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Study sets matching "energy metabolism"

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Study sets matching "energy metabolism"

35 terms
Energy Metabolism
Dehydrogenase
lactate dehydrogenase
pyruvate dehydrogenase
Kinase
an enzyme that removes hydrogen from a substrate
an enzyme that removes a hydride ion from lactate and transfe…
an enzyme that removes a hydride ion from pyruvate and transf…
an enzyme that adds a phosphate to a substrate usually the ph…
Dehydrogenase
an enzyme that removes hydrogen from a substrate
lactate dehydrogenase
an enzyme that removes a hydride ion from lactate and transfe…
16 terms
Energy Metabolism
Oxidation
Reduction
Glucose movement into cell
Regulatory steps in phosphorylated glu…
High energy electrons "fall" toward electronegative nucleus a…
Bonds are formed with electropositive atoms (e.g. carbon) whi…
Glucose passively transported into cell via transporter prote…
Glucose 6-phosphate can be made into 6-phosphogluconolactone…
Oxidation
High energy electrons "fall" toward electronegative nucleus a…
Reduction
Bonds are formed with electropositive atoms (e.g. carbon) whi…
34 terms
Energy Metabolism
usable energy
how we use usable energy
cellular metabolism
anabolism
photosynthesis
metabolism
break down molecules into CO2 and H2O releasing energy
the process of building (uses energy)
usable energy
photosynthesis
how we use usable energy
metabolism
49 terms
Energy & Metabolism
Energy
Potential Energy
Kinetic Energy
Energy Forms
capacity to do work
stored energy
energy in motion
mechanical , heat, sound , electric currents, light, or radio…
Energy
capacity to do work
Potential Energy
stored energy
27 terms
energy and metabolism
kinetic energy
potential energy
chemical energy
exergonic reaction
energy of movement, used to do work.
due to structure or position is energy stored.
energy stored within covalent bonds.
when energy released is greater than energy required there is…
kinetic energy
energy of movement, used to do work.
potential energy
due to structure or position is energy stored.
29 terms
Energy and Metabolism
Energy
All organisms need energy that they ob…
Phototrophs
Chemoorganotrophs
exists in various forms... the capacity to do work
A) Solar radiation... B) Organic chemicals (e.g., glucose)... C) In…
Cyanobacterium Synechococcus obtains its energy from the sun,…
obtain their energy from organic chemicals... Chemical Energy
Energy
exists in various forms... the capacity to do work
All organisms need energy that they ob…
A) Solar radiation... B) Organic chemicals (e.g., glucose)... C) In…
32 terms
Energy and metabolism
First law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermo
Free energy
Enthalpy
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, can only be conv…
Free energy of a system tends to decrease which often corresp…
Measure of work a system can perform. Exergonic (-) so sponta…
Heat of rxn or chem bond energy of a rxn. literally the energ…
First law of thermodynamics
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, can only be conv…
Second law of thermo
Free energy of a system tends to decrease which often corresp…
36 terms
Energy & Metabolism
Thermodynamics
Energy
Potential energy
Kinetic energy
Study of energy conversion... Cells governed by laws of physics…
The capacity to do work... Kinetic and Potential
Stored Energy
Energy of motion
Thermodynamics
Study of energy conversion... Cells governed by laws of physics…
Energy
The capacity to do work... Kinetic and Potential
15 terms
Energy/ Metabolism
Energy
Metabolism
kinetic energy
potential energy
capacity to do work
-totality of chemical reaction in an organism... -manages the ma…
anything that can move
stored energy as a result of its position and structure
Energy
capacity to do work
Metabolism
-totality of chemical reaction in an organism... -manages the ma…
10 terms
Energy Metabolism
Insulin: muscle cells
Glucagon: muscle cells
Lipolysis
B-Oxidation
Glucose UPTAKE... Glycogen synthesis... Ptn synthesis
Glycogen BREAKDOWN... Ptn breakdown... Glucose release
Triglyceride-->Fatty Acids (driven by cortisol)-->Acetyl-CoA…
Muscle cells... Fatty Acids from lypolysis-->Acetyl-CoA... Driven b…
Insulin: muscle cells
Glucose UPTAKE... Glycogen synthesis... Ptn synthesis
Glucagon: muscle cells
Glycogen BREAKDOWN... Ptn breakdown... Glucose release
27 terms
Energy Metabolism
energy homeostasis
diagnosis of obesity
Obestity
Overweight individuals (BMI > 25) are…
energy intake = energy expenditure ... energy imbalance = malnu…
= excess adiposity... Body weight per se is not always appropri…
High blood pressure, hypertension ... High blood cholesterol, dy…
energy homeostasis
energy intake = energy expenditure ... energy imbalance = malnu…
diagnosis of obesity
30 terms
Energy & Metabolism
Cells are like factories, housing thou…
Cells use these chemical reactions for…
Energy is the capacity to cause change…
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion…
...
