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Study sets matching "enzymes"

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Study sets matching "enzymes"

69 terms
Enzymes
enzyme history
catalyst
enzymes are catalysts that exhibit
ribozymes are
glucose --> ethanol via yeast fermentation (beer)... canteens --…
a substance, usually small amounts relative to reactants, tha…
1) higher reaction rates = 10^6-10^12 times faster... 2) milder…
RNA catalysts
enzyme history
glucose --> ethanol via yeast fermentation (beer)... canteens --…
catalyst
a substance, usually small amounts relative to reactants, tha…
11 terms
Enzymes
Enzyme
Catalyst
Metabolism
Homeostasis
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a liv…
A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.
Chemical reactions in living organisms that are necessary to…
Cells and systems maintain a constant internal balance.
Enzyme
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a liv…
Catalyst
A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.
10 terms
Enzymes
it enables the bloodstream to carry ca…
exothermic
endothermic
activation energy
why is CO2 + H2O = H2CO2 an important reaction in our bodies?
chemical reaction that RELEASES energy
chemical reaction that ABSORBS energy
the amount of energy that is needed to start a reaction
it enables the bloodstream to carry ca…
why is CO2 + H2O = H2CO2 an important reaction in our bodies?
exothermic
chemical reaction that RELEASES energy
Enzymes
reactant
chemical reaction
product
activation energy
A chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemic…
(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are cha…
A substance produced in a chemical reaction
Energy needed to get a reaction started
reactant
A chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemic…
chemical reaction
(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are cha…
21 terms
Enzymes
Metabolism
Anabolism
Catabolism
Coupled Reaction
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
The build up of macromolecules and needs energy (ENDOTHERMIC)
The breakdown of macromolecules and releases energy (EXOTHERM…
Reactions that occur simultaneously; one is exergonic reactio…
Metabolism
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
Anabolism
The build up of macromolecules and needs energy (ENDOTHERMIC)
17 terms
Enzymes
Enzyme
Chemical Reaction
Activation Energy
Active Site
Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts within living cell…
A chemical reaction is a process that converts one or more su…
The energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.
The active site is the binding site for the enzyme's substrat…
Enzyme
Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts within living cell…
Chemical Reaction
A chemical reaction is a process that converts one or more su…
54 terms
Enzymes
Enzyme
Activation Energy
Active Site
Catalytic Cycle
-a protein catalyst that increases the rate of reactions with…
-energy needed in order for molecules to react with one anoth…
-region of enzyme that binds to the substrate
Substrate is held in active site by Hydrogen bonds, Van der W…
Enzyme
-a protein catalyst that increases the rate of reactions with…
Activation Energy
-energy needed in order for molecules to react with one anoth…
9 terms
Enzymes
enzymes
activation energy
products
amino acids
biological catalyst
the energy required for a reaction to occur
substances produced by a reaction
monomer of protein
enzymes
biological catalyst
activation energy
the energy required for a reaction to occur
30 terms
Enzymes
first order kinetics
zero order kinetics
Km
Lineweaver-Burk plot
when reaction rate is dependent on concentration of substrate
when reaction rate is independent of concentration of substra…
substrate concentration in moles/L at 1/2 Vmax, is a characte…
plot that uses a double reciprocal to make the Michaelis-Ment…
first order kinetics
when reaction rate is dependent on concentration of substrate
zero order kinetics
when reaction rate is independent of concentration of substra…
11 terms
ENZYMES
type of molecule
activation energy
Spontaneous reaction
Non Spontaneous reaction
protein
minimum amount of energy required to convert a normal stable…
Inside energy, quickly
Outside energy, slow
type of molecule
protein
activation energy
minimum amount of energy required to convert a normal stable…
13 terms
Enzymes
enzymes
enzymes made of
enzyme action
temperate on enzyme activity
they an spread without change of chemical reactions which can…
amino acids which mean they are proteins
substrate fits exactly into the active site of the enzyme ... en…
as temperature increases the rte of reaction increases cause…
enzymes
they an spread without change of chemical reactions which can…
enzymes made of
amino acids which mean they are proteins
11 terms
ENZYMES
Activation Energy
Catalyst
Active Site
Enzyme activity
Energy needed to get a reaction started
substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction w…
special shaped area that fits onto the substrate-place where…
moles of substrate converted per unit time
Activation Energy
Energy needed to get a reaction started
Catalyst
substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction w…
Enzymes
catalyst
enzyme
substrate
active site
substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions witho…
specialized proteins that are biological catalysts; reduce en…
molecules (usually sugars) upon which enzymes work.
the connection point between enzyme and substrate.
