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Study sets matching "enzyme structure function"

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Study sets matching "enzyme structure function"

8 terms
Enzyme structure and function
Enzyme
Amylase
Protease
Active site
A biological catalyst
Digests starch into maltose
Digests proteins into amino acids
Where the substrate fits into the correct enzyme
Enzyme
A biological catalyst
Amylase
Digests starch into maltose
10 terms
Protein & Enzyme Structure & Function
Primary Protein Structure
Secondary Protein Structure
Tertiary Protein Structure
Quaternary Protein Structure
sequence of amino acids in a protein
Areas of folding or coiling within a protein; examples includ…
The three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide chain, resul…
Two or more polypeptide chains combined
Primary Protein Structure
sequence of amino acids in a protein
Secondary Protein Structure
Areas of folding or coiling within a protein; examples includ…
10 terms
Protein & Enzyme Structure & Function
Primary Protein Structure
Secondary Protein Structure
Tertiary Protein Structure
Quaternary Protein Structure
sequence of amino acids in a protein
Areas of folding or coiling within a protein; examples includ…
The three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide chain, resul…
Two or more polypeptide chains combined
Primary Protein Structure
sequence of amino acids in a protein
Secondary Protein Structure
Areas of folding or coiling within a protein; examples includ…
17 terms
Protein & Enzyme Structure & Function
Primary Protein Structure
Secondary Protein Structure
Tertiary Protein Structure
Quaternary Protein Structure
sequence of amino acids in a protein
Areas of folding or coiling within a protein; examples includ…
The three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide chain, resul…
Two or more polypeptide chains combined
Primary Protein Structure
sequence of amino acids in a protein
Secondary Protein Structure
Areas of folding or coiling within a protein; examples includ…
21 terms
Enzyme Structure and Function
Enzymes
Acid/Base catalysis
Covalent Catalysis
Electrostatic catalysis
Biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions.... - Lowe…
Acids can act as either acids or bases (proton donor or accep…
Catalyze reactions when enzymes form covalent bonds (sharing…
Enzymes with bound metal cation (i.e. magnesium). ... i.e. magn…
Enzymes
Biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions.... - Lowe…
Acid/Base catalysis
Acids can act as either acids or bases (proton donor or accep…
20 terms
Energy and Enzyme Structure and Function
Energy
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
The First Law of Thermodynamics (Laws…
the ability to do work and create heat
- energy in motion... - used to move the organisms, it's cells,…
- stored form of energy... - stored in covalent bonds of large m…
- energy can't be created, or destroyed, but can change forms…
Energy
the ability to do work and create heat
Kinetic Energy
- energy in motion... - used to move the organisms, it's cells,…
19 terms
Enzyme Structure and Function
Intracellular enzymes
Extracellular enzymes
Cofactors
Coenzymes
Used within the cell it is produced in
Act outside the cell that produced it
Other factors that must be present in order for the enzyme to…
Organic cofactor
Intracellular enzymes
Used within the cell it is produced in
Extracellular enzymes
Act outside the cell that produced it
9 terms
Biology: Enzyme Structure and Function
Enzymes change:
Enzymes do not change
enzymes are classified as
active site
1. decrease activation energy by lowering energy of transitio…
1. Keq, because lowers the activation energy for both forward…
catalysts... increase rate of rxn but are not used up during it
where enzyme-substrate interactions occur
Enzymes change:
1. decrease activation energy by lowering energy of transitio…
Enzymes do not change
1. Keq, because lowers the activation energy for both forward…
60 terms
Enzyme Structure, Function, and Kinetics
Enzymes
Substrate Binding Site
Oxiodoreductases
Dehydrogenases
Proteins that act as catalysts and accelerate the rate of a r…
It's unique configuration on the surface of the enzyme provid…
Oxidoreductases catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions:... elect…
transfer hydrogen between a substrate and a coenzyme, most co…
Enzymes
Proteins that act as catalysts and accelerate the rate of a r…
Substrate Binding Site
It's unique configuration on the surface of the enzyme provid…
Energy and Enzyme Structure and Function
Energy
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
The First Law of Thermodynamics (Laws…
the ability to do work and create heat
- energy in motion... - used to move the organisms, it's cells,…
- stored form of energy... - stored in covalent bonds of large m…
- energy can't be created, or destroyed, but can change forms…
Energy
the ability to do work and create heat
Kinetic Energy
- energy in motion... - used to move the organisms, it's cells,…
13 terms
Structure and function of Enzymes
Enzym
Kofaktor
Lysozym
Hydrolys
påskyndar vitala processer i cellen genom att underlätta form…
medhjälpare i katalytiska processer
enzym som katalyserar spjälkning av glukosidbindningar, finns…
Enzym
påskyndar vitala processer i cellen genom att underlätta form…
Kofaktor
medhjälpare i katalytiska processer
24 terms
Enzyme Structure & Function
Most enzymes are what type of macromol…
Most enzymes are what structures?
