Study sets matching "equilibrium"

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Study sets matching "equilibrium"

14 terms
Equilibrium
Concentration of reactants increases
Pressure Increases
Volume increases
Temperature Increases
move right -- makes more product
shift to side with fewer molecules
shift to side with more molecules
Favours the endothermic reactions
Concentration of reactants increases
move right -- makes more product
Pressure Increases
shift to side with fewer molecules
Equilibrium
Concentration of reactants increases
Pressure Increases
Volume increases
Temperature Increases
move right -- makes more product
shift to side with fewer molecules
shift to side with more molecules
Favours the endothermic reactions
Concentration of reactants increases
move right -- makes more product
Pressure Increases
shift to side with fewer molecules
Equilibrium
Enthalpy
Endothermic
Exothermic
Activation
- Totally energy possessed by substance
- Energy in that break bonds... - Intake of energy
- Energy out to make bonds... - Output of energy
- Amount of energy it takes to form activated complex... - React…
Enthalpy
- Totally energy possessed by substance
Endothermic
- Energy in that break bonds... - Intake of energy
37 terms
Equilibrium
The equilibrium will shift in order to…
Pressure, concentrations, temperature
Moles
Toward the side with fewer moles of ga…
What happens when a system at equilibrium is subjected to a s…
What are the three stresses that cause changes?
What is pressure proportional to?
If the pressure on a system at equilibrium is increased, what…
The equilibrium will shift in order to…
What happens when a system at equilibrium is subjected to a s…
Pressure, concentrations, temperature
What are the three stresses that cause changes?
54 terms
Equilibrium
Q < K
Q > K
Q = K
Large Kc
Moves right... ~ moving towards the K constant value
Moves to left... ~ moving towards K constant value
Equal
reaction goes to completion and equilibrium consists of MORE…
Q < K
Moves right... ~ moving towards the K constant value
Q > K
Moves to left... ~ moving towards K constant value
Equilibrium
least moles of gas molecules
dynamic equilibrium
completion
The endothermic reaction
An increase in pressure will favour the side with the...
The ⇌ symbol stands for...
The → symbol stands for a reaction that goes to...
An increase in temperature will favour the...
least moles of gas molecules
An increase in pressure will favour the side with the...
dynamic equilibrium
The ⇌ symbol stands for...
Equilibrium
Concentration trends
Pressure trends
Volume trends
Temperature trends
Increase in reactants: move right ... Decrease in reactants: mov…
Increase: shift to side with fewer molecules ... Decrease: shift…
Increase: shift to side with more molecules... Decrease: shift t…
Increase: shift to side without the energy (to reduce temp)... D…
Concentration trends
Increase in reactants: move right ... Decrease in reactants: mov…
Pressure trends
Increase: shift to side with fewer molecules ... Decrease: shift…
14 terms
Equilibrium
dynamic equilibrium
LeChatelier's Principle
Keq
Reversible Reaction
Condition of continuous, random movement of particles but no…
When a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the equi…
[products]/[reactants] ***NO UNITS***
a reaction in which the conversion of reactants into products…
dynamic equilibrium
Condition of continuous, random movement of particles but no…
LeChatelier's Principle
When a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the equi…
42 terms
Equilibrium
The equilibrium will shift in order to…
Pressure, concentrations, temperature
Moles
The equilibrium concentrations, but it…
What happens when a system at equilibrium is subjected to a s…
What are the three stresses that cause changes?
What is pressure proportional to?
When pressure is increased on a system at equilibrium, what c…
The equilibrium will shift in order to…
What happens when a system at equilibrium is subjected to a s…
Pressure, concentrations, temperature
What are the three stresses that cause changes?
