Study sets matching "exam genetics 4"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "exam genetics 4"

6 terms
Genetics 4
Punnett Squares
Recessive Allele
Genotype
Dominant Allele
A chart that shows all possible combinations of alleles that…
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present.
An organism's genetic makeup or allele combination.
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when th…
Punnett Squares
A chart that shows all possible combinations of alleles that…
Recessive Allele
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present.
50 terms
genetics 4
population genetics
population
demes
purpose of population genetics
application of genetic principles to entire populations of or…
group of individuals of the same species in a given area... *Po…
Large populations are usually composed of smaller local popul…
Mainly concerned with genetic variation... -amount within popul…
population genetics
application of genetic principles to entire populations of or…
population
group of individuals of the same species in a given area... *Po…
Genetics 4
RFLP
Restriction enzymes
Pyrimidine dimers
p53
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms- variation in DNA f…
Enzymes that splice and move DNA
Most often TT can be CT base pairing
Tumor suppressor gene, a protein and transcription factor
RFLP
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms- variation in DNA f…
Restriction enzymes
Enzymes that splice and move DNA
37 terms
genetics 4
Mitochondria
Mitochondrial Genome
Mitochondrial Inheritance
Mitochondrial Inheritance example 2
Cytoplasmic organelles... "Powerhouse" ATP producers... Several h…
...
...
...
Mitochondria
Cytoplasmic organelles... "Powerhouse" ATP producers... Several h…
Mitochondrial Genome
...
10 terms
genetics 4
Regulation of gene... expression is diffe…
open reading frame start codon
open reading frame stop codonS
operons in prokaryotes
...
AUG
UAG, UAA, UGA
as tryptophan accumulates, it inhibits its own production by…
Regulation of gene... expression is diffe…
...
open reading frame start codon
AUG
20 terms
Genetics 4
Genetics
Offspring
Gene
Inherited
the scientific study of how genes control the characteristics…
Each new organism produced by sexual or asexual reproduction.
A specific sequence of DNA that determines one or more traits.
The passage of traits from parent to... offspring.
Genetics
the scientific study of how genes control the characteristics…
Offspring
Each new organism produced by sexual or asexual reproduction.
50 terms
genetics 4
population genetics
population
demes
purpose of population genetics
application of genetic principles to entire populations of or…
group of individuals of the same species in a given area... *Po…
Large populations are usually composed of smaller local popul…
Mainly concerned with genetic variation... -amount within popul…
population genetics
application of genetic principles to entire populations of or…
population
group of individuals of the same species in a given area... *Po…
14 terms
genetics 4
an organism's appearance
a plant with one dominant and one rece…
condition that causes colorless hair s…
a plant with either two dominant or tw…
phenotype
heterozygous
albinism
homozygous
an organism's appearance
phenotype
a plant with one dominant and one rece…
heterozygous
Genetics 4
Differentiate euploidy from aneuploidy
What is a constitutional abberation
What is the exception in a constitutio…
What is an acquired aberration?
euploidy is a change in number of chromosome sets i.e. 2n, 3n…
a chromosomal abnormality found in every cell of the body. Co…
mosaicism (only some cells in the body have a certain aberrat…
numerical or structural aberrations that are always mosaic! (…
Differentiate euploidy from aneuploidy
euploidy is a change in number of chromosome sets i.e. 2n, 3n…
What is a constitutional abberation
a chromosomal abnormality found in every cell of the body. Co…
161 terms
Genetics Test 4
1865
1866
1869
1928
Mendel published "Experiments in plant Hybridization"
Ernest Heckel proposes that the cell nucleus contains the fac…
FRIEDRICH MIESCHER isolates the "nuclein" (later known as DNA…
FRIEDRICH GRIFFITH showed evidence for the transfer of a "tra…
1865
Mendel published "Experiments in plant Hybridization"
1866
Ernest Heckel proposes that the cell nucleus contains the fac…
Genetics 4
X and Y genes
sex determination
genic sex determination
sequential hermaphroditism
are not homologous and still pair during meoisis
by phenotype
genes at one or more loci determine sex phenotype
An individual organism that changes sex from female to male o…
X and Y genes
are not homologous and still pair during meoisis
sex determination
by phenotype
14 terms
Genetics 4
Autosomes
Conditional mutation
Epigenetics
Epistasis
Chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes. In humans, there…
A mutation expressed only under a certain condition; that is,…
The study of the effects of reversible chemical modifications…
Nonreciprocal interaction between nonallelic genes such that…
Autosomes
Chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes. In humans, there…
Conditional mutation
A mutation expressed only under a certain condition; that is,…
57 terms
Genetics 4
Mutation
Spontaneous Mutation
induced mutation
common mutagens
is any change in an organisms genome sequence
natural and random Mutations that occur during each organisms…
result from exposure to mutagens
radiation, chemical toxins
Mutation
is any change in an organisms genome sequence
Spontaneous Mutation
natural and random Mutations that occur during each organisms…
10 terms
Genetics 4
Self pollination (self)
cross pollination (cross)
pureline
dominant phenotype
Pollen and egg from the same flower... Both parents have the sam…
pollen from one plant fertilizes an egg from another plant... pa…
all offspring produced by selfing or crossing individuals wit…
expressed in the F1 progeny when two different pure lines are…
Self pollination (self)
Pollen and egg from the same flower... Both parents have the sam…
cross pollination (cross)
pollen from one plant fertilizes an egg from another plant... pa…
28 terms
Genetics: Topic 4 Genetic Testing
karyotyping
1. downs syndrome... 2. turner syndrome
downs syndrome
which type of genetic test is used to detect aneuploidy, poly…
which two disorders would karyotyping be best for?
which disorder is characterized by an extra copy of chromosom…
karyotyping
which type of genetic test is used to detect aneuploidy, poly…
1. downs syndrome... 2. turner syndrome
which two disorders would karyotyping be best for?
