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Study sets matching "exam genetics 3"

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Study sets matching "exam genetics 3"

15 terms
Genetics 3
genotype
phenotype
genes
DNA
the genetic makeup of an organism
the outward expression of the environmental effects on an org…
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosome…
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of r…
genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism
phenotype
the outward expression of the environmental effects on an org…
18 terms
Genetics 3
Sexual Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
Budding
sexual reproduction
2 parents create offspring that are genetically different fro…
one parent produces offspring that are genetically identical…
asexual: a new, genetically identical organism forms on the s…
reproduction from the union of two parents that each pass on…
Sexual Reproduction
2 parents create offspring that are genetically different fro…
Asexual Reproduction
one parent produces offspring that are genetically identical…
30 terms
Genetics #3
Trait
P Generation
F1 generation
F2 generation
Characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or r…
The true-breeding (homozygous) parent individuals from which…
The first filial, hybrid (heterozygous) offspring arising fro…
The offspring resulting from interbreeding (or self-pollinati…
Trait
Characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or r…
P Generation
The true-breeding (homozygous) parent individuals from which…
122 terms
Genetics exam 3
Wishlist for genetic material?
Nucleic Acids or Proteins?:
Nucleotides
Levine proposed
Must encode large amounts of information... Must be able to cop…
Chromatin is mixture of DNA and protein.
Early 20th c.: Discovery of nucleotides:... Nucleotides contain:…
tetranucleotide hypothesis... Suggested each nucleotide unit had…
Wishlist for genetic material?
Must encode large amounts of information... Must be able to cop…
Nucleic Acids or Proteins?:
Chromatin is mixture of DNA and protein.
38 terms
Genetics3
Heredity
Gene
Allele
Chromosome
The passing of traits from parents to offspring.
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific tr…
An alternative form of a gene.
An organized structure of DNA, protein, and RNA found in cell…
Heredity
The passing of traits from parents to offspring.
Gene
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific tr…
66 terms
Genetics 3
genetics
heredity
trait
gene
the study of heredity
the passing of traits from one generation to the next
a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to…
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines…
genetics
the study of heredity
heredity
the passing of traits from one generation to the next
20 terms
Genetics 3
Genetics
Offspring
Gene
Inherited
the scientific study of how genes control the characteristics…
Each new organism produced by sexual or asexual reproduction.
A specific sequence of DNA that determines one or more traits.
The passage of traits from parent to... offspring.
Genetics
the scientific study of how genes control the characteristics…
Offspring
Each new organism produced by sexual or asexual reproduction.
165 terms
Genetics 3
gene regulation
contituative genes
why is gene regulation important?
regulation can occur at different points
the level of gene expression can vary under different conditi…
-unregulated... -continuously expressed... -code for proteins neces…
-encoded proteins are produced only when needed, conserving e…
-transcription (most efficient)... -translation... -posttranslation
gene regulation
the level of gene expression can vary under different conditi…
contituative genes
-unregulated... -continuously expressed... -code for proteins neces…
48 terms
Genetics & genetic engineering Q3
pregnancy
prenatal screening
abortion
down syndrome (trisomy 21)
Schwangerschaft
Vorsorgeuntersuchung während der Schwangerschaft
Abtreibung
Downsyndrom
pregnancy
Schwangerschaft
prenatal screening
Vorsorgeuntersuchung während der Schwangerschaft
33 terms
genetics 3
Chromosome classification
Normal karyotype
chromosome nomenclature
Confirmation: FISH
...
...
...
...
Chromosome classification
...
Normal karyotype
...
183 terms
Genetics 3
Phases of the cell cycle
Ac/Ds elements
Where does DNA replication occur?
interphase
interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telo…
The Ac Activator element is autonomous, whereas the Ds Dissoc…
Interphase (G1, G2, S, G0) s=synthesis
Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for d…
Phases of the cell cycle
interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telo…
Ac/Ds elements
The Ac Activator element is autonomous, whereas the Ds Dissoc…
36 terms
Genetics: 3
heterochromatin
Karyokinesis
karyotype
chromatin
coiled so tightly that the DNA cannot be expressed
nuclear division
an organized representation of the chromosomes within the cell.
complex between DNA and proteins
heterochromatin
coiled so tightly that the DNA cannot be expressed
Karyokinesis
nuclear division
14 terms
CH 3 Genetics
Gene
Allele
Locus (loci)
Genotype
Genetic factor that helps determine a trait; often defined at…
One of two or more alternate forms of a gene.
Position on a chromosome where a specific gene is located.
The set of genes possessed by an individual organism.
Gene
Genetic factor that helps determine a trait; often defined at…
Allele
One of two or more alternate forms of a gene.
