Study sets matching "energy metabolism"

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Study sets matching "energy metabolism"

Energy Metabolism
Dehydrogenase
lactate dehydrogenase
pyruvate dehydrogenase
Kinase
an enzyme that removes hydrogen from a substrate
an enzyme that removes a hydride ion from lactate and transfe…
an enzyme that removes a hydride ion from pyruvate and transf…
an enzyme that adds a phosphate to a substrate usually the ph…
Dehydrogenase
an enzyme that removes hydrogen from a substrate
lactate dehydrogenase
an enzyme that removes a hydride ion from lactate and transfe…
16 terms
Energy Metabolism
Oxidation
Reduction
Glucose movement into cell
Regulatory steps in phosphorylated glu…
High energy electrons "fall" toward electronegative nucleus a…
Bonds are formed with electropositive atoms (e.g. carbon) whi…
Glucose passively transported into cell via transporter prote…
Glucose 6-phosphate can be made into 6-phosphogluconolactone…
Oxidation
High energy electrons "fall" toward electronegative nucleus a…
Reduction
Bonds are formed with electropositive atoms (e.g. carbon) whi…
49 terms
Energy & Metabolism
Energy
Potential Energy
Kinetic Energy
Energy Forms
capacity to do work
stored energy
energy in motion
mechanical , heat, sound , electric currents, light, or radio…
Energy
capacity to do work
Potential Energy
stored energy
34 terms
Energy Metabolism
usable energy
how we use usable energy
cellular metabolism
anabolism
photosynthesis
metabolism
break down molecules into CO2 and H2O releasing energy
the process of building (uses energy)
usable energy
photosynthesis
how we use usable energy
metabolism
Energy and Metabolism
Energy
All organisms need energy that they ob…
Phototrophs
Chemoorganotrophs
exists in various forms... the capacity to do work
A) Solar radiation... B) Organic chemicals (e.g., glucose)... C) In…
Cyanobacterium Synechococcus obtains its energy from the sun,…
obtain their energy from organic chemicals... Chemical Energy
Energy
exists in various forms... the capacity to do work
All organisms need energy that they ob…
A) Solar radiation... B) Organic chemicals (e.g., glucose)... C) In…
27 terms
energy and metabolism
kinetic energy
potential energy
chemical energy
exergonic reaction
energy of movement, used to do work.
due to structure or position is energy stored.
energy stored within covalent bonds.
when energy released is greater than energy required there is…
kinetic energy
energy of movement, used to do work.
potential energy
due to structure or position is energy stored.
32 terms
Energy and metabolism
First law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermo
Free energy
Enthalpy
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, can only be conv…
Free energy of a system tends to decrease which often corresp…
Measure of work a system can perform. Exergonic (-) so sponta…
Heat of rxn or chem bond energy of a rxn. literally the energ…
First law of thermodynamics
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, can only be conv…
Second law of thermo
Free energy of a system tends to decrease which often corresp…
energy metabolism
enzymes
glycogen-what and where
glucose in chemical form
glucose provides
biological catalysts
animal starch; found in liver and skeletal muscle
C6 H12 O6
energy for the cell
enzymes
biological catalysts
glycogen-what and where
animal starch; found in liver and skeletal muscle
8 terms
Energy metabolism
Energy metabolism
20
80
Strength/power
What is the series of chemical reactions that result in the b…
The body is about ___% efficient at trapping energy released.
About ___% of energy is released as heat.
Which type of exercise utilizes energy coming from immediate…
Energy metabolism
What is the series of chemical reactions that result in the b…
20
The body is about ___% efficient at trapping energy released.