catalyst
substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions witho…
enzyme
specialized proteins that are biological catalysts; reduce en…
12 terms
Enzymes
Enzymes
Enzyme Structure
Active site
Substrate
speed up rate of chemical reactions by lowering activation en…
Globular Protein
special bonding area
Enzyme active site fits particular reactant or reactants
Enzymes
speed up rate of chemical reactions by lowering activation en…
Enzyme Structure
Globular Protein
14 terms
Enzymes
Active Site
Substrate
Catalyst
Enzyme
The area of an enzyme where the substrate binds
The substance that an enzyme reacts with
Something that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions witho…
Biological Catalysts
Active Site
The area of an enzyme where the substrate binds
Substrate
The substance that an enzyme reacts with
Enzymes
enzymes
catalyst
activation energy
substrate
biological cataylsts, functional proteins; their names usuall…
a substance that causes or speeds up a chemical reaction
Energy needed to get a reaction started
- the molecule upon which an enzyme acts, the enzyme will d…
enzymes
biological cataylsts, functional proteins; their names usuall…
catalyst
a substance that causes or speeds up a chemical reaction
6 terms
Enzymes
Enzyme
Optimum Temperature
Optimum pH
Denature
Biological catalysts made of protein.
The temperature at which an enzyme works fastest
The pH at which an enzyme works most efficiently
The breaking of bonds that hold proteins together; often from…
Enzyme
Biological catalysts made of protein.
Optimum Temperature
The temperature at which an enzyme works fastest
13 terms
Enzymes
How do enzymes catalyze reactions?
True or False: Enzymes start chemical…
enzyme substrate
The enzyme binds to its substrate, for…
by lowering the Ea barrier
FALSE. Enzymes don't start reactions- they HASTEN reactions t…
the reactant that an enzyme acts on
an enzyme-substrate complex
How do enzymes catalyze reactions?
by lowering the Ea barrier
True or False: Enzymes start chemical…
FALSE. Enzymes don't start reactions- they HASTEN reactions t…
57 terms
Enzymes
Enzymes
Oxidoreductases
Examples of Oxidoreductases
Transferases
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions that involve the trans…
oxidases, reductases, peroxidases, dehydrogenases
Transfer of a functional group from one molecule to another m…
Enzymes
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
Oxidoreductases
catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions that involve the trans…
28 terms
Enzymes
hexokinase
glucokinase
phosphoglucomutase
UDP glucose phosphorylase
muscle
liver and pancreas
Rate limiting of glycogen formation
hexokinase
muscle
glucokinase
liver and pancreas
40 terms
Enzymes
Chemical reaction
Reactants
Products
Chemical Bonds
A process that changes or transforms a set of chemicals into…
The elements or compounds that are changed chemical reaction.
The elements or compounds that are the result of a change.
Chemical reactions always involve changes in the ____________…
Chemical reaction
A process that changes or transforms a set of chemicals into…
Reactants
The elements or compounds that are changed chemical reaction.
14 terms
Enzymes
enzymes
catalyst
activation energy
substrate
biological cataylsts, functional proteins; their names usuall…
a substance that causes or speeds up a chemical reaction
Energy needed to get a reaction started
- the molecule upon which an enzyme acts, the enzyme will d…
enzymes
biological cataylsts, functional proteins; their names usuall…
catalyst
a substance that causes or speeds up a chemical reaction
14 terms
Enzymes
Enzyme
Catalyst
Substrate
Product
- biological catalyst... - ends in -ase... - proteins... - increase ra…
- increases rate of reaction without changing itself... - specific
- item before reacting with catalyst
- changed substrate
Enzyme
- biological catalyst... - ends in -ase... - proteins... - increase ra…
Catalyst
- increases rate of reaction without changing itself... - specific
25 terms
Enzymes
Damage to pancreas causes an increase…
Alpha cell
Beta cell
Delta
Lipase, amylase, trypsin, and other digestive enzymes.
Glucagon
Proinsulin, insulin, C-peptide
Somatostatin
Damage to pancreas causes an increase…
Lipase, amylase, trypsin, and other digestive enzymes.
Alpha cell
Glucagon
28 terms
enzymes
ligase
isomerase
lyase
hydrolase
addition or synth rxn, generally bt large molecules, requires…
rearrangement of bonds in a comp
cleavage of a single mol into 2 products or synth or small mol
breaking 1 mol into 2 via h2o
ligase
addition or synth rxn, generally bt large molecules, requires…
isomerase
rearrangement of bonds in a comp
49 terms
Enzymes
Isozymes
Enzymes
Prosthetic groups
Cofactors
different enzymes that catalyze the same reaction
proteins that increase reaction rate 10^6 - 10^12 - do not ch…
tightly and stably bind enzyme (sometimes covalently). metal…
bind transiently to either the substrate or the enzyme, but a…
Isozymes
different enzymes that catalyze the same reaction
Enzymes
proteins that increase reaction rate 10^6 - 10^12 - do not ch…
12 terms
Enzymes
Activation energy
Active site
Enzyme
Catalyst
Energy needed to start a chemical reaction
Deep pocket or groove on an enzyme
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions
An inorganic chemical substance that speeds up chemical react…
Activation energy
Energy needed to start a chemical reaction
Active site
Deep pocket or groove on an enzyme
7 terms
Enzymes
Activation Energy
Active Site
Catalyst
Denatured Enzyme
The amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction.