...
...
...Potential energy is energy that matter possesses as a resu…
Cells are like factories, housing thou…
...
Cells use these chemical reactions for…
...
8 terms
Energy metabolism
Energy metabolism
20
80
Strength/power
What is the series of chemical reactions that result in the b…
The body is about ___% efficient at trapping energy released.
About ___% of energy is released as heat.
Which type of exercise utilizes energy coming from immediate…
Energy metabolism
What is the series of chemical reactions that result in the b…
20
The body is about ___% efficient at trapping energy released.
12 terms
Energy & Metabolism
Energy
Metabolism
Chemical reaction
Metabolic pathway
The capacity to do work. Cells do work to keep the organism a…
Set of chemical reactions that builds and breaks down molecul…
When atoms or molecules interact and create new types of mole…
Set of chemical reactions in an organism that accomplishes a…
Energy
The capacity to do work. Cells do work to keep the organism a…
Metabolism
Set of chemical reactions that builds and breaks down molecul…
24 terms
Energy and Metabolism
absorption spectrum
aceytl coA
anaerobic metabolism
ATP
what is formed when fatty acids are oxidized in the mitochond…
The metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen; the…
main energy source that cells use for most of their work
absorption spectrum
aceytl coA
what is formed when fatty acids are oxidized in the mitochond…
27 terms
energy and metabolism
kinetic energy
potential energy
chemical energy
exergonic reaction
energy of movement, used to do work.
due to structure or position is energy stored.
energy stored within covalent bonds.
when energy released is greater than energy required there is…
kinetic energy
energy of movement, used to do work.
potential energy
due to structure or position is energy stored.
energy metabolism
enzymes
glycogen-what and where
glucose in chemical form
glucose provides
biological catalysts
animal starch; found in liver and skeletal muscle
C6 H12 O6
energy for the cell
enzymes
biological catalysts
glycogen-what and where
animal starch; found in liver and skeletal muscle
46 terms
Energy Metabolism
Glycolysis is a sequence of __#__ reac…
There is an initial requirement for AT…
There is __ _____ step in which ___ is…
What is the rate-limiting enzyme in gl…
10... Glucose... Pyruvate
2
1 oxidative, NAD, NADH
Phosphofructokinase
Glycolysis is a sequence of __#__ reac…
10... Glucose... Pyruvate
There is an initial requirement for AT…
2
9 terms
Energy Metabolism
ATP Hydrolysis for CATABOLISM
Energy CONSUMPTION in terms of metabol…
What kind of energetic process is bios…
Respiration
ANABOLIC or ANABOLISM
Synthesis of amino acids, carbohydratesm nucleic acids, lipid…
Can be either anaerobic or aerobic and utilizes an electron t…
ATP Hydrolysis for CATABOLISM
Energy CONSUMPTION in terms of metabol…
ANABOLIC or ANABOLISM
55 terms
Energy Metabolism
ATP
How does the body break down macromole…
What organs use Glucose as the primary…
What organs use FA as the primary fuel
ATP is a temporary reservoir of chemical energy within cells…
The oxidation of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids…
Brain, RBCs, and Cells in tissues that are under-vascularized…
Heart, lung, liver, intestine, and skeletal muscle because th…
ATP
ATP is a temporary reservoir of chemical energy within cells…
How does the body break down macromole…
The oxidation of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids…
28 terms
Energy and Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolic pathway
Catabolic pathways
Anabolic pathways
The totality of an organisms chemical reactions. This allows…
A specific molecule turns into a series of defined steps to r…
A metabolic pathway that RELEASES energy by breaking down com…
A metabolic pathway that CONSUMES energy by building complica…
Metabolism
The totality of an organisms chemical reactions. This allows…
Metabolic pathway
A specific molecule turns into a series of defined steps to r…
14 terms
Metabolism and Energy
Metabolism
Explain how the first and second laws…
Compare the relative amounts of energy…
Classify a reaction as exergonic or en…
The sum of all chemical processes that manage energy in a liv…
LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS:... 1) Energy can transfer and transform p…
Endergonic or anabolic reactions require input of energy. The…
There is more released free energy available at the end of an…
Metabolism
The sum of all chemical processes that manage energy in a liv…
Explain how the first and second laws…
LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS:... 1) Energy can transfer and transform p…
27 terms
energy and metabolism
kinetic energy
potential energy
chemical energy
exergonic reaction
energy of movement, used to do work.