196 terms
Genetics 3
Medulla of an ovary contains ovarian f…
Resting phase of follicle development…
Primary oocyte within the primordial f…
Secondary follicle contains the cavity…
no (ovarian follicles-CORTEX)
no ( Dictyotene: stage of meiosis at which the PRIMARY OOCYTE…
no (simple layer)
yes
Medulla of an ovary contains ovarian f…
no (ovarian follicles-CORTEX)
Resting phase of follicle development…
no ( Dictyotene: stage of meiosis at which the PRIMARY OOCYTE…
10 terms
Genetics 3
Probability
Meiosis
Phenotype
Genotype
A number that describes how likely it is that an event will o…
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually re…
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
Probability
A number that describes how likely it is that an event will o…
Meiosis
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually re…
10 terms
genetics 3
triplet code
translation is mediated by the ribosom…
large sub unit three areas
universal tree of life made by
offers enough combinations for 64 amino acids... Triplet code…
small subunit 30s... large subunit 50s... Made of proteins and rib…
a=acceptor... p=peptidol... e=exit
ANALYSING RIBOSOMAL RNA
triplet code
offers enough combinations for 64 amino acids... Triplet code…
translation is mediated by the ribosom…
small subunit 30s... large subunit 50s... Made of proteins and rib…
14 terms
Genetics LT #3 (Genetics Vocabulary)
Allele
Dominant
Recessive
Gene
Different forms of a gene.
This allele is expressed in the presence of a recessive allele
This allele is covered or masked in the presence of a dominan…
A short sequence of DNA that codes for a proteins
Allele
Different forms of a gene.
Dominant
This allele is expressed in the presence of a recessive allele
15 terms
Genetics Vocab 3
Cell
Nucleus
Chromosome
DNA
The smallest unit of a living organism that can perform life'…
A structure in cells that control all cell activity and repro…
Rods or X-shaped structure of molecules that store genetic ma…
long twisted strands of molecules that store genetic material.
Cell
The smallest unit of a living organism that can perform life'…
Nucleus
A structure in cells that control all cell activity and repro…
16 terms
Genetics 3
vessel
massive
rampant
in response to
ship or large boat
huge
uncontrolled and rapidly increasing
in reaction to
vessel
ship or large boat
massive
huge
30 terms
Genetics 3
Leber heredity optic neuropathy Descri…
Pattern of inheritance of Leber heredi…
Mitochondrial inheritance
Problem caused by Leber hereditary opt…
Loss of retinal ganglion neurons that receive information fro…
mitochondrial (from the mother's mitochondria)
-Mitochondria (mtDNA/cytoplasmic) have their own circular DNA…
In the disorder, people have a defective NADH dehydrogenase,…
Leber heredity optic neuropathy Descri…
Loss of retinal ganglion neurons that receive information fro…
Pattern of inheritance of Leber heredi…
mitochondrial (from the mother's mitochondria)
8 terms
3.1 Basic Genetics
Gene
Allele
Homozygous
Heterozygous
sections of DNA that code for a certain (feature)... ex: one gen…
a specific form/version of a gene ... Ex: a vs. A
having two of the same alleles... Ex: aa or AA
having two different alleles ... Ex: Aa
Gene
sections of DNA that code for a certain (feature)... ex: one gen…
Allele
a specific form/version of a gene ... Ex: a vs. A
13 terms
Genetics 3
Continuous Variation
Dihybrid Cross
Discontinuous Variation
Dominance
Phenotype variation in which quantitative traits range from o…
A genetic cross involving two characters in which the parents…
Pattern of variation for a trait whose phenotypes fall into t…
The expression of a trait in the heterozygous condition.
Continuous Variation
Phenotype variation in which quantitative traits range from o…
Dihybrid Cross
A genetic cross involving two characters in which the parents…
9 terms
genetics (3)
Sexual reproduction
sperm
egg
meiosis
produces offspring that have a combination of genes inherited…
male sex cell (male gamete)
female sex cell (female gamete)
*Cell division that produces sex cells (gametes)... *four new se…
Sexual reproduction
produces offspring that have a combination of genes inherited…
sperm
male sex cell (male gamete)
10 terms
Genetics 3
Gene
Hybrid
Purebred
Heterozygous
A segment of DNA that codes for a specific trait.
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait.
An organism that always produces offspring with the same form…
Having two different alleles for a trait.
Gene
A segment of DNA that codes for a specific trait.
Hybrid
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait.
69 terms
Genetics 3
Genome
genomics
Cytogenetic mapping
Linkage mapping
total genetic composition of an organism
molecular analysis of a genome ... -mapping... -sequencing
Uses microscopy; genes positioned relative to bands on chromo…
Uses test crosses; recombination ... -Genes mapped relative to…
Genome
total genetic composition of an organism
genomics
molecular analysis of a genome ... -mapping... -sequencing
30 terms
Genetics pp 3-4
2
2, F or f
2, free and attached earlobes
1
A dihybrid cross involves ___ different genes/traits.