Region on enzyme that binds with substrate; where chemical re…
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction.
An enzyme that loses shape and can no longer bind with a subs…
Activation Energy
The amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction.
Active Site
Region on enzyme that binds with substrate; where chemical re…
44 terms
Enzymes
Oxidoreductases
Oxidoreductase subclasses
Transferases
Transferase subclasses
Redox Reaction
Oxidase, Reductase, Oxygenase, Hydroxylase, Dehydrogenase, Pe…
Transfers groups between substrates
Transmethylase, Transmirase, Transcarboxylase, Hexokinase
Oxidoreductases
Redox Reaction
Oxidoreductase subclasses
Oxidase, Reductase, Oxygenase, Hydroxylase, Dehydrogenase, Pe…
9 terms
Enzymes
metabolism
enzymes
lock and key
induced fit
Chemical reactions in living organisms that are necessary to…
Biological catalysts
Enzymes are specific. The only work on the substrate that the…
the interaction between a substrate molecule and the active s…
metabolism
Chemical reactions in living organisms that are necessary to…
enzymes
Biological catalysts
12 terms
Enzymes
Enzyme
Specificity
Activation energy
Catabolic
Biological catalyst
Only catalyses one reaction
Minimum energy needed for a reaction to happen
Reactions that break large molecules into smaller ones
Enzyme
Biological catalyst
Specificity
Only catalyses one reaction
57 terms
Enzymes
Enzymes
Oxidoreductases
Examples of Oxidoreductases
Transferases
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions that involve the trans…
oxidases, reductases, peroxidases, dehydrogenases
Transfer of a functional group from one molecule to another m…
Enzymes
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
Oxidoreductases
catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions that involve the trans…
16 terms
Enzymes
Proteins
Catalysts
Reactants; products
Speed up chemical reactions
What biochemical group do enzymes belong to?
Enzymes act as _______________ in organisms.
Catalysts are not considered ____________ or ___________.
What do catalysts do?
Proteins
What biochemical group do enzymes belong to?
Catalysts
Enzymes act as _______________ in organisms.
12 terms
enzymes
active site
amino acid
carbohydrate
denatured
The part of the enzyme to which a specific substrate can atta…
The building blocks that make up a protein molecule.
Food belonging to the food group consisting of sugars, starch…
The active site of an enzyme loses its shape. This can be hig…
active site
The part of the enzyme to which a specific substrate can atta…
amino acid
The building blocks that make up a protein molecule.
17 terms
Enzymes
Enzymes (general)
The role of enzymes
The role of enzymes in catalysing both…
The mechanism of enzyme action
-instructions for making them is in genes... -It is a protein ma…
They catalyse reactions that affect metabolism at a cellular…
Intracellular... -catalase(breaks down hydrogen peroxide to wate…
Include: tertiary structure, specificity, active site, lock a…
Enzymes (general)
-instructions for making them is in genes... -It is a protein ma…
The role of enzymes
They catalyse reactions that affect metabolism at a cellular…
30 terms
Enzymes
hypertension
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibi…
reabsorb
ACE
High blood pressure (cause stroke, heart failure, and kidney…
∙*ACE* inhibitor... ∙anti-hypertensive medications
set free
∙enzyme... ∙angiotensin I→angiotensin II→causes constriction of…
hypertension
High blood pressure (cause stroke, heart failure, and kidney…
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibi…
∙*ACE* inhibitor... ∙anti-hypertensive medications
15 terms
enzymes
enzymes
the mechanism of action of enzyme mole…
effects of ph
temperature
enzymes are globular proteins, with a specific tertiary struc…
-specificity,... The active site of an enzyme is a specific shap…
-Low pH = lots of H+ ions... - H+ ions have a positive charge... Ei…
Up to a certain point, increasing temperature will increase t…
enzymes
enzymes are globular proteins, with a specific tertiary struc…
the mechanism of action of enzyme mole…
-specificity,... The active site of an enzyme is a specific shap…
20 terms
Enzymes
Proteins
Denatured
The shape
Catalyst
What type of organic molecule are enzymes?
When an enzyme loses its shape it is said to have become ____…
What determines the function of an enzyme?
A molecule that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not chan…
Proteins
What type of organic molecule are enzymes?
