Study sets matching "epidemiology"

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Study sets matching "epidemiology"

27 terms
Epidemiology
Infectivity
Virulence
Pandemic
Incidence
The proportion of persons exposed to an infectious agent who…
The ability of any agent of infection to produce disease. num…
world wide epidemic
The number of newly diagnosed cases during a specific time pe…
Infectivity
The proportion of persons exposed to an infectious agent who…
Virulence
The ability of any agent of infection to produce disease. num…
52 terms
Epidemiology
Which is harder to prove: causation or…
Three types of prevention
Primary prevention
Secondary prevention
causation
primary... secondary... tertiary
preventing initial development of disease... -immunization... -redu…
early detection of existing disease to reduce severity & comp…
Which is harder to prove: causation or…
causation
Three types of prevention
primary... secondary... tertiary
47 terms
Epidemiology
Incidence
incidence measurement starts with what…
incidence rate ratio
best use for incidence
number of new cases of a disease in a specified amount of tim…
healthy people!! not already sick people - only measuring the…
examines risk factors and health disparities... men compared to…
how rapidly a disease is developing, or how common within a c…
Incidence
number of new cases of a disease in a specified amount of tim…
incidence measurement starts with what…
healthy people!! not already sick people - only measuring the…
25 terms
Epidemiology
First Epidemiological study
Snow and the Thames River incident
Epidemiology goals
John Snow
1853/1854
cholera lead to epidemiologic surveillance leading to notifia…
is to prevent disease before people began dying
founding father of modern epidemiology.
First Epidemiological study
1853/1854
Snow and the Thames River incident
cholera lead to epidemiologic surveillance leading to notifia…
52 terms
Epidemiology
Which is harder to prove: causation or…
Three types of prevention
Primary prevention
Secondary prevention
causation
primary... secondary... tertiary
preventing initial development of disease... -immunization... -redu…
early detection of existing disease to reduce severity & comp…
Which is harder to prove: causation or…
causation
Three types of prevention
primary... secondary... tertiary
120 terms
epidemiology
epidemic
pandemic
Epidemiology
Characteristics of epidemiology
The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illnes…
An epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, cr…
is concerned with the distribution and determinants of health…
population focus, distribution, determinants, outcomes, quant…
epidemic
The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illnes…
pandemic
An epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, cr…
44 terms
Epidemiology
Acculturation
Acculturation Hypothesis
Adjusted Rate
Agent
the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structure…
Immigrants' health profile converge with that of native-born…
A rate of morbidity or mortality in a population in which sta…
In the epidemiological triangle, the cause of a disease, ofte…
Acculturation
the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structure…
Acculturation Hypothesis
Immigrants' health profile converge with that of native-born…
170 terms
Epidemiology
Simple random sampling
Systematic sampling
Nonprobability sampling (not random)-
convinience
-difficult to obtain in practice... -Do you have a list of peopl…
-takes every nth individual from a series... -every nth person y…
-involve an element of convenience or feasibility- if possibl…
-Just about all practical samples involve an element of conve…
Simple random sampling
-difficult to obtain in practice... -Do you have a list of peopl…
Systematic sampling
-takes every nth individual from a series... -every nth person y…
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Look to answer the questions:
Fixed population
Dynamic population
Distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human p…
Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
membership is permanent and defined by an event... ex: atomic bo…
membership is transient and defined by being in or out of a "…
Epidemiology
Distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human p…
Look to answer the questions:
Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
36 terms
Epidemiology
Use of Epidemiology
Etiology
Agent
Null Hypothesis
Describe the population demographically... Track disease trends…
The biological cause of the disease
Anything capable of causing disease
Stated as if the investigator believes there will be no relat…
Use of Epidemiology
Describe the population demographically... Track disease trends…
Etiology
The biological cause of the disease
73 terms
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
disease
disease frequency
definition, counting system, calculati…
"The study of the distribution and determinants of... disease fr…
This is defined as health-related states and events... including…
Epidemiology defines this measure as one that identifies and…
What are the three components necessary to calculate disease…
Epidemiology
"The study of the distribution and determinants of... disease fr…
disease
This is defined as health-related states and events... including…
Epidemiology
Hippocrates
Epidemiology Definition
