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Epidemiology is a specialized form of_…

Definition of Epidemiology

Goals of epidemiology

Hippocrates

-scientific research... -upon... -people... -knowledge

study of the distribution and determinants of states of healt…

to control health problems

1st epidemiologist... -Health influenced by personal characteri…

Epidemiology is a specialized form of_…

-scientific research... -upon... -people... -knowledge

Definition of Epidemiology

study of the distribution and determinants of states of healt…

mortality

infant mortality

morbidity

life expectancy

refers to the number of people who have died in a population

the death of babies and children in a population

refers to the number of people who are sick or diseased in a…

how long, on average a person is expected to live, specific o…

mortality

refers to the number of people who have died in a population

infant mortality

the death of babies and children in a population

List the types of measures

What are the specific leading causes o…

What is the overall leading cause of m…

Give a mortality trend

Mortality, Infant Mortality, Morbidity, Life Expectancy

CHD, Dementia/Alz, Cerebrovascular Disease, Lung Cancer, COPD

Cancer

Declined for both M & F

List the types of measures

Mortality, Infant Mortality, Morbidity, Life Expectancy

What are the specific leading causes o…

CHD, Dementia/Alz, Cerebrovascular Disease, Lung Cancer, COPD

scientific research// a body of knowle…

the study of the distribution and dete…

personal characteristics, place and ti…

the "tools of epidemiology" used by co…

-Introduction to Epidemiology in Nursing-... -Offers community h…

-Definition of Epidemiology-... Definition of Epidemiology ???…

-History of Epidemiology-... Hippocrates (Fourth Century B.C.)…

-Basic Concepts in Epidemiology-... The basic concepts are ____…

scientific research// a body of knowle…

-Introduction to Epidemiology in Nursing-... -Offers community h…

the study of the distribution and dete…

-Definition of Epidemiology-... Definition of Epidemiology ???…

Epidemiology

Evolution of disease causation theory

Basic Epidemiologic Concepts

Causality

The study of the distribution & determinants of health-relate…

Sanitary era - Miasmas "bad air" theory... Bacteriologic (Commu…

-Causality... -Risk... -Rates of occurrence

Based on the idea that one event is the result of another eve…

Epidemiology

The study of the distribution & determinants of health-relate…

Evolution of disease causation theory

Sanitary era - Miasmas "bad air" theory... Bacteriologic (Commu…

Goal of epidemiological study

cumulative incidence ratio

risk for exposed individuals

risk for unexposed individuals

to test for the presence of relationships between exposures (…

cumulative incidence in an exposed population divided by the…

a/a+b

c/c+d

Goal of epidemiological study

to test for the presence of relationships between exposures (…

cumulative incidence ratio

cumulative incidence in an exposed population divided by the…

target/source population

fixed population

dynamic population

measures with which to measure populat…

group of individuals with a shared/common trait that inferenc…

-once you're a part of the population, you cannot be removed…

-a population whose numbers are always changing... -defines curr…

-prevalence proportion... -cumulative incidence (risk)... -incidenc…

target/source population

group of individuals with a shared/common trait that inferenc…

fixed population

-once you're a part of the population, you cannot be removed…

In countries with high mortality rates…

In countries with increased life expec…

National Vital Statistics System

crude mortality rate (crude death rate)

examining trends in death rates

prevalence measures

provides comprehensive demographic, geographic and cause of d…

# of total deaths in a population in one year divided by the…

In countries with high mortality rates…

examining trends in death rates

In countries with increased life expec…

prevalence measures

Epidemilogic triad

Law of the few

Stickiness factor

Power of context

-Host... -Agent... -Environment

-"infectiousness of the host" ... -Small percent have original d…

"virulence and mutability of agent"

"risk created by the environment"

Epidemilogic triad

-Host... -Agent... -Environment

Law of the few

-"infectiousness of the host" ... -Small percent have original d…

Relative Risk ... Define

Risk Ratio

Rate Ratio

Odds Ratio

Association between exposure and disease - the risk (or rate)…

Cumulative Inc. (exposed)/Cumulative Inc (on-exposed)