Each parent in this monohybrid cross (Ff x Ff) can produce __…
This monohybrid cross can produce ____ different phenotypes i…
A monohybrid cross involves ___ gene/trait.
2
A dihybrid cross involves ___ different genes/traits.
2, F or f
Each parent in this monohybrid cross (Ff x Ff) can produce __…
13 terms
11-3 Genetics
incomplete dominance
co dominance
multiple alleles
polygenic traits
situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over…
situation in which both alleles of a gene continue to the phe…
three or more alleles of the same gene
trait controlled by 2 or more genes
incomplete dominance
situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over…
co dominance
situation in which both alleles of a gene continue to the phe…
105 terms
Genetics 3
Mitosis occurs in
Mitosis in multi cellular organisms is
Mitosis in asexual organisms is
Mitosis chromosomes
Somatic Cells
Growth
Division (no recombination)
the number in the mother=the number in the daughter
Mitosis occurs in
Somatic Cells
Mitosis in multi cellular organisms is
Growth
206 terms
Genetics 3
Mutation
Aneuploidy
Sources of chromosomal aneuploidy
When does nondisjunction occur?
A change in a gene or chromosome.
aberrations due to variations in chromosome number... Additions…
nondisjuction (during meiosis)... chromosomal loss
1st division of meiosis (when homologous chromosomes fail to…
Mutation
A change in a gene or chromosome.
Aneuploidy
aberrations due to variations in chromosome number... Additions…
263 terms
Genetics #3
How many single gene diseases have bee…
Housekeeping proteins
Tissue specific proteins
Two generalizations that can be made a…
~1900
Present in virtually every cell (ubiquitous); maintain cell s…
Present in unique cell types with unique functions e.g. globi…
1. Mutations in a tissue specific protein most often produces…
How many single gene diseases have bee…
~1900
Housekeeping proteins
Present in virtually every cell (ubiquitous); maintain cell s…
33 terms
Genetics #3
spliceosome
RTF
enhancer
silent mutations
snRNA and protein complex that removes introns from pre-mRNA
encoded by a trans-acting regulatory element
cis-acting regulatory elements recognized by RTFs that INCREA…
because the genetic code is degenerate
spliceosome
snRNA and protein complex that removes introns from pre-mRNA
RTF
encoded by a trans-acting regulatory element
27 terms
genetics 3
sutton and boveri
chromosome theory of heredity
thomas morgan
drosophila melanoganster
independently studied chromosomes during meiosis
theory that states where genes are located
performed experiments with the common fruit fly
fruit fly
sutton and boveri
independently studied chromosomes during meiosis
chromosome theory of heredity
theory that states where genes are located
62 terms
Genetics Exam 3
cis-Acting Promoters and Enhancers
Promoter
Enhancer
trans-Acting Proteins
- present on the same DNA molecule as they control... ...Contro…
- close to gene's protein coding region... *TATA box - binding…
- Distant from promoter ... *Helps or represses basal level tra…
*Transcription Factors: gene regulatory proteins... 1. Basal fa…
cis-Acting Promoters and Enhancers
- present on the same DNA molecule as they control... ...Contro…
Promoter
- close to gene's protein coding region... *TATA box - binding…
10 terms
Genetics 3
Probability
Meiosis
Phenotype
Genotype
A number that describes how likely it is that an event will o…
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually re…
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
Probability
A number that describes how likely it is that an event will o…
Meiosis
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually re…
164 terms
Genetics 3
A _______ is an alternation in DNA seq…
______ mutations: Changes a codon for…
N______ mutations: Changes a codon to…
F__________ mutations: incorporation (…
mutation
Missense
Nonsense
Frameshift
A _______ is an alternation in DNA seq…
mutation
______ mutations: Changes a codon for…
Missense
14 terms
genetics 3
genetic deceases
incomplete dominance
codominance
pedigrees
a decease that goes to parent to offspring
when 1 allele is not completely dominant
when the alleles are neither dominant nor recessive
a chart that tracks the members of a family that have a certa…
genetic deceases
a decease that goes to parent to offspring
incomplete dominance
when 1 allele is not completely dominant
36 terms
Genetics: 3
heterochromatin
Karyokinesis
karyotype
chromatin
coiled so tightly that the DNA cannot be expressed
nuclear division
an organized representation of the chromosomes within the cell.