20 terms
Equilibrium
Concentration of reactants increases
Pressure Increases
Volume increases
Temperature Increases
will result in more product being formed (reactants increase)
shift to side with fewer molecules (pressure)
shift to side with more molecules (volume)
Favours the endothermic reactions
Concentration of reactants increases
will result in more product being formed (reactants increase)
Pressure Increases
shift to side with fewer molecules (pressure)
28 terms
Equilibrium
At equilibrium, __________. ... A) all c…
Which one of the following is true con…
Which one of the following will change…
Which of the following expressions is…
B
B
A
B
At equilibrium, __________. ... A) all c…
B
Which one of the following is true con…
B
15 terms
Equilibrium
equilibrium
disequilibrium
excess demand
excess supply
the point at which quantity demanded and quantity supplied ar…
describes any price or quantity not at equilibrium; when quan…
when quantity demanded is more than quantity supplied
when quantity supplied is more than quantity demanded
equilibrium
the point at which quantity demanded and quantity supplied ar…
disequilibrium
describes any price or quantity not at equilibrium; when quan…
18 terms
Equilibrium
Increase in pressure favours
Symbol for equilibrium reaction
Symbol for reaction that goes to compl…
Formula of a weak acid
reaction making less moles of gas
CH₃COOH
Increase in pressure favours
reaction making less moles of gas
Symbol for equilibrium reaction
10 terms
Equilibrium
conditions of equilibrium
reversible reactions
dynamic equilibrium
static equilibrium
entropy (energy distribution) maximized and free energy minim…
occur in 2 directions:... forward (towards products or "left")... r…
forward/reverse reactions occur at same rate ... [products] and…
forward/reverse reactions have stopped
conditions of equilibrium
entropy (energy distribution) maximized and free energy minim…
reversible reactions
occur in 2 directions:... forward (towards products or "left")... r…
44 terms
Equilibrium
reactants are gases
particular ratio of equilibrium concen…
fwd rev
high small
pressure only affects equilibrium if...
Kc
Kc= k?/k?
If a rxn yields much product it has a ______ Keq, if it yield…
reactants are gases
pressure only affects equilibrium if...
particular ratio of equilibrium concen…
Kc
75 terms
Equilibrium
Rate of chemical reaction
Collision theory
Equilibrium
Activation energy
Amount of reactant that changes to product in a given period…
Chemical reactions occur through collisions between molecules…
When the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the…
An energy barrier that must be overcome for the reaction to p…
Rate of chemical reaction
Amount of reactant that changes to product in a given period…
Collision theory
Chemical reactions occur through collisions between molecules…
Equilibrium
Collision Theory
Speed up a reaction
Slow down a reaction
Equilibrium
In order for a reaction to occur, particles must collide with…
1. ^ surface area... 2. add a catalyst... 3. Increase Temperature... 4…
1.Decrease Temperature... 2.Decrease Pressure... 3. Increase Volume…
When the rate of a forward reaction is the same as the rate o…
Collision Theory
In order for a reaction to occur, particles must collide with…
Speed up a reaction
1. ^ surface area... 2. add a catalyst... 3. Increase Temperature... 4…
13 terms
Equilibrium
Two senses
static
dynamic
vestibular apparatus
static and dynamic
standing still. organs associated with static equilibrium fun…
moving. when the head and body are suddenly moved or rotated…
collective term for receptor organs involved in detecting equ…
Two senses
static and dynamic
static
standing still. organs associated with static equilibrium fun…
15 terms
Equilibrium
Criteria of dynamic equilibria
Law of mass action
Equilibrium constant if reaction requi…
How is thermodynamics and kinetics rel…
1. rate of product and reactant formation are equal... 2. state…
If rate of product and reac. formation are equal at a steady…
Keq = (k1 x k2 x k3)/(kr1 x kr2 x kr3)... k are the reaction con…
Dynamic equilibrium of a reaction is achieved once entropy is…
Criteria of dynamic equilibria
1. rate of product and reactant formation are equal... 2. state…
Law of mass action
If rate of product and reac. formation are equal at a steady…
12 terms
equilibrium
macula sacculi
macula utriculi
otolithic membrane
otoliths
macula sacculi
macula utriculi
22 terms
Equilibrium
equilibrium
three conditions to be met to reach eq…
surplus
shortage
the quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied and t…
1) consumers need information about different supplier's pric…
quantity supplied is bigger than quantity demanded; the size…
quantity demanded is bigger than the quantity supplied; the s…