Branches of Public Health
Public Health Triangle
Airs, waters, and places. The father of modern medicine noted…
The study of the distribution and determinants of disease (de…
Policy: Synthesizes health-related advice into the making of…
Policy, scientific, clinical, and activists all working toget…
Hippocrates
Airs, waters, and places. The father of modern medicine noted…
Epidemiology Definition
The study of the distribution and determinants of disease (de…
78 terms
Epidemiology
Epidemiology definition
determinants are
distrubution refers to
morbidity designates
the study of the occurrence of health, disease, injury, accid…
factors or events that are capable of bringing about a change…
frequency of disease occurence may vary from one population g…
illness, prevalence of a disease of of all disease in a popul…
Epidemiology definition
the study of the occurrence of health, disease, injury, accid…
determinants are
factors or events that are capable of bringing about a change…
Epidemiology
Broncoville has a population of 100,00…
All proportions are ratios, but not al…
In a recent study of dental erosion in…
In Australia on December 31, 1995, the…
1.10 TB deaths per 1,000 population in 2011
True
0.68 new cases of dental erosion in the non-floridated area
0.00048
Broncoville has a population of 100,00…
1.10 TB deaths per 1,000 population in 2011
All proportions are ratios, but not al…
True
64 terms
Epidemiology
Sensitivity (SN-N-OUT)
Specificity (SP-P-IN)
Positive predictive value (PPV)
Negative predictive value (NPV)
-a person with a disease will have a positive result on a giv…
-a person without a disease will have a negative result on a…
-a person with a positive test result has the disease (true p…
-a person with a negative test result is disease free. ... -A t…
Sensitivity (SN-N-OUT)
-a person with a disease will have a positive result on a giv…
Specificity (SP-P-IN)
-a person without a disease will have a negative result on a…
142 terms
Epidemiology
Prognosis
Survival analysis
Time-to-event data
Censored data
How long it takes for something to happen and time how certai…
A set of statistical techniques for examining the effects of…
Unsuitable for analysis with standard methods like linear reg…
Some animals never experience the outcome... Some animals are wi…
Prognosis
How long it takes for something to happen and time how certai…
Survival analysis
A set of statistical techniques for examining the effects of…
52 terms
Epidemiology
Which is harder to prove: causation or…
Three types of prevention
Primary prevention
Secondary prevention
causation
primary... secondary... tertiary
preventing initial development of disease... -immunization... -redu…
early detection of existing disease to reduce severity & comp…
Which is harder to prove: causation or…
causation
Three types of prevention
primary... secondary... tertiary
42 terms
Epidemiology
Epidimiology
Epidimiology in CHC
Foundations of epidimiology
Primary prevention
Study of the distribution & dynamics of disease in populati…
Diagnoses the health of a community... *Identifies high risk g…
Levels of prevention/natural history of disease... Epidemiolog…
Protective & health promotion activities to avoid disease
Epidimiology
Study of the distribution & dynamics of disease in populati…
Epidimiology in CHC
Diagnoses the health of a community... *Identifies high risk g…
22 terms
Epidemiology
what are the 3 test statistics?
what are test statistics?
what 3 scenarios would you use a t-tes…
One-tailed. what is it? what are you t…
what are the 3 test statistics?
what are test statistics?
66 terms
Epidemiology
What is the study design for case cont…
Are case control studies good for stud…
What are you trying to calculate/compa…
What are the advantages of case contro…
Cases are people with the disease... Controls are people w/o the…
Rare diseases
Proportions exposed - trying to compare the rate of exposure…
Inexpensive... Small # of subjects needed... They are relatively qu…
What is the study design for case cont…
Cases are people with the disease... Controls are people w/o the…
Are case control studies good for stud…
Rare diseases
70 terms
Epidemiology
Normal variation
Describe and measure normal and abnorm…
Regression of the mean
Population health variability factors
Between patients:... Between providers:
Normal:... Abnormal: unusual, associated w/ disease, or treatable
Tests for individuals tend to return towards the mean.... Tests…
Risk factors:... Protective factors:
Normal variation
Between patients:... Between providers:
Describe and measure normal and abnorm…
Normal:... Abnormal: unusual, associated w/ disease, or treatable
epidemiology
epidemic
pandemic
Epidemiology
Characteristics of epidemiology
The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illnes…
An epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, cr…
is concerned with the distribution and determinants of health…
population focus, distribution, determinants, outcomes, quant…
epidemic
The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illnes…
pandemic
An epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, cr…
Epidemiology
Attack Rate
Endemic
Epidemic
Pandemic
number of people that become ill after exposure
disease confined to a specific region or population
an outbreak of disease that attacks many people at about the…
When an epidemic spreads throughout the world.