The ratio of two incidence rates for two groups or population…

Estimate the incidence rate ratio by calculating the ratio of…

Relative Risk ... Define

Association between exposure and disease - the risk (or rate)…

Risk Ratio

Cumulative Inc. (exposed)/Cumulative Inc (on-exposed)

Counts

Fractions

Ratio

Proportion

number of individual animals which are infected, diseased or…

number of individual animals which are infected, diseased or…

the relative size of two quantities expressed by dividing one…

a ratio whose numerator is included in the denominator.... Used…

Counts

number of individual animals which are infected, diseased or…

Fractions

number of individual animals which are infected, diseased or…

Epidemilogic triad

Law of the few

Stickiness factor

Power of context

-Host... -Agent... -Environment

-"infectiousness of the host" ... -Small percent have original d…

"virulence and mutability of agent"

"risk created by the environment"

Epidemilogic triad

-Host... -Agent... -Environment

Law of the few

-"infectiousness of the host" ... -Small percent have original d…

A scientific method by which data is s…

The conscientious and judicious use of…

What is the research method that is mo…

Epidemiology is the foundation of what?

Research

Evidence-based practice

Epidemiology

It is the foundation of evidence-based practice in public hea…

A scientific method by which data is s…

Research

The conscientious and judicious use of…

Evidence-based practice

Health

Nursing

Public Health

Epidemiology

State of complete physical/mental/social well being. Not just…

Protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abiliti…

System and social enterprise, a profession. A collection of m…

The study of the occurrence and distribution of health relate…

Health

State of complete physical/mental/social well being. Not just…

Nursing

Protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abiliti…

What is epidemiology?

Medical sci/disease detectives (epidem…

Elements they look at (descriptive)

Public health vs medical

-THe study of distribution and determinant of states and even…

-THey work with Dr and labs and the pt/family to determine wh…

-Person 9age, race, sex)... -Place(where were they when they fir…

-PH: population, public service ethic (concerned for indiv, b…

What is epidemiology?

-THe study of distribution and determinant of states and even…

Medical sci/disease detectives (epidem…

-THey work with Dr and labs and the pt/family to determine wh…

Counts

Ratio

Proportion

Uses of proportions

refers to the number of cases of a disease or the health phen…

fraction, no specified relationship between numerator and den…

a measure that states a count relative to the size of the gro…

can demonstrate the magnitude of the problem, provides an ind…

Counts

refers to the number of cases of a disease or the health phen…

Ratio

fraction, no specified relationship between numerator and den…

Population

fixed population

dynamic population

count

Group of people with common characteristic

Membership of this population is permanent, often defined by…

Membership of this population is transient, often defined by…

counting the number of cases of a disease

Population

Group of people with common characteristic

fixed population

Membership of this population is permanent, often defined by…

Epidemiology

Florence Nightingale

Using Population Based Data

Types of Epidemiological Investigations

Discipline that provides the structure for systematically stu…

First nurse epidemiologist and pioneered the use of statistic…

Rate: make comparisons between groups; used to describe event…

Descriptive: describes distribution of disease (prevalence);…

Epidemiology

Discipline that provides the structure for systematically stu…

Florence Nightingale

First nurse epidemiologist and pioneered the use of statistic…

Epidemiology

Mortality

Infant Mortality

Morbidity

The study of the data and statistics, usually health status m…

Refers to the number of people who have died in a population…

The number of babies who die or the portion of live births wh…

Refers to the number of people sick or diseased in given popu…

Epidemiology

The study of the data and statistics, usually health status m…

Mortality

Refers to the number of people who have died in a population…

Population

fixed population

dynamic population

count

Group of people with common characteristic

Membership of this population is permanent, often defined by…

Membership of this population is transient, often defined by…

counting the number of cases of a disease

Population

Group of people with common characteristic

fixed population

Membership of this population is permanent, often defined by…

Absolute risk

Absolute Risk reduction (ARR)

Absolute Risk Increase (ARI)

Number Needed to Treat (NNT)