Denatured
When an enzyme loses its shape it is said to have become ____…
15 terms
Enzymes
metabolism
Cellular energy
enzyme
catalyst
the sum of all chemical reactions that take place in an organ…
energy stored in the bonds of biomolecules
a biological catalyst made of protein which speeds up the rea…
a substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up i…
metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions that take place in an organ…
Cellular energy
energy stored in the bonds of biomolecules
35 terms
Enzymes
enzyme
red
blue
progress of reaction
a protein catalyst that speeds up a chemical reaction
Which line (red or blue) represents an enzyme catalyzed react…
Which line (red or blue) represents an uncatalyzed reaction?
What is the x-axis of this graph?
enzyme
a protein catalyst that speeds up a chemical reaction
red
Which line (red or blue) represents an enzyme catalyzed react…
10 terms
Enzymes
Enzymes
Substrate
Optimum temperature
Product
Specific proteins that acts as biological catalysts that spee…
the molecule on which an enzyme act
The temperature at which enzymes works best
The substance formed as a result of enzyme action
Enzymes
Specific proteins that acts as biological catalysts that spee…
Substrate
the molecule on which an enzyme act
14 terms
Enzymes
Endothermic Reaction
Exothermic Reaction
How can the speed of a reaction be inc…
Enzyme (can/cannot) be used again in a…
When energy is being absorbed
When energy is being released
When the enzyme is catalyzed. The enzyme speeds up the reacti…
CAN
Endothermic Reaction
When energy is being absorbed
Exothermic Reaction
When energy is being released
10 terms
Enzymes
enzyme
catalyse
co-enzymes
lock-and-key model
A protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction with…
another name for enzymes... Enzymes are used to _______ (speed u…
An organic molecule that is a necessary participant in some e…
The model of the enzyme that shows the substrate fitting perf…
enzyme
A protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction with…
catalyse
another name for enzymes... Enzymes are used to _______ (speed u…
9 terms
enzymes
enzymes
Hydrolysis
Dehydration synthesis
Enzymes
they speed up chemical reactions.
A type od reaction that involves the breakdown of a large mol…
A type of reaction that involves building large molecules cal…
Are made of amino acids
enzymes
they speed up chemical reactions.
Hydrolysis
A type od reaction that involves the breakdown of a large mol…
17 terms
Enzymes
biological molecules that _________ ch…
In enzymatic reactions, the molecules…
Almost all chemical reactions in a bio…
Enzymes work by lowering _________ ___…
catalyze
substrates, products
enzymes, reactions, metabolic
activation energy, increasing
biological molecules that _________ ch…
catalyze
In enzymatic reactions, the molecules…
substrates, products
12 terms
Enzymes
Enzymes
Substrates
Products
active sites
a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a cata…
The material or substance on which an enzyme acts. A surface…
The result that is released after a enzyme & substrate have h…
the active site is a small port in an enzyme where substrate…
Enzymes
a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a cata…
Substrates
The material or substance on which an enzyme acts. A surface…
25 terms
Enzymes
isoenzyme
enzyme
first order kinetics
zero order kinetics
different form of an enzyme protein (improves specificity)
protein that catalyzes biological reactions
reaction rate is directly proportional to amount of substrate
reaction rate is independent of substrate concentration
isoenzyme
different form of an enzyme protein (improves specificity)
enzyme
protein that catalyzes biological reactions
38 terms
enzymes
enzyme define
enzymes
T/F many enzymes are conjugated
apoenzyme
a protein that functions as a bio-catalyst, speeding up the r…
Not consumed in reaction, ... 1.) denaturable... 2.) subject to reg…
true
the protein portion
enzyme define
a protein that functions as a bio-catalyst, speeding up the r…
enzymes
Not consumed in reaction, ... 1.) denaturable... 2.) subject to reg…
6 terms
Enzymes
Enzyme and Active site
enzyme-substrate specificity
Lock and Key Model
effects of temperature, pH and substra…
- a globular protein that increases the rate of a biochemical…
- Active site and substrate complement each other in terms of…
enzymes and substrate share specificity (only react with smal…
Temperature: ... - Low temperatures result in insufficient therm…
Enzyme and Active site
- a globular protein that increases the rate of a biochemical…
enzyme-substrate specificity
- Active site and substrate complement each other in terms of…
8 terms
Enzymes
Enzymes
Substrate
Breakdown Reaction (Lock and Key Hypot…
Synthesis Reaction (Lock and Key Hypot…
- Are proteins ... - Are biological catalysts (speeds up reactio…
Replaces the term reactants ... ie) substrate --> products
1) The active site is COMPLEMENTARY to shape of the substrate…
1) Enzyme -substrate complex- substrates react to form a more…
Enzymes
- Are proteins ... - Are biological catalysts (speeds up reactio…
Substrate
Replaces the term reactants ... ie) substrate --> products
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