Attack Rate
number of people that become ill after exposure
Endemic
disease confined to a specific region or population
27 terms
Epidemiology
Infectivity
Virulence
Pandemic
Incidence
The proportion of persons exposed to an infectious agent who…
The ability of any agent of infection to produce disease. num…
world wide epidemic
The number of newly diagnosed cases during a specific time pe…
Infectivity
The proportion of persons exposed to an infectious agent who…
Virulence
The ability of any agent of infection to produce disease. num…
15 terms
Epidemiology
prevalence (1)
prevalence (2)
equation for prevalence
equation for prevalence/incidence
definition - # of existing cases at a *specific moment in t…
key fact - ___ can be measured in a cohort study... mnemonic…
equation - total # of existing cases at 1 point in time /…
equation - Prevalence = Incidence*Duration (P=ID)
prevalence (1)
definition - # of existing cases at a *specific moment in t…
prevalence (2)
key fact - ___ can be measured in a cohort study... mnemonic…
72 terms
Epidemiology
Pathology
Epidemiology
Infection
Disease
Study of diseases
the branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distrib…
Contamination or invasion of body tissue by pathogenic organi…
Any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal fu…
Pathology
Study of diseases
Epidemiology
the branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distrib…
Epidemiology
Broncoville has a population of 100,00…
All proportions are ratios, but not al…
In a recent study of dental erosion in…
In Australia on December 31, 1995, the…
1.10 TB deaths per 1,000 population in 2011
True
0.68 new cases of dental erosion in the non-floridated area
0.00048
Broncoville has a population of 100,00…
1.10 TB deaths per 1,000 population in 2011
All proportions are ratios, but not al…
True
17 terms
Epidemiology
nosocomial
virus
pathogen
yeast infection
hospital acquired infection
smallest of the microorganisms
disease producing microorganism
treated with antifungal medication
nosocomial
hospital acquired infection
virus
smallest of the microorganisms
59 terms
Epidemiology
a collection of symptoms
can be spread host to host (e.g. HIV i…
readily spread host to host (different…
confined to one area of the body
Definition of syndrome.
Definition of communicable
Definition of contagious
Definition of local in terms of epidemiology
a collection of symptoms
Definition of syndrome.
can be spread host to host (e.g. HIV i…
Definition of communicable
106 terms
Epidemiology
what is word part definition of epidem…
what is epidemiology?
what do epidemiologists study and dete…
what are some fields of study in epide…
study of what befalls the people
the study of the distribution and determinants of health-rela…
-causes of disease or injury... -who is at risk (risk factors)... -…
-infectious disease... -chronic disease... -maternal and child heal…
what is word part definition of epidem…
study of what befalls the people
what is epidemiology?
the study of the distribution and determinants of health-rela…
Epidemiology
Relative Risk
Odds Ratio
Incidence
Prevalence
in case control can't calculate risk directly, use OR instead…
all ppl at risk in same time period (cumulative incidence)... di…
number of affected... persons present in the population at a spe…
Relative Risk
Odds Ratio
in case control can't calculate risk directly, use OR instead…
epidemiology
epidemiology
carrier
etiologic agent
reservoir
study of distribution and determinants of health-related stat…
individual - potential source of infection for others... can be…
pathogen responsible for disease
primary habitat which the agent is normally found and from wh…
epidemiology
study of distribution and determinants of health-related stat…
carrier
individual - potential source of infection for others... can be…
13 terms
Epidemiology
Incidence rates
Morbidity rates
Mortality rates
Risk
The occurrence of new cases of disease or condition in a comm…
Rates of illness
Birth and death rates
Probability of an adverse event
Incidence rates
The occurrence of new cases of disease or condition in a comm…
Morbidity rates
Rates of illness
78 terms
Epidemiology
Levels of Prevention
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
•primary ... •secondary... •tertiary
Vaccination
Mammogram
Physical therapy & rehab
Levels of Prevention
•primary ... •secondary... •tertiary
Primary
Vaccination
22 terms
Epidemiology
ARR
RR
Relative Risk
Sensitivity
CER-EER... DIFFERENCE in incidence between control and experimen…
EER/CER... RATIO of I(E)/I(C)
A/A+C... Who HAS Disease
ARR
CER-EER... DIFFERENCE in incidence between control and experimen…
RR
EER/CER... RATIO of I(E)/I(C)
Epidemiology
agent
host
environment
route of transmission
a factor-- such as a microorganism, chemical substance, or fo…
a person or other living animal that affords subsistence or l…
the domain in which disease-causing agents may exist, survive…
B
agent
a factor-- such as a microorganism, chemical substance, or fo…
host
a person or other living animal that affords subsistence or l…
Epidemiology
Incident rate for new cases (morbidity…
Prevalence rate
Attack rate for acute illness
Cause specific mortality rate (death r…
# of new cases/ those at risk *1000
# of cases / total population *1000
# of people that are sick/ people at risk *100 = %
# of deaths in a yr. / total pop. x 1000
Incident rate for new cases (morbidity…
# of new cases/ those at risk *1000
Prevalence rate
# of cases / total population *1000
Epidemiology
Descriptive
Analytic
Risk factor
Endemic:
characterizes the amount and distribution of... disease (or even…
examines causal hypotheses regarding the association between…
