on energy balance
Evaluates the 3500 calorie rule which says you need to burn t…
Hall's study - New rule of thumb
-10kcal in Energy Input/day = 1 lb decrease when bodyweight r…
18 terms
Energy balance
Energy balance
Energy in...
Basal metabolism
Physical activity
Energy intake=energy output
Carbohydrates, protein, fat, alcohol
60-70% of total energy needs. Minimum energy used to keep bod…
Increases energy output beyond basal metabolism. Varies among…
Energy balance
Energy intake=energy output
Energy in...
Carbohydrates, protein, fat, alcohol
31 terms
Energy Balance
_______ rate (energy expenditure per u…
________ rate is a measure of the body…
Control of Food Intake
Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus contai…
Metabolic
Basal metabolic
Controlled primarily by the hypothalamus... - appetite center p…
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)
_______ rate (energy expenditure per u…
Metabolic
________ rate is a measure of the body…
Basal metabolic
98 terms
Energy Balance
Energy balance
Positive energy balance
Negative energy balance
Basal metabolism, thermic effect, phys…
Energy in and energy out
Energy in > Energy out
Energy in < Energy out
Components of energy expenditure
Energy balance
Energy in and energy out
Positive energy balance
Energy in > Energy out
17 terms
energy balance
A dietary Calorie is one Kilocalorie,…
--- is the state at which your ---- an…
Energy balance occurs when number of c…
Positive energy balance
1 kilogram =2.2pounds or 4 cups.
Energy balance, energy intake, energy expenditure, equal
Weight is maintained
Calories consumed > calories used... Weight is gained
A dietary Calorie is one Kilocalorie,…
1 kilogram =2.2pounds or 4 cups.
--- is the state at which your ---- an…
Energy balance, energy intake, energy expenditure, equal
10 terms
Energy Balance
Calories
Basal Metabolism
Physical Activity
Thermic effect on food
Energy in our food is measured in this
energy to stay alive (60%)
Energy to move muscles on purpose (30-40%)
energy needed for digestion (10%)
Calories
Energy in our food is measured in this
Basal Metabolism
energy to stay alive (60%)
14 terms
energy balance
weight status
weight gain
weight loss
1st law of thermodynamics
amount in = out
food in > energy out
food in < energy out
energy cannot be created or destroyed
weight status
amount in = out
weight gain
food in > energy out
20 terms
Energy Balance
Energy In
Energy Out
Basal Metabolic Rate/ Resting Metaboli…
Thermionic Effect of food
Cho, Fat, Protein, Alcohol
Basal metabolism, Thermal effect of food, physical activity,…
Amount of calories burned if you did nothing all day... 60-75% T…
calories it takes to chew, absorb, digest, process foods... 10%…
Energy In
Cho, Fat, Protein, Alcohol
Energy Out
Basal metabolism, Thermal effect of food, physical activity,…
26 terms
Energy Balance
metabolic needs
voluntary energy needs
involuntary energy needs
involuntary energy forms (4)
most of energy supply goes to this
all actions related to a person's conscious activities of dai…
all activities not consciously performed... greatest energy output
chemical (metabolic products)... electrical (brain + nervous sys…
metabolic needs
most of energy supply goes to this
voluntary energy needs
all actions related to a person's conscious activities of dai…
11 terms
Energy Balance
Calories and joules
Energy
Energy balance
Positive energy imbalance
this measures the energy contained in our food
Used for body growth, development and functioning and gives u…
Energy intake=energy output
This is when we eat more than what we burn off
Calories and joules
this measures the energy contained in our food
Energy
Used for body growth, development and functioning and gives u…
39 terms
Energy Balance
The first law of thermodynamics
Open System
Closed System
joule (J) : SI unit of energy
Energy is neither created nor destroyed in a system
Both energy and matter can flow across the boundary:... {Net ch…
Only energy can flow across the boundary, but NOT mass:... {Net…
The work required to move a 1 kg mass against an opposing for…
The first law of thermodynamics
Energy is neither created nor destroyed in a system
Open System
Both energy and matter can flow across the boundary:... {Net ch…
21 terms
Energy Balance
energy balance
Energy equilibrium
positive energy balance
negative energy balance
the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure
when the energy consumed matches the energy expended
energy intake exceeds energy expenditure
energy intake is less than energy expenditure
energy balance
the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure
Energy equilibrium
when the energy consumed matches the energy expended
20 terms
Energy Balance
Energy in = energy Out ... *shift causes…
Energy expenditure
Factors that affect Basal Metabolism
Basal metabolism
Energy balance
Basal metabolism... Physical Activity... Dermic effect of food... Ther…
Age, height, growth, body composition, fever, stresses, envir…
Energy needed for vital body processes
Energy in = energy Out ... *shift causes…
Energy balance
Energy expenditure
Basal metabolism... Physical Activity... Dermic effect of food... Ther…
8 terms
Energy Balance
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
calorie
adaptive thermogenesis
affected by lean body mass, growth periods, body temp, and ho…
in kcal per day, this is the sum of your body's three uses of…
a measure of heat; the energy necessary to do work is measure…
an adjustment to heat production in response to changing envi…
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
affected by lean body mass, growth periods, body temp, and ho…