due to structure or position is energy stored.
energy stored within covalent bonds.
when energy released is greater than energy required there is…
kinetic energy
energy of movement, used to do work.
potential energy
due to structure or position is energy stored.
148 terms
Energy and Metabolism
bioenergetics
free energy (G)
negative ∆ G
positive ∆ G
the application of thermodynamic, electrochemical, and kineti…
measures how much energy is available to do work.
rxn is spontaneous
rxn is nonspontaneous
bioenergetics
the application of thermodynamic, electrochemical, and kineti…
free energy (G)
measures how much energy is available to do work.
25 terms
Chapter 6: Energy & Metabolism
Thermodynamics
Energy exists in 2 states: __________…
A boulder on top of a hilltop is an ex…
The unit of heat most commonly employe…
Branch of chemistry concerned with energy changes
Energy exists in 2 states: ___KINETIC energy or the energy of…
POTENTIAL ENERGY (FROM GRAVITY)
The unit of heat most commonly employed in biology is the __K…
Thermodynamics
Branch of chemistry concerned with energy changes
Energy exists in 2 states: __________…
Energy exists in 2 states: ___KINETIC energy or the energy of…
12 terms
Energy and Metabolism
Gibbs Free Energy
Endergonic
Exergonic
Entropy
A reaction that requires an input of energy
A reaction that releases excess free energy as heat
A formal name for the disorder of the universe (More likely t…
Gibbs Free Energy
Endergonic
A reaction that requires an input of energy
11 terms
Energy and Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolic reaction types
Catabolism
Anabolism
Sum of all chemical reactions occurring in an organism
Catabolic... Anabolic... coupled ... i.e. energy released by catabolis…
large molecules broken down to smaller ones... exergonic... e.g. ce…
small molecules synthesized into larger ones... endergonic... e.g.…
Metabolism
Sum of all chemical reactions occurring in an organism
Metabolic reaction types
Catabolic... Anabolic... coupled ... i.e. energy released by catabolis…
42 terms
Energy and Metabolism
Thermodynamics
Kinetic energy
Potential energy
oxidation-reduction (redox)
Study of transformations of energy, using heat as the most co…
Energy of motion
Energy that is not being used, but could be; energy in a pote…
A type pf paired reaction in living systems in which electron…
Thermodynamics
Study of transformations of energy, using heat as the most co…
Kinetic energy
Energy of motion
56 terms
Energy and Metabolism
Definition of Energy
Definition of Work
Definition of Metabolism
Definition of Cellular Respiration
the capacity of a physical system to do work
the ability to bring about change in a system... -have to inves…
sum of all chemical rxns taking place in an organism-typicall…
-transformation of food energy into usable forms... -process thr…
Definition of Energy
the capacity of a physical system to do work
Definition of Work
the ability to bring about change in a system... -have to inves…
30 terms
Energy Metabolism
Homeostasis
Fuel metabolism
malnutrition or obesity
Malnutrition
Energy intake = Energy expenditure
generates energy (as ATP) for metabolic and physical work
Energy imbalance
leads to underdevelopment and illness; #1 health risk in the…
Homeostasis
Energy intake = Energy expenditure
Fuel metabolism
generates energy (as ATP) for metabolic and physical work
75 terms
Energy and Metabolism
Life is built on _____________ _______…
What is metabolism?