30 terms
Energy Metabolism
Homeostasis
Fuel metabolism
malnutrition or obesity
Malnutrition
Energy intake = Energy expenditure
generates energy (as ATP) for metabolic and physical work
Energy imbalance
leads to underdevelopment and illness; #1 health risk in the…
Homeostasis
Energy intake = Energy expenditure
Fuel metabolism
generates energy (as ATP) for metabolic and physical work
Energy/ Metabolism
Energy
Metabolism
kinetic energy
potential energy
capacity to do work
-totality of chemical reaction in an organism... -manages the ma…
anything that can move
stored energy as a result of its position and structure
Energy
capacity to do work
Metabolism
-totality of chemical reaction in an organism... -manages the ma…
48 terms
Energy Metabolism
Net Reaction: Glycolysis
Starting Material: Glycolysis
Products: Glycolysis (Part I & II)
Net Reaction: Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Part I:... - 2 ATP... Part II:... + 2 NADH... + 4 ATP... + 2 H2O... Overall:... +…
Glucose... (or Glucose 1P --> Glucose 6P)
Part I:... dihydroxyacetone + G3P (or 2 G3P)... Part II:... 2 pyruvate
Oxidative Phase:... - H20... + 2 NADPH... + CO2
Net Reaction: Glycolysis
Part I:... - 2 ATP... Part II:... + 2 NADH... + 4 ATP... + 2 H2O... Overall:... +…
Starting Material: Glycolysis
Glucose... (or Glucose 1P --> Glucose 6P)
Energy Metabolism
energy homeostasis
diagnosis of obesity
Obestity
Overweight individuals (BMI > 25) are…
energy intake = energy expenditure ... energy imbalance = malnu…
= excess adiposity... Body weight per se is not always appropri…
High blood pressure, hypertension ... High blood cholesterol, dy…
energy homeostasis
energy intake = energy expenditure ... energy imbalance = malnu…
diagnosis of obesity
6 terms
Metabolism & Energy
Metabolism
Metabolic pathway
Catabolism
Anabolism
Sum of all chemical rxn that occur in cell
Series of chemical rxn in living cells, each rxn runs by enzyme
Process of breaking down compounds into smaller molecules
Using energy to build large molecules
Metabolism
Sum of all chemical rxn that occur in cell
Metabolic pathway
Series of chemical rxn in living cells, each rxn runs by enzyme
26 terms
Energy Metabolism
Metabolism
Energy
Energy Metabolism
Where do we get energy?
The entire network of chemical processes involved in maintain…
Capacity to do work
Biochemical transformation related to energy production or us…
Indirectly... The sun
Metabolism
The entire network of chemical processes involved in maintain…
Energy
Capacity to do work
36 terms
Energy & Metabolism
Thermodynamics
Energy
Potential energy
Kinetic energy
Study of energy conversion... Cells governed by laws of physics…
The capacity to do work... Kinetic and Potential
Stored Energy
Energy of motion
Thermodynamics
Study of energy conversion... Cells governed by laws of physics…
Energy
The capacity to do work... Kinetic and Potential
10 terms
Energy Metabolism
Insulin: muscle cells
Glucagon: muscle cells
Lipolysis
B-Oxidation
Glucose UPTAKE... Glycogen synthesis... Ptn synthesis
Glycogen BREAKDOWN... Ptn breakdown... Glucose release
Triglyceride-->Fatty Acids (driven by cortisol)-->Acetyl-CoA…
Muscle cells... Fatty Acids from lypolysis-->Acetyl-CoA... Driven b…
Insulin: muscle cells
Glucose UPTAKE... Glycogen synthesis... Ptn synthesis
Glucagon: muscle cells
Glycogen BREAKDOWN... Ptn breakdown... Glucose release
64 terms
Energy and metabolism
What is the flow of energy?
Define thermodynamics:
What is energy?
Define Kinetic:
Thermodynamics
Branch of chemistry concerned with energy changes
capacity to do work ... -two states of energy (Kinetic and Poten…
energy of motion
What is the flow of energy?