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
in kcal per day, this is the sum of your body's three uses of…
16 terms
energy balance
Glycemic index=
Brown fat activated by
visceral adipose tissue promotes a pro…
↑ AMPK in the skeletal muscle, liver a…
(AUC tested nutrient/AUC glucose) x 100
NE
plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1)
leptin and adipoleptin
Glycemic index=
(AUC tested nutrient/AUC glucose) x 100
Brown fat activated by
NE
55 terms
energy balance
definition of energy and work
Joules (J)
Power
• Watts... • kcals/min... • kJ/min or MJ/day…
Energy provides the capacity to do "work"
Units of measurement (for energy and work)
Rate of energy expenditure (work rate
Units of measurement of work
definition of energy and work
Energy provides the capacity to do "work"
Joules (J)
Units of measurement (for energy and work)
28 terms
energy balance
the physiological need for food
psychological desire for food
satiation
satiety
hunger
appetite
feeling of fullness during a meal= how much is eaten during a…
feeling of fullness after a meal= the length of time between…
the physiological need for food
hunger
psychological desire for food
appetite
18 terms
Energy Balance
Fat calories
determinants of food intake
satiation
energy expenditure
used more efficiently and are more directly converted to body…
hypothalamus... hunger vs appetite... satiation- stop eating... satiet…
protein is most satiating... high fat foods-strong satiety signals
basal metabolism-50%... activity 30-50... thermic effect of food10%…
Fat calories
used more efficiently and are more directly converted to body…
determinants of food intake
hypothalamus... hunger vs appetite... satiation- stop eating... satiet…
16 terms
Energy balance
Energy intake =
1kcal =
Convert kcal to KJ
Factors that contribute towards energy…
Energy expenditure + change in energy stores
The energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water…
x4.2
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)... Physical Activity... Thermogenic stim…
Energy intake =
Energy expenditure + change in energy stores
1kcal =
The energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water…
28 terms
Energy balance
CHO
Protien
Lipids
Alcohol
4
4
9
7
CHO
4
Protien
4
40 terms
Energy Balance
overweight
obesity
fat-free mass
total body fat
having extra weight from bone, muscle, body fat, and/or body…
a condition characterized by excessive and unhealthy amounts…
body water, mineral-rich tissues (bones), and protein-rich ti…
adipose tissue, essential fat in cell membranes, certain bone…
overweight
having extra weight from bone, muscle, body fat, and/or body…
obesity
a condition characterized by excessive and unhealthy amounts…
16 terms
Energy Balance
Energy Intake
Counting Calories
Basal Metabolism
Rule of Thumb
Calories come from carbohydrates, protein, fat, and alcohol.…
Easier way to count calorie intake is to estimate the number…
Caloric cost of staying alive or the amount of calories requi…
Rule-of-thumb guideline for estimating BMR is to multiply hea…
Energy Intake
Calories come from carbohydrates, protein, fat, and alcohol.…
Counting Calories
Easier way to count calorie intake is to estimate the number…
108 terms
Energy Balance
energy equilibrium
positive energy balance
negative energy balance
body weight
when energy intake equals energy output leading to a stable w…
when energy intake is greater than energy output leading to w…
when energy intake is less than energy output leading to weig…
results from a dynamic equilibrium between energy intake (EI)…
energy equilibrium
when energy intake equals energy output leading to a stable w…
positive energy balance
when energy intake is greater than energy output leading to w…
29 terms
Energy Balance
Energy Balance
Appetite
Hunger
Satiation
the energy (kcalories) consumed from foods and beverages comp…
the integrated response to the sight, smell, thought, or tast…
the painful sensation caused by a lack of food that initiates…
the feeling of satisfaction and fullness that occurs during a…
Energy Balance
the energy (kcalories) consumed from foods and beverages comp…
Appetite
the integrated response to the sight, smell, thought, or tast…
32 terms
Energy Balance
What percent of adults are overweight
How much total population is obese
energy expenditure
obesity rate in US has risen from
65%
30%
affected obesity
9-13%
What percent of adults are overweight
65%
How much total population is obese
30%
14 terms
Energy Balance
Positive
Negative
Hunger
Satiation
intake>output
intake<output
prompts eating; physiological desire
signals to stop eating
Positive
intake>output
Negative
intake<output
15 terms
Energy Balance**
Hunger
3500 calories
Appetite
Satiation
Physiological need to eat
Equals 1 pound of fat
Desire to eat
Feeling of fullness
Hunger
Physiological need to eat
3500 calories
Equals 1 pound of fat
100 terms
Energy Balance
whats the percentage of adults being o…
how many preventable deaths are due to…
How many americans live with chronic i…
how many americans are rarely active
68%
300 to 600,000
90 million
60%
whats the percentage of adults being o…
68%
how many preventable deaths are due to…
300 to 600,000
28 terms
Energy Balance
Satiety regulation (2)
Hunger
Appetite
Energy Input (2)
Hunger... Appetite
Physiological drive to find and eat food
Psychological influences that encourage food intake
Internal forces (hunger)... External forces (Appetite)
Satiety regulation (2)
Hunger... Appetite
Hunger
Physiological drive to find and eat food
14 terms
Energy Balance
Number of calories in a pound of fat ?
