How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Epidemiology is a specialized form of__…

Definition of Epidemiology

Goals of epidemiology

Hippocrates

-scientific research... -upon... -people... -knowledge

study of the distribution and determinants of states of health…

to control health problems

1st epidemiologist... -Health influenced by personal characteris…

scientific research// a body of knowled…

the study of the distribution and deter…

personal characteristics, place and tim…

the "tools of epidemiology" used by com…

-Introduction to Epidemiology in Nursing-... -Offers community he…

-Definition of Epidemiology-... Definition of Epidemiology ???…

-History of Epidemiology-... Hippocrates (Fourth Century B.C.)... -…

-Basic Concepts in Epidemiology-... The basic concepts are _____…

Epidemiology

Evolution of disease causation theory

Basic Epidemiologic Concepts

Causality

The study of the distribution & determinants of health-related…

Sanitary era - Miasmas "bad air" theory... Bacteriologic (Commun…

-Causality... -Risk... -Rates of occurrence

Based on the idea that one event is the result of another even…

target/source population

fixed population

dynamic population

measures with which to measure populati…

group of individuals with a shared/common trait that inference…

-once you're a part of the population, you cannot be removed... -…

-a population whose numbers are always changing... -defines curre…

-prevalence proportion... -cumulative incidence (risk)... -incidence…

In countries with high mortality rates,…

In countries with increased life expect…

National Vital Statistics System

crude mortality rate (crude death rate)

examining trends in death rates

prevalence measures

provides comprehensive demographic, geographic and cause of de…

# of total deaths in a population in one year divided by the t…

Relative Risk ... Define

Risk Ratio

Rate Ratio

Odds Ratio

Association between exposure and disease - the risk (or rate)…

Cumulative Inc. (exposed)/Cumulative Inc (on-exposed)

The ratio of two incidence rates for two groups or populations…

Estimate the incidence rate ratio by calculating the ratio of…

epidemiology

descriptive epidemiology

analytical epdiemiology

person-place-time model

study of distribution and determinants of health and disease i…

use person, place and time to describe disease patterns

examining complex relationships among determinants of diseases…

epidemiologists use to investigate disease patterns (DESCRIPTI…

Counts

Fractions

Ratio

Proportion

number of individual animals which are infected, diseased or d…

number of individual animals which are infected, diseased or d…

the relative size of two quantities expressed by dividing one…

a ratio whose numerator is included in the denominator.... Used…

What is epidemiology?

Medical sci/disease detectives (epidemi…

Elements they look at (descriptive)

Public health vs medical

-THe study of distribution and determinant of states and event…

-THey work with Dr and labs and the pt/family to determine wha…

-Person 9age, race, sex)... -Place(where were they when they firs…

-PH: population, public service ethic (concerned for indiv, bu…

A scientific method by which data is sy…

The conscientious and judicious use of…

What is the research method that is mos…

Epidemiology is the foundation of what?

Research

Evidence-based practice

Epidemiology

It is the foundation of evidence-based practice in public heal…

Health

Nursing

Public Health

Epidemiology

State of complete physical/mental/social well being. Not just…

Protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilitie…

System and social enterprise, a profession. A collection of me…

The study of the occurrence and distribution of health related…

Counts

Ratio

Proportion

Uses of proportions

refers to the number of cases of a disease or the health pheno…

fraction, no specified relationship between numerator and deno…

a measure that states a count relative to the size of the grou…

can demonstrate the magnitude of the problem, provides an indi…

Epidemiology

Florence Nightingale

Using Population Based Data

Types of Epidemiological Investigations

Discipline that provides the structure for systematically stud…

First nurse epidemiologist and pioneered the use of statistics…

Rate: make comparisons between groups; used to describe event…

Descriptive: describes distribution of disease (prevalence); p…

Epidemiology

Mortality

Infant Mortality

Morbidity

The study of the data and statistics, usually health status me…

Refers to the number of people who have died in a population d…

The number of babies who die or the portion of live births who…

Refers to the number of people sick or diseased in given popul…

Absolute risk

Absolute Risk reduction (ARR)

Absolute Risk Increase (ARI)

Number Needed to Treat (NNT)