equilibrium
the quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied and t…
three conditions to be met to reach eq…
1) consumers need information about different supplier's pric…
14 terms
Equilibrium
dynamic equilibrium
LeChatelier's Principle
Keq
Reversible Reaction
Condition of continuous, random movement of particles where t…
When a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the equi…
[products]/[reactants] ***NO UNITS***
a reaction in which the conversion of reactants into products…
dynamic equilibrium
Condition of continuous, random movement of particles where t…
LeChatelier's Principle
When a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the equi…
Equilibrium
Equilibrium
aA+bB⇋cC+dD
Keq>1
Keq<1
The rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the rever…
-Dependent on temperature... - (aq) and (g) included... - (s) and (…
- favors formation of products... - favors forward reaction... - mo…
- favors formation of reactants... - favors reverse reaction... - m…
Equilibrium
The rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the rever…
aA+bB⇋cC+dD
-Dependent on temperature... - (aq) and (g) included... - (s) and (…
21 terms
Equilibrium
[reactant]
[product]
endothermic
exothermic
Increasing __________ shifts equilibrium forward, decreasing…
Decreasing _________ shifts equilibrium forward, increasing _…
Increasing the temperature favors the _________ direction
Decreasing the temperature favors the __________ direction
[reactant]
Increasing __________ shifts equilibrium forward, decreasing…
[product]
Decreasing _________ shifts equilibrium forward, increasing _…
11 terms
Equilibrium
Equilibrium constant
Le Chatelier's principle
Reaction rate
Catalyst
Keq - the ratio of concentrations when equilibrium is reached…
If an equilibrium system is subjected to a change, the system…
The speed at which reactants are changing to products. Also,…
A substance which changes the pathway of the reaction by lowe…
Equilibrium constant
Keq - the ratio of concentrations when equilibrium is reached…
Le Chatelier's principle
If an equilibrium system is subjected to a change, the system…
Equilibrium
equilibrium constant formula
features of equilibrium constant
K ~ 1
K >> 1
1) Kc applies only at equilibrium... 2) Kc is independent of ini…
reaction is not reactant or product favored
reaction is product favored
equilibrium constant formula
features of equilibrium constant
1) Kc applies only at equilibrium... 2) Kc is independent of ini…
22 terms
Equilibrium
Market Equilibrium
Market Disequilibrium
Equilibrium Function
Resource Allocation
The price where the quantity demanded and quantity supplied a…
Any price at which the demand and supply quantities are not e…
QD = a - bP and QS = c + dP... a - bP = c + dP"
Manner by which society manages and rations its resources.
Market Equilibrium
The price where the quantity demanded and quantity supplied a…
Market Disequilibrium
Any price at which the demand and supply quantities are not e…
39 terms
Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium
Are concentrations for equilibrium alw…
True or false; Equilibrium is dynamic.…
K`c/K`eq
2 exactly opposite reactions occurring at same place, time, a…
No
True, molecules are moving and changing.
Equilibrium constant for concentrations in grams or given
Chemical Equilibrium
2 exactly opposite reactions occurring at same place, time, a…
Are concentrations for equilibrium alw…
No
Equilibrium
Surplus
Shortage
Equilibrium
Demand curve
When the quantity supplied is greater than the quantity deman…
When the quantity demanded is greater than the quantity suppl…
When the quantity supplied equals the quantity demanded
Surplus
When the quantity supplied is greater than the quantity deman…
Shortage
When the quantity demanded is greater than the quantity suppl…
5 terms
Equilibrium
Reversible
Irreversible
Equilibrium
Forward Reaction
Those new substances want to go through a reverse chemical re…
Impossible to reverse
When some molecules turn into products and some turn back int…
When reactants turn into products
Reversible
Those new substances want to go through a reverse chemical re…
Irreversible
Impossible to reverse
Equilibrium
describe hair cells
Function of hair cells (with motion)
describe the ampularry capula
describe crista ampullaris
the sensory receptors for auditory and vestibular systems. th…
when head is tilted foward, cells depolarize. when head is ti…
a delicate, loosely organized network of gelatinous strands t…
a minute elevation in the ampulla of each semicircular canal…
describe hair cells
the sensory receptors for auditory and vestibular systems. th…
Function of hair cells (with motion)
when head is tilted foward, cells depolarize. when head is ti…