Thermodynamics
Define thermodynamics:
Branch of chemistry concerned with energy changes
20 terms
Energy and Metabolism
Potential Energy
Kinetic Energy
Chemical Energy
Mechanic Energy
Stored energy ... *Chemical bonds break, releasing energy
Energy of motion
Stored in chemical bonds(food)
Movement
Potential Energy
Stored energy ... *Chemical bonds break, releasing energy
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion
14 terms
Metabolism and Energy
Metabolism
Explain how the first and second laws…
Compare the relative amounts of energy…
Classify a reaction as exergonic or en…
The sum of all chemical processes that manage energy in a liv…
LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS:... 1) Energy can transfer and transform p…
Endergonic or anabolic reactions require input of energy. The…
There is more released free energy available at the end of an…
Metabolism
The sum of all chemical processes that manage energy in a liv…
Explain how the first and second laws…
LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS:... 1) Energy can transfer and transform p…
27 terms
energy and metabolism
kinetic energy
potential energy
chemical energy
exergonic reaction
energy of movement, used to do work.
due to structure or position is energy stored.
energy stored within covalent bonds.
when energy released is greater than energy required there is…
kinetic energy
energy of movement, used to do work.
potential energy
due to structure or position is energy stored.
Energy metabolism
Bioenergetics
What is the most basic term of metabol…
Metabolism
What does Bioenergetics start with?
It is the transformation of energy sources from one form to a…
Bioenergetics
Different pathways/chemical reactions we have
Plants
Bioenergetics
It is the transformation of energy sources from one form to a…
What is the most basic term of metabol…
Bioenergetics
11 terms
Energy and Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolic reaction types
Catabolism
Anabolism
Sum of all chemical reactions occurring in an organism
Catabolic... Anabolic... coupled ... i.e. energy released by catabolis…
large molecules broken down to smaller ones... exergonic... e.g. ce…
small molecules synthesized into larger ones... endergonic... e.g.…
Metabolism
Sum of all chemical reactions occurring in an organism
Metabolic reaction types
Catabolic... Anabolic... coupled ... i.e. energy released by catabolis…
27 terms
energy and metabolism
kinetic energy
potential energy
chemical energy
exergonic reaction
energy of movement, used to do work.
due to structure or position is energy stored.
energy stored within covalent bonds.
when energy released is greater than energy required there is…
kinetic energy
energy of movement, used to do work.
potential energy
due to structure or position is energy stored.
46 terms
Energy Metabolism
Glycolysis is a sequence of __#__ reac…
There is an initial requirement for AT…
There is __ _____ step in which ___ is…
What is the rate-limiting enzyme in gl…
10... Glucose... Pyruvate
2
1 oxidative, NAD, NADH
Phosphofructokinase
Glycolysis is a sequence of __#__ reac…
10... Glucose... Pyruvate
There is an initial requirement for AT…
2
24 terms
Energy and Metabolism
absorption spectrum
aceytl coA
anaerobic metabolism
ATP
what is formed when fatty acids are oxidized in the mitochond…
The metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen; the…
main energy source that cells use for most of their work
absorption spectrum
aceytl coA
what is formed when fatty acids are oxidized in the mitochond…
9 terms
Energy Metabolism
ATP Hydrolysis for CATABOLISM
Energy CONSUMPTION in terms of metabol…
What kind of energetic process is bios…
Respiration
ANABOLIC or ANABOLISM
Synthesis of amino acids, carbohydratesm nucleic acids, lipid…
Can be either anaerobic or aerobic and utilizes an electron t…
ATP Hydrolysis for CATABOLISM
Energy CONSUMPTION in terms of metabol…
ANABOLIC or ANABOLISM
Energy Metabolism
What are the three energy obstacles?
Name the molecule
What are other energy transfer molecul…
Describe the locations of the steps of…
-Acquisition... -Storage... -Transport
-GTP: Guanine base... -NADH... -FADH2
-Glycolysis: occurs in cytoplasm... -Krebs cycle: occurs i…
What are the three energy obstacles?
-Acquisition... -Storage... -Transport
Name the molecule
Energy and Metabolism
Definition of Energy
Definition of Work
Definition of Metabolism
Definition of Cellular Respiration
the capacity of a physical system to do work
the ability to bring about change in a system... -have to inves…
sum of all chemical rxns taking place in an organism-typicall…
-transformation of food energy into usable forms... -process thr…
Definition of Energy
the capacity of a physical system to do work
Definition of Work
the ability to bring about change in a system... -have to inves…
Energy Metabolism
What are the three energy obstacles?