Anabolic Reaction
Example of anabolic reaction:
chemical reactions... energy
the chemical reaction that keeps us alive
forms bonds with molecules
dehydration synthesis
Life is built on _____________ _______…
chemical reactions... energy
What is metabolism?
the chemical reaction that keeps us alive
15 terms
Metabolism and Energy
metabolism
metabolic pathway
catabolism
anabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the cell
a sequential series of chemical reactions in living cells; ea…
the process of breaking down compounds into smaller molecules…
the process of using energy build large molecules from smalle…
metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the cell
metabolic pathway
a sequential series of chemical reactions in living cells; ea…
43 terms
Energy and Metabolism
energy
the 3 forms of energy
kinetic energy
thermal energy
ability to do work
kinetic, thermal, potential
energy in use
random movement of atoms and molecules... example: light or sola…
energy
ability to do work
the 3 forms of energy
kinetic, thermal, potential
42 terms
metabolism and energy
phosphorylation
3 ways of phosphorylation
substrate level phosphorylation
oxidative level phosphorylation
is formation of ATP
1, substrate level... 2, oxidative level ... 3, photophosphorylation
energy is removed from an organic molecule and attached to AD…
reduction & oxidation (redox reaction)... involves and exchange…
phosphorylation
is formation of ATP
3 ways of phosphorylation
1, substrate level... 2, oxidative level ... 3, photophosphorylation
26 terms
Energy Metabolism
Metabolism
Energy
Energy Metabolism
Where do we get energy?
The entire network of chemical processes involved in maintain…
Capacity to do work
Biochemical transformation related to energy production or us…
Indirectly... The sun
Metabolism
The entire network of chemical processes involved in maintain…
Energy
Capacity to do work
37 terms
Energy and metabolism
What are the main processes that requi…
ATP stucture
ATP formation and breaking down
Reaction coupling (glucose, atp example)
• Contraction of muscle and hence for all movement (skeletal,…
What are the main processes that requi…
• Contraction of muscle and hence for all movement (skeletal,…
ATP stucture
83 terms
AP Metabolism and Energy Review
energy
two types of energy
potential energy
kinetic energy
the ability to cause change; required to do work
potential and kinetic
stored energy; result of position or structure
energy associated with motion; actually does work
energy
the ability to cause change; required to do work
two types of energy
potential and kinetic
52 terms
Energy Metabolism
How is energy obtained in animals?
What is metabolism?
Does metabolism only generate energy?
What are the pathways called that gene…
Is obtained from the oxidation of foodstuffs (carbohydrates,…
The sum of all reactions occurring within an organism
No, it both generates and consumes energy
Catabolic pathways
How is energy obtained in animals?
Is obtained from the oxidation of foodstuffs (carbohydrates,…
What is metabolism?
The sum of all reactions occurring within an organism
64 terms
Energy and metabolism
What is the flow of energy?
Define thermodynamics:
What is energy?
Define Kinetic:
Thermodynamics
Branch of chemistry concerned with energy changes
capacity to do work ... -two states of energy (Kinetic and Poten…
energy of motion
What is the flow of energy?