Hunger
Appetite
Satiation
3500 calories in a pound of fat
Physiological need to eat
Desire to eat
Feeling of fullness; protein is an energy yielding nutrient t…
Number of calories in a pound of fat ?
3500 calories in a pound of fat
Hunger
Physiological need to eat
Energy Balance
Set Point
Insulin, CCK, Leptin
alpha-MSH
NPY and AgRP
regulatory system tells brain to eat less or more
regulate fat storage
reduces appetite
promote obesity
Set Point
regulatory system tells brain to eat less or more
Insulin, CCK, Leptin
regulate fat storage
120 terms
Energy Balance
What makes up "energy in"
What makes up "energy out"
If energy in> energy out
If energy out > energy in
Food and drink
Metabolic rate (70%)... Cost of digest, absorb, metabolize food…
Weight gain
Weight loss
What makes up "energy in"
Food and drink
What makes up "energy out"
Metabolic rate (70%)... Cost of digest, absorb, metabolize food…
120 terms
Energy Balance
What makes up "energy in"
What makes up "energy out"
If energy in> energy out
If energy out > energy in
Food and drink
Metabolic rate (70%)... Cost of digest, absorb, metabolize food…
Weight gain
Weight loss
What makes up "energy in"
Food and drink
What makes up "energy out"
Metabolic rate (70%)... Cost of digest, absorb, metabolize food…
14 terms
Energy Balance
Metabolisim
Metabolic rate
Energy in=???
_______ food is consumed
the bodily activities and chemical reactions in an organism t…
the RATE at which an organism uses energy to power these reac…
Energy out
Ingestion
Metabolisim
the bodily activities and chemical reactions in an organism t…
Metabolic rate
the RATE at which an organism uses energy to power these reac…
23 terms
Energy Balance
cal per gram for carbs, protein, fat,…
calories
how to estimate total number of calories
counting servings
carbs 4, protein 4, fat 9, alcohol 7
measure of amount of energy in food used to fuel the body
multiple total grams by appropriate number of calories per gr…
accuracy depends on the quality of foods consumed and the acc…
cal per gram for carbs, protein, fat,…
carbs 4, protein 4, fat 9, alcohol 7
calories
measure of amount of energy in food used to fuel the body
87 terms
Energy Balance
Major pathways for food conversion to…
Glycolysis turns ..... into.....
TCA cycle forms....
E- transport turns... into...
Glycolysis, TCA cycle, E- transport chain
1 glucose into 2 pyruvate and high energy molecules
high energy molecules and CO2
high energy molecules into ATP
Major pathways for food conversion to…
Glycolysis, TCA cycle, E- transport chain
Glycolysis turns ..... into.....
1 glucose into 2 pyruvate and high energy molecules
21 terms
Energy Balance
Dominant components of the atmosphere…
Atmospheric Pressure
Temperature
Electromagnetic Radiation
Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%)
14.7 pounds per square... inch or 1.04 kg per square cm
Proportional to the average speed of the atoms or molecules i…
travels through empty space,... requiring no intervening medium…
Dominant components of the atmosphere…
Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%)
Atmospheric Pressure
14.7 pounds per square... inch or 1.04 kg per square cm
22 terms
Energy Balance
Solar constant
energy balance
Insolation
Absorption
receive about 1367 watts per square meter per second
thee inputs equal... the outputs of energy, at least most of the…
the top of the atmosphere is the same as when it... left the Sun…
is done by various gases, aerosols and water droplets. These…
Solar constant
receive about 1367 watts per square meter per second
energy balance
thee inputs equal... the outputs of energy, at least most of the…
83 terms
Energy Balance
Energy Balance
Energy in= energy out
Energy out dissipates as
Basal metabolic rate
Energy in- energy out
weight stable
heat
energy expendenture while resting
Energy Balance
Energy in- energy out
Energy in= energy out
weight stable
19 terms
energy balance
energy balance
homeostasis
adaptive thermogenesis
kilocalorie
energy input = energy output
tendency towards balance in the internal environment of the b…
adjustment in energy expenditure the body makes to a large in…
amount of heat required to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degree…
energy balance
energy input = energy output
homeostasis
tendency towards balance in the internal environment of the b…
5 terms
Energy balance
What is a healthy weight
BMI ( weight related to height)
Causes of obesity
Hyperplasia
A healthy weight is one that doesn't increase the risk of dev…
Healthy range 18.5-25... - BMI range of 25-30 considered overwei…
Environment and lifestyle (inactivity, portion sizes, dining…
Increase fat cell number
What is a healthy weight
A healthy weight is one that doesn't increase the risk of dev…
BMI ( weight related to height)
Healthy range 18.5-25... - BMI range of 25-30 considered overwei…
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