an exposure that is associated with a disease, morbidity, mor…
Persistent, usual, expected health-related state or event in…
Descriptive
characterizes the amount and distribution of... disease (or even…
Analytic
examines causal hypotheses regarding the association between…
Epidemiology
epidemiology
natural history of disease stages
natural history of disease
immunity
the study of the distribution and determinants of health rela…
stage of susceptibility -->stage of subclinical disease --> s…
exposure -->pathologic changes -->onset symptoms --> usual ti…
developing antibodies to a disease
epidemiology
the study of the distribution and determinants of health rela…
natural history of disease stages
stage of susceptibility -->stage of subclinical disease --> s…
9 terms
epidemiology
epidemiology
incidence
prevalence
morbidity
study of disease in a population
# of new cases in a specific time period
total # of cases at a certain point in time or in a specific…
percentage of a population who develop a disease
epidemiology
study of disease in a population
incidence
# of new cases in a specific time period
41 terms
Epidemiology
Pandemic Rate
Incidence
Pathogen
Endemic Rate
Rate at which an infectious disease has spread over a large g…
The number of newly diagnosed cases during a specific time pe…
Broad term for any micro-organism that causes an infectious d…
The typical rate in which an infectious disease occurs
Pandemic Rate
Rate at which an infectious disease has spread over a large g…
Incidence
The number of newly diagnosed cases during a specific time pe…
Epidemiology
Sufficient Cause
Necessary Cause
Confounding
Cross Sectional Study
If the factor is present the effect (disease) will ALWAYS occur
Factor MUST be present for Disease to occur
When two variables appear to be causally related when in fact…
Exposure to risk factor and presence or absence of disease me…
Sufficient Cause
If the factor is present the effect (disease) will ALWAYS occur
Necessary Cause
Factor MUST be present for Disease to occur
EPIDEMIOLOGY
Social determinants of health
What is Epidemiology?
Social Gradient of Health
Maori Health. Why?
1) Age, sex and hereditary factors. 2) Individual life style…
Science of distributions and determinants of health in popula…
Health statues decreases, with increase deprivation.
Key population in NZ. Assess need, differences and priority,…
Social determinants of health
1) Age, sex and hereditary factors. 2) Individual life style…
What is Epidemiology?
Science of distributions and determinants of health in popula…
32 terms
Epidemiology
Prevalence
Incidence
Mortality
Morbidity
percent or proportion of population infected at one point in…
number of new cases over time, often per year. Reported on a…
number of deaths in a population
incidence in the population
Prevalence
percent or proportion of population infected at one point in…
Incidence
number of new cases over time, often per year. Reported on a…
27 terms
Epidemiology
Epidemiology (definition)
epidemic
Zika Virus
Zika transmission
the study of disease etiology, the cornerstone of public heal…
excessive occurrence of a disease in a defined population and…
transmitted by the bite of an infected Aedes aeigypti mosquit…
if a pregnant woman is bitten by an infected mosquito, the in…
Epidemiology (definition)
the study of disease etiology, the cornerstone of public heal…
epidemic
excessive occurrence of a disease in a defined population and…
64 terms
Epidemiology
Trade
profession
Epidemiology
Epidemic
application of knowledge and skills
creates its own new knowledge to build off of; optometric res…
began as the science that investigates cause and control of d…
the occurrence in a population of a disease or illness clearl…
Trade
application of knowledge and skills
profession
creates its own new knowledge to build off of; optometric res…
41 terms
Epidemiology
The premise that the cause of a phenom…
You can find the cause of the phenomen…
Instances in a problem that one wants…
The frequency of cases.
Epidemiology is based on
By analyzing the patterns of occurrence of phenomenons in pop…
What is a case?
The rate of a phenomenon in a population relates to
The premise that the cause of a phenom…
Epidemiology is based on
You can find the cause of the phenomen…
By analyzing the patterns of occurrence of phenomenons in pop…
53 terms
Epidemiology
Epidemic Disease
Pandemic Disease
Spanish Flu
Hyperendemic Disease
This type of disease appears, rises rapidly in number of case…
This type of disease is widespread, even global, and very con…
A pandemic disease; infected 1/5 of world population.
This type of disease has continuously very high frequency wit…
Epidemic Disease
This type of disease appears, rises rapidly in number of case…
Pandemic Disease
This type of disease is widespread, even global, and very con…
Epidemiology
Prevalence
Incidence
Cohort study
Cross sectional study
Number of cases/Total population
New cases/time period ...per 100 person years
...
...
Prevalence
Number of cases/Total population
Incidence
New cases/time period ...per 100 person years
64 terms
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Look to answer the questions:
Fixed population
Dynamic population
Distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human p…
Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
membership is permanent and defined by an event... ex: atomic bo…
membership is transient and defined by being in or out of a "…
Epidemiology
Distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human p…
Look to answer the questions:
Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
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