-the incidence of an event in a group... -The # of patienys who e…

-difference in absolute risk of an outcome likely to prevent a…

-difference in absolute risks of an outcome likely to result i…

-tells you how many patients wiuld need to be treated wth the…

goal of epidemiology

numerator

incidence

prevalence

answer questions about population health... need numerators, deno…

# of people: w/affliction, who died, with disabilities or who…

number of new events occurring in a defined population at risk…

# of existing people with the outcome either at one point (poi…

nurses use the principles of epidemiolo…

risk

risk factors

when do you apply of the combination of…

1) enhance the clinical decision making process... 2)identify peo…

refers to the probability or likelihood that a health event wi…

are those characteristics or events that have been shown to in…

during a health-risk appraisal

epidemiology

descriptive epidemiology

analytical epdiemiology

person-place-time model

study of distribution and determinants of health and disease i…

use person, place and time to describe disease patterns

examining complex relationships among determinants of diseases…

epidemiologists use to investigate disease patterns (DESCRIPTI…

Case fatality rate

Epidemic

Incidence

prevalence

The proportion of persons with a particular condition who die…

a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specifi…

rate of occurrence; particular occurrence; Ex. high incidence…

(epidemiology) the ratio (for a given time period) of the numb…

Incidence

Prevalence

Attack Rate

Secondary Attack Rate

# New Cases of Disease in A Population in a Specific time Peri…

Total number of cases of a disease at a specific time / total…

# of people at risk who develop the disease / # of people at r…

# Cases among contacts / # Contacts exposed

Lesson six focus

Why do we comp are exposures?

What calculations do we use to quantify…

Odds ratio or relative risk

Explaining how hazardous a disease is and a full picture of wh…

To understand what actions influence disease and to limit pote…

Odds ratio, relative risk , attributable risk

Quantify difference in two groups

What is epidemiological research based…

What are the two main types of measures…

What are the types of measures of preva…

What is the formula for point prevalence?

Primarily based on the quantification of the occurrence of hea…

1- Prevalence: is concerned with quantifying the number of exi…

Point prevalence and period prevalence. ... Point prevalence is…

Point Prevalence = Number of Cases at time t ... Study Populatio…

Attributable Risk

What is population attributable risk?

Population attributable risk

Attributable risk fraction

The attributable risk for the exposed group compares the risk…

compares the risk of an outcome in the population as a whole (…

An estimate of how many cases could have been prevented in the…

Attributable risk ... Attributable fraction = ___________________…

Three measures of association

Where do epidemiologists gather data fo…

Standard Table for Incidence Data

Risk Ratio (RR)

1) Relative risk... 2) Incidence (rate) ratio... 3) Odds ratio

Calculate through tabular data. Calculated by a contingency ta…

Exposure, Outcome, and PT units (person time units). PT1 = tot…

Estimates how strong the association is between a given exposu…

Descriptive Study

Analytical Study

Motivational Interviewing

Motivation for Change Occurs when

a form of epidemiology that describes a disease according to d…

a form of epidemiology that investigates causes and associatio…

(Miller): client-centered communication style for eliciting be…

people perceive a discrepancy between where they are and where…

What is analytic epidemiology?

What are the two ways of comparing meas…

What is the risk ratio?

What are difference measures?

Investigating the possible cause of an outcome. ... If we suspec…

1-The ratio of the two measures of occurrence, ... 2-The absolut…

measures how much more likely members of one group are to beco…

Difference measures give an excessive amount that occurred in…

Descriptive vs. analytic

Observational vs. Experimental

Descriptive types of studies

Analytic studies

Descriptive: measures values of variables that describes chara…

difference is how the subjects get into their groups... Observat…

1. Case Study... 2. Case series... 3. Cross sectional (can be both)

Observational... 1. Cohort... 2. Case control... 3. Cross sectional (ca…

Count

Ratio

What are the three types of ratios?

What is a proportion?

Number of cases of a disease/health issue being studied

value obtained by dividing one quantity by another

1) Rate... 2) Proportion... 3) Percentage

The numerator is part of the denominator. It is often expresse…

Rates in epidemiology

7th leading cause of death is US

Incidence (incident cases)

Cumulative incidence

Events or conditions of concern... ------------------------------…

Diabetes

Frequency of occurrences of diseases, injury, or death in the…

Total number of cases of an epidemic disease reported over a p…

Descriptive vs. analytic

Observational vs. Experimental

Descriptive types of studies

Analytic studies

Descriptive: measures values of variables that describes chara…

difference is how the subjects get into their groups... Observat…

1. Case Study... 2. Case series... 3. Cross sectional (can be both)

Observational... 1. Cohort... 2. Case control... 3. Cross sectional (ca…

How nurses use epidemiology

Applications of epidemiology in nursing

Basic concepts in epidemiology

Basic concepts in epidemiology: Web of…

Look at health and at disease causation & investigate how to b…

Nurses are involved in activities related to primary, secondar…

EPIDEMIOLOGY: The study of the distribution (patterns of healt…

WEB OF CAUSALITY: recognizes the complex interrelationships of…