-the incidence of an event in a group... -The # of patienys who…

-difference in absolute risk of an outcome likely to prevent…

-difference in absolute risks of an outcome likely to result…

-tells you how many patients wiuld need to be treated wth the…

Absolute risk

-the incidence of an event in a group... -The # of patienys who…

Absolute Risk reduction (ARR)

-difference in absolute risk of an outcome likely to prevent…

Epidemiology

what do epidemiologists do?

what are their three main tasks

how do people get sick?

the study of what diseases that affect the population

they look at the source that caused the illness... the number of…

1. collection and evaluation of how many people got the illne…

chain of infection

Epidemiology

the study of what diseases that affect the population

what do epidemiologists do?

they look at the source that caused the illness... the number of…

Demographic measures

morbidity

mortality

incidence

certain human characteristics such as age, ethnicity,income a…

illness rates

death rates

refers to the number of individuals in a population who devel…

Demographic measures

certain human characteristics such as age, ethnicity,income a…

morbidity

illness rates

goal of epidemiology

numerator

incidence

prevalence

answer questions about population health... need numerators, den…

# of people: w/affliction, who died, with disabilities or who…

number of new events occurring in a defined population at ris…

# of existing people with the outcome either at one point (po…

goal of epidemiology

answer questions about population health... need numerators, den…

numerator

# of people: w/affliction, who died, with disabilities or who…

nurses use the principles of epidemiol…

risk

risk factors

when do you apply of the combination o…

1) enhance the clinical decision making process... 2)identify pe…

refers to the probability or likelihood that a health event w…

are those characteristics or events that have been shown to i…

during a health-risk appraisal

nurses use the principles of epidemiol…

1) enhance the clinical decision making process... 2)identify pe…

risk

refers to the probability or likelihood that a health event w…

Definition of Relative Risk (Risk Ratio)

Formula of Relative Risk (Risk Ratio)

Definition of Incidence

Formula of Incidence

Measures strength of association between exposure and disease

Disease rate in the exposed/Disease rate in the nonexposed

Number of new cases that arose in the current time period (us…

Number of new cases of disease / population at risk of disease

Definition of Relative Risk (Risk Ratio)

Measures strength of association between exposure and disease

Formula of Relative Risk (Risk Ratio)

Disease rate in the exposed/Disease rate in the nonexposed

Incidence

Prevalence

Attack Rate

Secondary Attack Rate

# New Cases of Disease in A Population in a Specific time Per…

Total number of cases of a disease at a specific time / total…

# of people at risk who develop the disease / # of people at…

# Cases among contacts / # Contacts exposed

Incidence

# New Cases of Disease in A Population in a Specific time Per…

Prevalence

Total number of cases of a disease at a specific time / total…

Lesson six focus

Why do we comp are exposures?

What calculations do we use to quantif…

Odds ratio or relative risk

Explaining how hazardous a disease is and a full picture of w…

To understand what actions influence disease and to limit pot…

Odds ratio, relative risk , attributable risk

Quantify difference in two groups

Lesson six focus

Explaining how hazardous a disease is and a full picture of w…

Why do we comp are exposures?

To understand what actions influence disease and to limit pot…

Descriptive Study

Analytical Study

Motivational Interviewing

Motivation for Change Occurs when

a form of epidemiology that describes a disease according to…

a form of epidemiology that investigates causes and associati…

(Miller): client-centered communication style for eliciting b…

people perceive a discrepancy between where they are and wher…

Descriptive Study

a form of epidemiology that describes a disease according to…

Analytical Study

a form of epidemiology that investigates causes and associati…

What is epidemiological research based…

What are the two main types of measure…

What are the types of measures of prev…

What is the formula for point prevalen…

Primarily based on the quantification of the occurrence of he…

1- Prevalence: is concerned with quantifying the number of ex…

Point prevalence and period prevalence. ... Point prevalence is…

Point Prevalence = Number of Cases at time t ... Study Populati…

What is epidemiological research based…

Primarily based on the quantification of the occurrence of he…

What are the two main types of measure…

1- Prevalence: is concerned with quantifying the number of ex…

Three measures of association

Where do epidemiologists gather data f…

Standard Table for Incidence Data

Risk Ratio (RR)

1) Relative risk... 2) Incidence (rate) ratio... 3) Odds ratio

Calculate through tabular data. Calculated by a contingency t…

Exposure, Outcome, and PT units (person time units). PT1 = to…

Estimates how strong the association is between a given expos…

Three measures of association

1) Relative risk... 2) Incidence (rate) ratio... 3) Odds ratio

Where do epidemiologists gather data f…

Calculate through tabular data. Calculated by a contingency t…

Attributable Risk

What is population attributable risk?