In reactions what do enzymes act as?
Are enzymes permanently changed in che…
proteins
tertiary and quaternary
catalyst
Not permanatly changed in the process
Most enzymes are what type of macromol…
proteins
Most enzymes are what structures?
tertiary and quaternary
18 terms
Biomolecules: Enzyme Structure and Function
Function of enzymes
4 ways that enzymes speed up reactions
Draw the A --> B reaction diagrams
What is an active site?
Increase the rate of biochemical reactions
1. Acid / base catalysis- acids and bases are good proton car…
Reference Page 5
Where substrates bind on an enzyme
Function of enzymes
Increase the rate of biochemical reactions
4 ways that enzymes speed up reactions
1. Acid / base catalysis- acids and bases are good proton car…
12 terms
Enzyme Structure and Function
Active Site
Induced Fit
Cofactors
Coenzymes
region of enzyme where substrate binds
chemical interactions between enzyme's active site and substr…
non-protein substances that attach to enzyme and improve enzy…
organic cofactors that contain carbon (ex. vitamins)
Active Site
region of enzyme where substrate binds
Induced Fit
chemical interactions between enzyme's active site and substr…
22 terms
Protein/Enzyme Structure Function and Metabolism
Monomer vs polymer
Dehydration vs hydrolysis
Enzyme
Induced Fit
Single subunits; large units made of linked smaller ones
Removal of water (links); addition of water (breaks)
A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a cata…
A model proposed mechanism of interaction between an enzyme a…
Monomer vs polymer
Single subunits; large units made of linked smaller ones
Dehydration vs hydrolysis
Removal of water (links); addition of water (breaks)
26 terms
Enzyme Structure & Function
enzymes
active site
allosteric site
enzyme substrate complex
*made of protein (polypeptide chains of amino acids)... *have sp…
region of enzyme where substrate binds
region of whee non-substrate molecules can bind to regulate e…
*stabilized by weak bonds (hydrogen, ionic) between enzyme an…
enzymes
*made of protein (polypeptide chains of amino acids)... *have sp…
active site
region of enzyme where substrate binds
21 terms
Enzyme structure and function
Oxidoreductases
In reactions catalyzed by oxidoreducta…
Transferases
_______ (other transferases will be st…
catalyze oxidation and reduction reactions. They often have a…
reductant, oxidant
catalyze the movement of a functional group from one molecule…
Kinases
Oxidoreductases
catalyze oxidation and reduction reactions. They often have a…
In reactions catalyzed by oxidoreducta…
reductant, oxidant
Enzyme structure & function
Chemical reaction
Reactants
Products
Activation energy
Process that changes or transforms one set of chemicals into…
The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
The elements or compounds that are produced by a chemical rea…
Energy required to get a chemical reaction started
Chemical reaction
Process that changes or transforms one set of chemicals into…
Reactants
The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
Enzyme Structure and Function
Enzymes interact with specific substra…
Enzymes change shape after a reaction…
Enzymes speed up reactions
One enzyme can be used for many differ…
True
False
True
false
Enzymes interact with specific substra…
True
Enzymes change shape after a reaction…
False
20 terms
(3) 1. - Enzyme Structure and Function
Enzymes: Biological Catalysts
All enzymes are?
Proteins
Peptide Bonds
- they speed up reactions without being consumed in the proce…
- all enzymes are proteins.
- are polymers made up of monomer units call amino acids ... - 2…
- bonds between amino acids. ... - form via condensation reactio…
Enzymes: Biological Catalysts
- they speed up reactions without being consumed in the proce…
All enzymes are?
- all enzymes are proteins.