Name the molecule
What are other energy transfer molecul…
Describe the locations of the steps of…
-Acquisition... -Storage... -Transport
-GTP: Guanine base... -NADH... -FADH2
-Glycolysis: occurs in cytoplasm... -Krebs cycle: occurs i…
What are the three energy obstacles?
-Acquisition... -Storage... -Transport
Name the molecule
10 terms
Energy and Metabolism
Metabolism
anabolism
catabolism
kinetic energy
total of all chemical reactions carried out by an organism
reactions which use energy to make chemical bonds
reactions which use energy when chemical bonds are broken
energy of motion
Metabolism
total of all chemical reactions carried out by an organism
anabolism
reactions which use energy to make chemical bonds
Energy and Metabolism
Gibbs Free Energy
Endergonic
Exergonic
Entropy
A reaction that requires an input of energy
A reaction that releases excess free energy as heat
A formal name for the disorder of the universe (More likely t…
Gibbs Free Energy
Endergonic
A reaction that requires an input of energy
43 terms
Energy and Metabolism
energy
the 3 forms of energy
kinetic energy
thermal energy
ability to do work
kinetic, thermal, potential
energy in use
random movement of atoms and molecules... example: light or sola…
energy
ability to do work
the 3 forms of energy
kinetic, thermal, potential
25 terms
Chapter 6: Energy & Metabolism
Thermodynamics
Energy exists in 2 states: __________…
A boulder on top of a hilltop is an ex…
The unit of heat most commonly employe…
Branch of chemistry concerned with energy changes
Energy exists in 2 states: ___KINETIC energy or the energy of…
POTENTIAL ENERGY (FROM GRAVITY)
The unit of heat most commonly employed in biology is the __K…
Thermodynamics
Branch of chemistry concerned with energy changes
Energy exists in 2 states: __________…
Energy exists in 2 states: ___KINETIC energy or the energy of…
Energy Metabolism
Enzyme
pathogen
enzyme inhibitor
competitive inhibition
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a liv…
An organism that causes disease
substrate impostors that plug up the active site
substance that resembles the normal substrate competes with t…
Enzyme
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a liv…
pathogen
An organism that causes disease
6 terms
Energy Metabolism
3 Ways to Consider Energy Metabolism
Sources of Cellular Energy: Fuels
Energy Transferring Molecules
Short-Term Fuel Molecules
Three ways to consider energy metabolism:... -Whole body ... •Sho…
• Energy transferring molecules (not really fuels)... • Short-t…
• Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD + / NADH + H+) • Fla…
These molecules (PHOSPHAGENS) have covalently bound phosphate…
3 Ways to Consider Energy Metabolism
Three ways to consider energy metabolism:... -Whole body ... •Sho…
Sources of Cellular Energy: Fuels
• Energy transferring molecules (not really fuels)... • Short-t…
Energy & Metabolism
anabolic
bioenergetics
catabolic
metabolism
(also, anabolism) pathways that require an input of energy to…
study of energy flowing through living systems
(also, catabolism) pathways in which complex molecules are br…
all the chemical reactions that take place inside cells, incl…
anabolic
(also, anabolism) pathways that require an input of energy to…
bioenergetics
study of energy flowing through living systems
Energy & Metabolism
Energy
build molecules to move them into and…
Death
Sun to phytoplankton to zooplankton to…
Having the capacity or ability to do work or produce
Why do living things need energy?
What happens without energy?
What is the order of energy flow?
Energy
Having the capacity or ability to do work or produce
build molecules to move them into and…
Why do living things need energy?