Population attributable risk

Attributable risk fraction

The attributable risk for the exposed group compares the risk…

compares the risk of an outcome in the population as a whole…

An estimate of how many cases could have been prevented in th…

Attributable risk ... Attributable fraction = __________________…

Attributable Risk

The attributable risk for the exposed group compares the risk…

What is population attributable risk?

compares the risk of an outcome in the population as a whole…

diesease types... 2

1. **Non**-communicable... 2. Communicable

...

1. Mortality... 2. alcohol use... 3. Inactivity... 4. salt... 5. toba…

1. ⤵ risk factors for **middle age & elderly**... 2. ⬆ *nutrition…

diesease types... 2

1. **Non**-communicable... 2. Communicable

...

What is the difference between a ratio…

Prevalance

Period prevalance

Incidence (cumulative incidence, incid…

Ratio numerator is not in denominator (#dogs owned/100,000 pe…

proportion of a population with disease at a specific time... #o…

Frequency of disease for a given time period... #of population w…

Proportion of subjects that develop disease in a certain time…

What is the difference between a ratio…

Ratio numerator is not in denominator (#dogs owned/100,000 pe…

Prevalance

proportion of a population with disease at a specific time... #o…

What is analytic epidemiology?

What are the two ways of comparing mea…

What is the risk ratio?

What are difference measures?

Investigating the possible cause of an outcome. ... If we suspe…

1-The ratio of the two measures of occurrence, ... 2-The absolu…

measures how much more likely members of one group are to bec…

Difference measures give an excessive amount that occurred in…

What is analytic epidemiology?

Investigating the possible cause of an outcome. ... If we suspe…

What are the two ways of comparing mea…

1-The ratio of the two measures of occurrence, ... 2-The absolu…

Count

Ratio

What are the three types of ratios?

What is a proportion?

Number of cases of a disease/health issue being studied

value obtained by dividing one quantity by another

1) Rate... 2) Proportion... 3) Percentage

The numerator is part of the denominator. It is often express…

Count

Number of cases of a disease/health issue being studied

Ratio

value obtained by dividing one quantity by another

Descriptive vs. analytic

Observational vs. Experimental

Descriptive types of studies

Analytic studies

Descriptive: measures values of variables that describes char…

difference is how the subjects get into their groups... Observa…

1. Case Study... 2. Case series... 3. Cross sectional (can be both)

Observational... 1. Cohort... 2. Case control... 3. Cross sectional (c…

Descriptive vs. analytic

Descriptive: measures values of variables that describes char…

Observational vs. Experimental

difference is how the subjects get into their groups... Observa…

How can the occurence of a disease be…

Rate

Incidence rate

What do we use incidence rates to meas…

by using rates or proportions

A change in one quantity per unit change in another. Tell us…

The number of new cases (numerator) in specified time period…

Morbidity

How can the occurence of a disease be…

by using rates or proportions

Rate

A change in one quantity per unit change in another. Tell us…

What is Epidemiology?

What are the greek roots of the word E…

What are the roles of epidemiology in…

What are the three types of prevention?

the study of the distribution and determinants and/or health-…

epi = upon... demos = the people... ology = to study ... epidemiology…

*Monitor health of population... *Respond to emerging public hea…

Primary Prevention (ebola)... Secondary Prevention (high cholest…

What is Epidemiology?

the study of the distribution and determinants and/or health-…

What are the greek roots of the word E…

epi = upon... demos = the people... ology = to study ... epidemiology…