Thermodynamics
Define thermodynamics:
Branch of chemistry concerned with energy changes
10 terms
Energy and Metabolism
Metabolism
anabolism
catabolism
kinetic energy
total of all chemical reactions carried out by an organism
reactions which use energy to make chemical bonds
reactions which use energy when chemical bonds are broken
energy of motion
Metabolism
total of all chemical reactions carried out by an organism
anabolism
reactions which use energy to make chemical bonds
45 terms
Energy Metabolism
Energy Absorption Efficiency
Allometric Equation
Assimilated Chemical Energy
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Absorbed energy/ ingested energy
Describes the relationship of one part of a plant to another…
The combination of two processes to supply cells with nutrients
Standard measure of metabolic rate that applies to homeotherm…
Energy Absorption Efficiency
Absorbed energy/ ingested energy
Allometric Equation
Describes the relationship of one part of a plant to another…
95 terms
Energy Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolic pathway
Mitochondria
Aerobic
the sum of all chemical reactions in the body
a sequence of reactions that convert compounds from one form…
this metabolically active organelle is located in the cytopla…
the mitochondria generate most of the cell's energy through _…
Metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions in the body
Metabolic pathway
a sequence of reactions that convert compounds from one form…
12 terms
Energy Metabolism
metabolism
metabolic pathway
intermediate
anabolic
entire network of chemical processes/reactions involved in ma…
series of chemical reactions that occur in a cell (ex: glycol…
chemical compound formed in one of many steps in a metabolic…
use energy to build larger, more complex compounds (ex: stori…
metabolism
entire network of chemical processes/reactions involved in ma…
metabolic pathway
series of chemical reactions that occur in a cell (ex: glycol…
62 terms
Energy & Metabolism
Energy
build molecules to move them into and…
Death
Sun to phytoplankton to zooplankton to…
Having the capacity or ability to do work or produce
Why do living things need energy?
What happens without energy?
What is the order of energy flow?
Energy
Having the capacity or ability to do work or produce
build molecules to move them into and…
Why do living things need energy?
42 terms
Metabolism/ Energy
Cellular Respiration (aerobic)
Fermentation (anaerobic)
Oxidation
Reduction
Complete oxidation. Produces waste products CO2 and H2O. Trap…
Incomplete oxidation. Produces waste products lactic acid or…
Loss of one or more electrons. Lowers free energy.
Gain of one or more electrons. Raises free energy.
Cellular Respiration (aerobic)
Complete oxidation. Produces waste products CO2 and H2O. Trap…
Fermentation (anaerobic)
Incomplete oxidation. Produces waste products lactic acid or…
22 terms
metabolism/energy
enzyme
activation energy
metabolism
ATP
biological catalysts, speed up chemical reactions x lowering…
...
all of the reactions that a cell uses in getting and using en…
adenosine TRIPHOSPHATE is the chemical that cells use to tran…
enzyme
biological catalysts, speed up chemical reactions x lowering…
activation energy
...
Energy Metabolism
Metabolism
Main categories of energy use:
Metabolic rate
Info given by metabolic rate:
the sum total of energy used by an organism
1. maintenance... 2. food processing... 3. Biosynthesis... 4. Movement…
total energy used per unit time, the rate at which an animal…
1. how much food an animal needs... 2. intensity of living... 3. ho…
Metabolism
the sum total of energy used by an organism
Main categories of energy use:
1. maintenance... 2. food processing... 3. Biosynthesis... 4. Movement…
51 terms
Energy Metabolism
Bioenergetics
Energy
Examples of energy
Kinetic Energy
The study of energy in living systems and the organisms that…
Capacity to do work
1. Kinetic... 2. Potential
Energy in the process of doing work/energy of motion
Bioenergetics
The study of energy in living systems and the organisms that…
Energy
Capacity to do work
14 terms
Energy Metabolism
Energy
energy measurements
food energy to cellular energy (Stage 1)
food energy to cellular energy (Stage 2)
the capacity to do work
1 kcal = 4.184 kj
digestion, absorption, transport
breakdown of molecules
Energy
the capacity to do work
energy measurements
1 kcal = 4.184 kj
Energy & Metabolism
Energy
Photosynthesizers
Kinetic
Potential
-ability to do work or bring about change... -majority of organi…
-include algae,plants & some bactera,utilize SOLAR ENERGY to…
- energy of motion
-stored energy ... ex: food we eat potential... -food=CHEMICAL ENERGY
Energy
-ability to do work or bring about change... -majority of organi…
Photosynthesizers
-include algae,plants & some bactera,utilize SOLAR ENERGY to…
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