Equilibrium
increase in consumer spending
government increases spending
inflationary gap
consumer spending falls
PL and Q will increase. AD shifts right
PL and Q will increase. AD shifts right
output is high and unemployment is less than NRU. actual GDP…
PL and Q will decrease. AD shifts left
increase in consumer spending
PL and Q will increase. AD shifts right
government increases spending
PL and Q will increase. AD shifts right
12 terms
Equilibrium
Quantitative rxns
Equilibrium rxns
Exothermic rxns
Endothermic rxns
-rxns that proceed only one way and goes to completion... A + B…
-after reactants form products, the products recombine and be…
-heat released... A + B --> C + D + 48kJ -^H=-ve (product)
-heat absorbed... A + B + 48kJ --> C + D +^H= +ve (reactant)
Quantitative rxns
-rxns that proceed only one way and goes to completion... A + B…
Equilibrium rxns
-after reactants form products, the products recombine and be…
23 terms
Equilibrium
Reversible Reaction
Chemical Equilibrium
Le Chatelier's Principle
Adding a Substance
a chemical reaction in which the products can react to re-for…
when the rate of the forward reactions equals the rate of the…
if a change (or stress) is imposed on a system at equilibrium…
causes the equilibrium to shift AWAY from the side where the…
Reversible Reaction
a chemical reaction in which the products can react to re-for…
Chemical Equilibrium
when the rate of the forward reactions equals the rate of the…
18 terms
Equilibrium
chemical equilibrium
factors to reach equilibrium
factors determining reaction occurrence
Le Chatelier
when both reactions are occurring at the same rate and no cha…
closed system; simultaneous opposing reactions occurring at s…
-ΔH (favour energy release), +ΔS (favour increased entropy)
looked at what would happen to a system already at equilibriu…
chemical equilibrium
when both reactions are occurring at the same rate and no cha…
factors to reach equilibrium
closed system; simultaneous opposing reactions occurring at s…
6 terms
Equilibrium
law of mass action/equilibrium espress…
reaction quotient Q
le chatelier's principal
kinetic and thermodynamic reaction con…
exponents are equal to stoichometric coefficents in a balance…
shows how far the reaction has proceeded towards equilibrium…
system will shift to reduce stress ... will move away from added…
at lower temp kinetic product is formed ... at higher temp therm…
law of mass action/equilibrium espress…
exponents are equal to stoichometric coefficents in a balance…
reaction quotient Q
shows how far the reaction has proceeded towards equilibrium…
17 terms
(EQUILIBRIUM)
Kinetics
Chemical Kinetics
Thermodynamics
Equilibrium
Speed
Study of reaction rates & tells the change in concentrations…
Direction
Seeks to find balance in all systems... -Undergoes change but th…
Kinetics
Speed
Chemical Kinetics
Study of reaction rates & tells the change in concentrations…
Equilibrium
Reaction Rate
Collision theory
Effective collisions will result only…
Endothermic
Change in concentration over time
atoms must collide in order to react
a) enough energy... b) proper orientation
Reaction Rate
Change in concentration over time
Collision theory
atoms must collide in order to react
25 terms
Equilibrium
homologous structure
analogous structure
genetic evidence
stabilizing selection
same ancestor: structural similarities
two unrelated species but are similar because of similar envi…
DNA, RNA, amino acids, chromosomes
average form of trait is selected form
homologous structure
same ancestor: structural similarities
analogous structure
two unrelated species but are similar because of similar envi…
24 terms
Equilibrium
equilibrium
Equilibrium Constant (Keq)
Equilibrium Constant (Keq)
gases and aqueous solutions
a dynamic state in which the forward reaction rate equals the…
an expression that indicates the concentrations of products a…
= products / reactants ... [C]c[D]d = products... [A]a[B]b = reacta…
only ? and ? are included in the equilibrium constant express…
equilibrium
a dynamic state in which the forward reaction rate equals the…
Equilibrium Constant (Keq)
an expression that indicates the concentrations of products a…
36 terms
Equilibrium
Rotational Motion
Translational motion
Torque
Magnitude of Torque
Produced by forces acting at points other than an object's ce…
Produced by forces acting at an object's center of mass
Measures the ability of a force to produce rotational motion…
Magnitude of torque equation... F = force vector , r = position…
Rotational Motion
Produced by forces acting at points other than an object's ce…
Translational motion
Produced by forces acting at an object's center of mass
Equilibrium
equilibrium is.....
state of equilibrium means..
state of dis equilibrium means.....