22 terms
BIOMOLECULES: ENZYME STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
catalyst
how catalysts work
enzyme strategy: acid/base catalysis
enzyme strategy: covalent catalysis
a chemical entity that increases the speed of a reaction... it c…
Catalysts make reactions fast by aligning reactants so that s…
enzymes act like acid or base to donate or accept a proton
enzymes form a covalent bond with target molecule... acts as an…
catalyst
a chemical entity that increases the speed of a reaction... it c…
how catalysts work
Catalysts make reactions fast by aligning reactants so that s…
30 terms
Energy and Enzyme Structure and Function
Energy
Potential energy (definition)
Potential energy... (In living organisms.…
Kinetic Energy (definition)
The ability to do work and to create heat
Stored form of energy
In living organisms energy is stored in the covalent bonds of…
Energy in motion
Energy
The ability to do work and to create heat
Potential energy (definition)
Stored form of energy
44 terms
enzyme structure and function
steps of chymotrypsin mechanism
acyl enzyme TS of chymotrypsin is __ i…
inactive enzyme whose own AA sequence…
how is a zymogen activated?
1. general base catalysis (formation of acyl-enzyme intermedi…
tetrahedral, negative
zymogen
active enzyme cleaves sequence and exposes active site
steps of chymotrypsin mechanism
1. general base catalysis (formation of acyl-enzyme intermedi…
acyl enzyme TS of chymotrypsin is __ i…
tetrahedral, negative
25 terms
Enzyme structure and function (1A)
What is the function of enzymes?
How do enzymes increase the rate of re…
What is the activation energy?
What is the suffix used to name most e…
Enzymes are biological catalysts: they increase the rate of b…
Enzymes catalyze biochemical reactions by lowering the activa…
The activation energy is the energy difference between the re…
Most enzyme names end with the suffix "-ase"
What is the function of enzymes?
Enzymes are biological catalysts: they increase the rate of b…
How do enzymes increase the rate of re…
Enzymes catalyze biochemical reactions by lowering the activa…
20 terms
Enzyme Structure, Function, and Kinetics
4 Catalytic Strategies
6 Types of Enzymes
Co-Enzyme
Co-Factor
1. Acid/Base Catalysis - proton transfer... 2. Covalent Catalysi…
1. Transferase - transfer substrate... 2. Ligase - combine subst…
Organic carrier molecules that help certain enzymes
Directly assist with catalysis
4 Catalytic Strategies
1. Acid/Base Catalysis - proton transfer... 2. Covalent Catalysi…
6 Types of Enzymes
1. Transferase - transfer substrate... 2. Ligase - combine subst…
23 terms
7. Enzyme Structure and Function
Functions of Enzymes in Biological Rea…
Mechanisms of Catalysis
Lock and Key Theory
Induced Fit Model
1. lower the activation energy... 2. increase rate of the reacti…
1. Cofactors... 2. Coenzymes... 3. Water-Soluble Vitamins
hypothesizes that the enzyme's active site (lock) is already…
hypothesizes that the enzyme and substrate undergo conformati…
Functions of Enzymes in Biological Rea…
1. lower the activation energy... 2. increase rate of the reacti…
Mechanisms of Catalysis
1. Cofactors... 2. Coenzymes... 3. Water-Soluble Vitamins
20 terms
Enzyme Structure and Function
What are the types of catalytic strate…
Describe acid/base catalysis
Describe covalent catalysis
Describe electrostatic catalysis
Types of catalytic strategies:... 1) Acid / Base catalysis... 2) Co…
Acid/base catalysis transfers protons... ex: ketone-enol tautom…
Covalent catalysis is the transfer of e⁻... ex: decarboxylation
Electrostatis catalyis takes advantage of charged molecules…
What are the types of catalytic strate…
Types of catalytic strategies:... 1) Acid / Base catalysis... 2) Co…
Describe acid/base catalysis
Acid/base catalysis transfers protons... ex: ketone-enol tautom…
20 terms
Enzyme Structure and Function
What does carbonic anhydrase do?
What are the four catalytic strategies?
what is involved in acid/base catalysis?
What is involved in covalent catalysis?
enzyme in the blood and saliva that makes carbonic acid turn…
1. acid/base catalysis... 2. covalent catalysis... 3. electrostatic…
proton carriers (such as acids and bases).... ex: keto-enol taut…
electron movement, electron carriers... ex: decarboxylase
What does carbonic anhydrase do?
enzyme in the blood and saliva that makes carbonic acid turn…
What are the four catalytic strategies?
1. acid/base catalysis... 2. covalent catalysis... 3. electrostatic…
22 terms
Enzyme Structure and Function
Enzyme
Catalyst
Intracellular enzymes
Extracellular enzymes
Catalyses reactions and reduces the amount of energy required
Increases the rate of reactions that occur in living organism…
Used within the cell it is produced in
Act outside the cell that produced it
Enzyme
Catalyses reactions and reduces the amount of energy required
Catalyst
Increases the rate of reactions that occur in living organism…
40 terms
Enzyme Structure & Function
Enzymes are what type of macromolecule?