32 terms
Energy Metabolism
The Energy Cycle
Basal Metabolism
Decreases in Basal Metabolism
Increases in Basal Metabolism
Energy Sources:... -Food: CHO, fat, protein used as ATP... -Body st…
Metabolic rate during states of rest... Measure while at complet…
Gender: lower in women than men (generally men have more musc…
Infancy... Childhood and pregnancy... More lean tissue... Elevated thy…
The Energy Cycle
Energy Sources:... -Food: CHO, fat, protein used as ATP... -Body st…
Basal Metabolism
Metabolic rate during states of rest... Measure while at complet…
Energy Metabolism
mobile form of carbs
storage form of carbs
mobile form of proteins
storage form of proteins
glucose
glycogen
AA's
proteins (muscle)
mobile form of carbs
glucose
storage form of carbs
glycogen
70 terms
Energy Metabolism
Light energy
Carbohydrate
Metabolism
Metabolic reactions
Plants capture and through the process of photosynthesis make…
plants-CO2+water
Sum total of all of the chemical processes needed in living o…
occur in cells
Light energy
Plants capture and through the process of photosynthesis make…
Carbohydrate
plants-CO2+water
45 terms
Energy Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolic pathway
Intermediants
Anabolic
Chemical reaction in the body
A group of biochemical,oval reactions that occur in progressi…
-compounds formed in a pathway... -NAD+... -FAD+... -acetate-CoA... -NADH…
-pathways that build compounds... -building up, such as making c…
Metabolism
Chemical reaction in the body
Metabolic pathway
A group of biochemical,oval reactions that occur in progressi…
46 terms
Metabolism+ Energy
metabolism
pathways
catabolic
anabolic
sum total of a system's biochemical reactions (metabolic path…
catabolic and anabolic
release of energy by breaking down complex molecules into sim…
building up complex molecules from simple components (biosynt…
metabolism
sum total of a system's biochemical reactions (metabolic path…
pathways
catabolic and anabolic
Energy Metabolism
4 Bioenergetic Pathways
How does oxygen uptake change from res…
Oxygen Debt (EPOC)
Slow Portion EPOC
ATP, PC, Anaerobic Glycolysis,
VO2 rapidly increases then achieves a steady state
elevated oxygen uptake following exercise
oxidative conversion of lactase to glucose
4 Bioenergetic Pathways
ATP, PC, Anaerobic Glycolysis,
How does oxygen uptake change from res…
VO2 rapidly increases then achieves a steady state
22 terms
metabolism/energy
enzyme
activation energy
metabolism
ATP
biological catalysts, speed up chemical reactions x lowering…
...
all of the reactions that a cell uses in getting and using en…
adenosine TRIPHOSPHATE is the chemical that cells use to tran…
enzyme
biological catalysts, speed up chemical reactions x lowering…
activation energy
...
22 terms
Energy Metabolism
Metabolism
Anabolic Reactions
Catabolic Reactions
Enzymes
the sum total of all of the chemical processes needed in livi…
small molecules are put together to build larger ones ... requir…
large molecules are broken down to smaller ones... no energy req…
protein catalysts that speed up or assist chemical reactions…
Metabolism
the sum total of all of the chemical processes needed in livi…
Anabolic Reactions
small molecules are put together to build larger ones ... requir…
33 terms
Energy & Metabolism
Each significant properties of a cell…
Energy is defined as
Free energy, is the difference b/t the…
The process of influencing the chemica…
Energy
the ability to do work
entropy
activation
Each significant properties of a cell…
Energy
Energy is defined as
the ability to do work
5 terms
energy metabolism
B-complex vitamins
folate+ vitamin B12
chromium
zinc
work as coenzyme: bind to enzymes to help do its work, assist…
increase cell production, fuels energy metabolism
glucose and lipid metabolism
cofactor in metabolism of food
B-complex vitamins
work as coenzyme: bind to enzymes to help do its work, assist…
folate+ vitamin B12
increase cell production, fuels energy metabolism
19 terms
Energy Metabolism
All the chemical and physical changes…
The primary metabolic by-product of al…
A catabolic process by which a larger…
Glycolysis begins with _______ and end…
Metabolism
Acetyl-CoA
hydrolysis
glucose, pyruvate
All the chemical and physical changes…
Metabolism
The primary metabolic by-product of al…
Acetyl-CoA
energy metabolism
what is ATP
glycogen
glycolysis
glycogenolysis
adenine, ribose and three linked phosphates
A form of stored glucose
A metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars…
breakdown of glycogen to glucose
what is ATP
adenine, ribose and three linked phosphates
glycogen
A form of stored glucose
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