complex between DNA and proteins
heterochromatin
coiled so tightly that the DNA cannot be expressed
Karyokinesis
nuclear division
12 terms
genetics 3
independent assortment
incoplete dominance
codominance
multiple alleles
Independent segregation of genes during the formation of game…
blending, both alleles from a gene can be both dominant and r…
A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is domi…
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
independent assortment
Independent segregation of genes during the formation of game…
incoplete dominance
blending, both alleles from a gene can be both dominant and r…
68 terms
Topic 3 Genetics
RNA
RNA nucleotides have what
What else differs between RNA and DNA
What is more stable, DNA or RNA and why
is a polymer consisting of nucleotides joined together by pho…
ribose sugars
RNA has a free hydroxyl group on the 2' carbon atom of the ri…
DNA because it lacks the free hydroxyl group
RNA
is a polymer consisting of nucleotides joined together by pho…
RNA nucleotides have what
ribose sugars
196 terms
Genetics 3
Medulla of an ovary contains ovarian f…
Resting phase of follicle development…
Primary oocyte within the primordial f…
Secondary follicle contains the cavity…
no (ovarian follicles-CORTEX)
no ( Dictyotene: stage of meiosis at which the PRIMARY OOCYTE…
no (simple layer)
yes
Medulla of an ovary contains ovarian f…
no (ovarian follicles-CORTEX)
Resting phase of follicle development…
no ( Dictyotene: stage of meiosis at which the PRIMARY OOCYTE…
16 terms
(3) Genetics
Chromosome map
vertical gene transfer
horizontal gene transfer
DNA -> mRNA
bacteria have once chromosome, helps us identify features of…
occurs during reproduction, between generations of cells (par…
transfer of genes between cells of the same generation (sibli…
transcription
Chromosome map
bacteria have once chromosome, helps us identify features of…
vertical gene transfer
occurs during reproduction, between generations of cells (par…
34 terms
genetics 2-3
nucleus
nucleolus
mitochondria
rough er
controls cellular activity and contains genes.
makes ribosomes
makes ATP, site of cellular respiration
synthesizes proteins
nucleus
controls cellular activity and contains genes.
nucleolus
makes ribosomes
16 terms
genetics 3.3
Protein Translation
rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid)
tRNA (Transfer ribonucleic acid)
charged tRNA
the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins, its…
RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein s…
type of RNA molecule that helps decode a messenger RNA (mRNA)…
The 3' end of the tRNA is covalently linked to an amino acid.
Protein Translation
the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins, its…
rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid)
RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein s…
10 terms
Genetics #3
Transcription
Codon
Amino Acid
Protein Synthesis
formation of mRNA from DNA
a triplet of bases in mRNA that carried the directions from t…
A building block of proteins
The ordered of amino acids to create proteins
Transcription
formation of mRNA from DNA
Codon
a triplet of bases in mRNA that carried the directions from t…
Genetics CH-3: Development Vocabulary
gonads
sperm
oocytes
gamete
Paired structures in the reproductive system where sperm or o…
The male gamete.
The female gamete.
A sex cell
gonads
Paired structures in the reproductive system where sperm or o…
sperm
The male gamete.
29 terms
KS3 Biology Genetics
Gene
Chromosome
Human Cells
Fertilisation
A set of chemical instructions. Each gene controls some detai…
Where genes are found which intern are found in the nucleus o…
Have 46 chromosomes, 23 in pairs.
Joins up the parents genes. Sex Cells have a nucleus with the…
Gene
A set of chemical instructions. Each gene controls some detai…
Chromosome
Where genes are found which intern are found in the nucleus o…
120 terms
Genetics 3
Cell Cycle
M phase and Interphase; M=short time w…
G1 phase (Gap 1)
S phase
A cycle of DNA replication and division is called a _________…
The 2 principle phases of the cell cycle.
During this phase of interphase, all proteins needed for norm…
During this phase of interphase, DNA is REPLICATED, resulting…
Cell Cycle
A cycle of DNA replication and division is called a _________…
M phase and Interphase; M=short time w…
The 2 principle phases of the cell cycle.
104 terms
Genetics (test 3)
origin of replication (oriC)
DnaA
Primase
Helicase
-DNA synthesis begins at a site termed the origin of replicat…
Prokaryotes... -DNA replication is initiated by the binding of D…
-Synthesizes an RNA primer... - DNA polymerases require a free…
-Breaks the hydrogen bonds between the two strands
origin of replication (oriC)
-DNA synthesis begins at a site termed the origin of replicat…
DnaA
Prokaryotes... -DNA replication is initiated by the binding of D…
299 terms
Genetics 3
What makes up the nucleosome
Histone
DNA is ______________ Charged
Histones are made up of
Core histone complex
proteins that interact directly with DNA
negatively, (DN-acid)
High proportions of basic amino acids
What makes up the nucleosome
Core histone complex
Histone
proteins that interact directly with DNA
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