Enzymes act as what in reactions?
Are Enzymes permanently changed in che…
Will an enzyme work on any substance?…
Proteins
Catalyst
No
No, because enzymes work on specific substrate
Enzymes are what type of macromolecule?
Proteins
Enzymes act as what in reactions?
Catalyst
21 terms
Enzyme Structure and Function
When is steady state reached?
What is the pre-steady state burst
Examples of serine proteases
The active site supports what and how?
When the concentration of the products: concentration of enzy…
Increased production of product... Indicative of enzyme mechanis…
Chymotrypsin... Thrombin... Elastase
Supports chemistry of rxn and substrate binding... via R groups,…
When is steady state reached?
When the concentration of the products: concentration of enzy…
What is the pre-steady state burst
Increased production of product... Indicative of enzyme mechanis…
24 terms
Enzyme Structure & Function
Most enzymes are what type of macromol…
Most enzymes are what structures?
In reactions what do enzymes act as?
Are enzymes permanently changed in che…
proteins
tertiary and quaternary
catalyst
Not permanatly changed in the process
Most enzymes are what type of macromol…
proteins
Most enzymes are what structures?
tertiary and quaternary
13 terms
Enzyme Structure & Function
Enzyme
Macromolecule
Most enzymes are what type of macromol…
Most enzyme structures are?
A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a cata…
a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a…
Proteins
Tertiary or Quaternary
Enzyme
A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a cata…
Macromolecule
a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a…
24 terms
Enzyme Structure & Function
Most enzymes are what type of macromol…
Most enzymes are what structures?
In reactions what do enzymes act as?
Are enzymes permanently changed in che…
proteins
tertiary and quaternary
catalyst
Not permanently changed in the process
Most enzymes are what type of macromol…
proteins
Most enzymes are what structures?
tertiary and quaternary
Energy and Enzyme Structure and Function
Energy
Potential energy (definition)
Potential energy... (In living organisms.…
Kinetic Energy (definition)
The ability to do work and to create heat
Stored form of energy
In living organisms energy is stored in the covalent bonds of…
Energy in motion
Energy
The ability to do work and to create heat
Potential energy (definition)
Stored form of energy
Biochemistry - Enzyme Structure and Function
An enzyme may consist of a single poly…
What shape are enzymes most likely to…
If a transition state intermediate pos…
Is it possible that amino acids locate…
Quaternary. This level of structure of proteins involves mult…
Enzymes tend to be globular in order to have the active site…
A transient negative charge would be stabilized by a positive…
The primary protein sequence only shows the linear arrangemen…
An enzyme may consist of a single poly…
Quaternary. This level of structure of proteins involves mult…
What shape are enzymes most likely to…
Enzymes tend to be globular in order to have the active site…
25 terms
Digestion, Enzyme Structure and function
Mouth
Esophagus
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
both chemical and mechanical digestion. Mechanical because yo…
Transports your food from mouth to the stomach only involved…
Involved with chemical digestion because of the enzymes secre…
This is where water absorption takes place which would dehydr…
Mouth
both chemical and mechanical digestion. Mechanical because yo…
Esophagus
Transports your food from mouth to the stomach only involved…
62 terms
protein structure and functions and enzymes
primary structure
secondary structure
tertiary structure
quarternary structure
amino acid sequence
hydrogen bonding... forms A-helix or beta pleated sheets... Every 4…
...
...
primary structure
amino acid sequence
secondary structure
hydrogen bonding... forms A-helix or beta pleated sheets... Every 4…
15 terms
Structure and function of enzymes
How many reactions do enzymes catalyse?
What is the active site defined by?
What are serine proteases?
How are serine proteases made catalyti…
A single reaction (or few very closely related reactions) wit…
Both primary level of protein structure and higher levels of…
Have a serine residue
By an aspartate and histidine residue closely adjacent in 3D…
How many reactions do enzymes catalyse?
A single reaction (or few very closely related reactions) wit…
What is the active site defined by?
Both primary level of protein structure and higher levels of…
28 terms
Enzymes: structure and function - 3
Enzymes
Activation energy
Transition state
How do enzymes catalyse reactions?
Speed up the approach to equilibrium, and it speeds up the re…
The difference in energy between the transition state and the…
Highest energy state
- Enzymes provide a reaction surface and a suitable environme…
Enzymes
Speed up the approach to equilibrium, and it speeds up the re…
Activation energy
The difference in energy between the transition state and the…
46 terms
Enzymes: Structure and Function
Activation energy
Transition state
fraction of molecules that have energy…
lowering the activation energy
must be achieved before there is sufficient kinetic energy be…
By overcoming the energy activation barrier, a _________ is r…
The rate of reaction is always proportional to....