2 graphs that can represent equilibriu…
dynamic, forward reaction happens at the same time as the rev…
reaction resists changes
sensitive to small displacements
• time by concentration... •time by reaction rates
equilibrium is.....
dynamic, forward reaction happens at the same time as the rev…
state of equilibrium means..
reaction resists changes
5 terms
Equilibrium
I2 color
Kc
Le Chatelier
Haber Process
purple gas
conc. of Products/reactants (to the power of the coefficient)…
Pressure: if increased, favor side with smaller number of gas…
Use equilibrium (-93kJ/mol)... Finely divided iron as catalyst
I2 color
purple gas
Kc
conc. of Products/reactants (to the power of the coefficient)…
equilibrium
Perilymph
Endolymph
Membranous Labyrinth
Vestibular Apparatus
thin fluid inside bony labyrinth that surrounds the membranou…
thick gel like fluid inside the membranous labrinth
membrane that is between the perilymph and the endolymph
semicircular canals and vestibule has to do with balance
Perilymph
thin fluid inside bony labyrinth that surrounds the membranou…
Endolymph
thick gel like fluid inside the membranous labrinth
Equilibrium
Equilibrium
Dynamic Reversible Closed
Product favored reaction
Reactant favored reaction
When the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the…
Requirements for equilibrium?
When the concentration of the products at equilibrium is grea…
When the concentration of the products at equilibrium is less…
Equilibrium
When the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the…
Dynamic Reversible Closed
Requirements for equilibrium?
17 terms
Equilibrium
Perilymph
Endolymph
Membranous Labyrinth
Vestibular Apperatus
Plasma-like fluid in the bony labyrinth.
Thicker fluid in the membranous labyrinth .
Maze, system of membrane sacs that follows the shape of the b…
Both the vestibule and semicircle canals.
Perilymph
Plasma-like fluid in the bony labyrinth.
Endolymph
Thicker fluid in the membranous labyrinth .
15 terms
EQUILIBRIUM
chemical equilibrium
Haber process
law of mass action
equilibrium expression
the point at which the concentrations of all species are cons…
the industrial preparation of ammonia from nitrogen to hydrogen
the rate of any chemical reaction is proportional to the prod…
chemical equilibrium
the point at which the concentrations of all species are cons…
Haber process
the industrial preparation of ammonia from nitrogen to hydrogen
29 terms
Equilibrium
Reaction quotient
Equilibrium constant
Le Chatelier's principle
Reaction yield
The fraction of the concentration of the products in a reacti…
The value that the reaction quotient equals once the reaction…
If an equilibrium system is subjected to a change, the system…
The amount of product formed as a percentage of the total amo…
Reaction quotient
The fraction of the concentration of the products in a reacti…
Equilibrium constant
The value that the reaction quotient equals once the reaction…
17 terms
Equilibrium
Perilymph
Endolymph
Membranous Labyrinth
Vestibular Apparatus
fluid contained in the labyrinth of the inner ear
The fluid within the membranous labyrinth is called:
Contains Endolymph
What part of the inner ear is responsible for balance?
Perilymph
fluid contained in the labyrinth of the inner ear
Endolymph
The fluid within the membranous labyrinth is called:
Equilibrium
Perilymph
Endolymph
Membranous Labyrinth
Vestibular Apparatus
fluid contained in the labyrinth of the inner ear
fluid within the labyrinth of the inner ear
sacs and ducts within bony labyrinth, contains endolymph
maintains equilibrium; located in inner ear... has semicirular c…
Perilymph
fluid contained in the labyrinth of the inner ear
Endolymph
fluid within the labyrinth of the inner ear
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