_______ does not change the delta G for the reaction; allows…
Activation energy
must be achieved before there is sufficient kinetic energy be…
Transition state
By overcoming the energy activation barrier, a _________ is r…
24 terms
Protein Structure/Function and Enzymes
4 main protiens
collagen normal function
collagen normal structure
collagen's structure > allows it to ac…
collagen, hemoglobin, CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane con…
connect skin cells together into tissues; holds our skin toge…
long and thin, one collagen fiber easily intertwines w/ anoth…
makes bundle that looks like rope, to get the function of con…
4 main protiens
collagen, hemoglobin, CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane con…
collagen normal function
connect skin cells together into tissues; holds our skin toge…
68 terms
Cell Structure and Functions+ Enzymes
Robert Hook
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Protozoans
Paramecium and Ameoba
Examined thin slices of cork and saw "little boxes". First to…
First to see living organisms
Single celled animal
Types of Protozoans
Robert Hook
Examined thin slices of cork and saw "little boxes". First to…
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
First to see living organisms
20 terms
(3) 1. - Enzyme Structure and Function
Enzymes: Biological Catalysts
All enzymes are?
Proteins
Peptide Bonds
- they speed up reactions without being consumed in the proce…
- all enzymes are proteins.
- are polymers made up of monomer units call amino acids ... - 2…
- bonds between amino acids. ... - form via condensation reactio…
Enzymes: Biological Catalysts
- they speed up reactions without being consumed in the proce…
All enzymes are?
- all enzymes are proteins.
14 terms
Proteins/Enzymes Structure and Functions
Other ways to speed up reactions
Active sight
Induced fit model
Enzyme-substrate Complex
Increase of temperature, pressure, surface area, or by adding…
A depression or cleft in the enzyme with a shape complementar…
The specific shape of an enzyme
When the substrate and the enzyme are bound together
Other ways to speed up reactions
Increase of temperature, pressure, surface area, or by adding…
Active sight
A depression or cleft in the enzyme with a shape complementar…
14 terms
Science Cell Structure and Function And Enzymes
cell wall
cell membrane
nucleus
chromosomes
thick outer cover; gives plant cell support; made of cellulose
regulates what goes in and out of cell
regulates the cells activities, contains DNA
DNA/RNA; determines traits
cell wall
thick outer cover; gives plant cell support; made of cellulose
cell membrane
regulates what goes in and out of cell
25 terms
Lecture 12: Enzyme Structure and Function
<
enzymes
transition state
Activation energy
A cellular reaction is favorable if ∆G __ 0... (>, <, =)
accelerate a chemical reaction without being consumed or perm…
the higher-energy, unstable, intermediate step needed in all…
serves as a barrier to reaction progression and completion... (t…
<
A cellular reaction is favorable if ∆G __ 0... (>, <, =)
enzymes
accelerate a chemical reaction without being consumed or perm…
11 terms
Lecture 5 Enzyme Structure and function
Key concepts
H-bonding role in substrate binding?
Induced fit overview`
Catalysis mechanisms done by 2 modes
-Convert substrates to products... -SHape complementarity ... -Enzy…
-lowers activation energy by weakening pi bond of carbonyl at…
-active site alters shape to maximize intermolecular bondin,…
-acid/base catalysis (histidine as base catalyst is proton si…
Key concepts
-Convert substrates to products... -SHape complementarity ... -Enzy…
H-bonding role in substrate binding?
-lowers activation energy by weakening pi bond of carbonyl at…
9 terms
Obj. 19 - Enzymes (structure and function)
What are enzymes?
What do enzymes do?
How useful are enzymes?
What is the substrate?
They are proteins with a specific shape.
They speed up chemical reactions. They help put substances to…
They can be used over and over again.
The substrate is the substance that the enzyme is working on.
What are enzymes?
They are proteins with a specific shape.
What do enzymes do?
They speed up chemical reactions. They help put substances to…
11 terms
Enzyme Structure and Function (Unit 2)
What are enzymes classified as?
Enzymes
Enzymes catalytic efficiency
What temperature are enzymes most acti…
Proteins
They are Catalysts, lower activation energy of a reaction, ma…
10^3 to 10^17 times faster (speeds things up)
37 degrees C
What are enzymes classified as?
Proteins
Enzymes
They are Catalysts, lower activation energy of a reaction, ma…
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