44 terms
genetics 4
the central dogma of genetics\molecula…
central dogma (crick)
transcription literally means
In genetics, the term 'central dogma'…
"The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detail…
dna replication: makes dna copies that are transmitted from c…
the act, or process, of making a copy of a nucleic acid
copying of a DNA sequence into an RNA sequence that is either…
the central dogma of genetics\molecula…
"The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detail…
central dogma (crick)
dna replication: makes dna copies that are transmitted from c…
143 terms
Genetics 4
Thomas Cech 1981
What is likely the original gentic mat…
Which is more stable DNA or RNA
Central dogma (3)
Hammerhead ribosome - catalytic RNA... - no protein coat ... 1981
RNA could carry out primitive reactions
DNA
Replication --> transciption --> translation
Thomas Cech 1981
Hammerhead ribosome - catalytic RNA... - no protein coat ... 1981
What is likely the original gentic mat…
RNA could carry out primitive reactions
11 terms
Genetics 4
3 main allele classes of trinucleotide…
Friedrich's Ataxia
Fragile X Syndrome
Fragile X associated hemorrhage ataxia…
Common, pre-mutation, and full mutation
Loss of fxn. One of most frequent causes of ataxia. Childhood…
Expansion of CGG repeat in 5' region, upstream of FMRI gene.…
Gain of fxn-RNA mediated. Pre-mutation to fragile X.
3 main allele classes of trinucleotide…
Common, pre-mutation, and full mutation
Friedrich's Ataxia
Loss of fxn. One of most frequent causes of ataxia. Childhood…
8 terms
Genetics 4
DNA Replication produces two identical…
After Chromosomes condense, the _____…
During Mitosis, microtubles attach to…
In dividing cells, most growth is during
Sister Chromatids
Centromere
kinetochore
interphase
DNA Replication produces two identical…
Sister Chromatids
After Chromosomes condense, the _____…
Centromere
Genetics 4
gain of function
P53
Tumor Suppresor
loss of function
dominant, it will always be expressed even though there is a…
locus- 17 p 13.1... encoded in the TP 53 gene... Transcription fact…
stops mitosis
recessive- two mutations for the cell to be out of control
gain of function
dominant, it will always be expressed even though there is a…
P53
locus- 17 p 13.1... encoded in the TP 53 gene... Transcription fact…
10 terms
genetics 4
inbreeding
restriction enzyme
gel electrophoresis
recombinant dna
Continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placi…
A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sou…
inbreeding
Continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
restriction enzyme
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
20 terms
Genetics#4
Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacodynamics
Phase I reactions
Phase II reactions
Rate of drug metabolism
Variability in drug response due to allelic variation in down…
Introduction of a more polar group allowing another side grou…
Attachment of a SUGAR or ACETYL group to the polar group adde…
Pharmacokinetics
Rate of drug metabolism
Pharmacodynamics
Variability in drug response due to allelic variation in down…
16 terms
genetics 4
incomplete dominance
codominance
multiple alleles
polygenic inheritance
neither allele is completely dominant over the other... both all…
both alleles contribute to the phenotype of the organism and…
many alleles for a trait are present for some genes... due to mu…
trait produced by the interaction of 2 or more genes... increase…
incomplete dominance
neither allele is completely dominant over the other... both all…
codominance
both alleles contribute to the phenotype of the organism and…
25 terms
Genetics 4
Cytogenetic Disorders affect what?
Cytogenetic Disorders alter what?
Karotype
Numerical abnormalities of cytogenetic…
Autosomes or sex CHROMOSOMES
the number OR structure of chromosomes... affects: 1/200 newborn…
Look at chromosome, the structure or any problems in lengths,…
Euploid- multiple of haploid number n... Polyploid- 3n and 4n-sp…
Cytogenetic Disorders affect what?
Autosomes or sex CHROMOSOMES
Cytogenetic Disorders alter what?
the number OR structure of chromosomes... affects: 1/200 newborn…
188 terms
Genetics 4
Multifactorial/polygenic trait or diso…
The term "multifactorial heredity" mea…
Quantitative traits are determined in…
Intelligence is determined in multifac…
no
yes
yes
yes
Multifactorial/polygenic trait or diso…
no
The term "multifactorial heredity" mea…
yes
8 terms
Genetics #4
Incomplete Dominance
Sexual Reproduction
Haploid
Diploid
neither allele is complete dominant
a process where a new organism is created by meiosis
reproductive cells that contain half the genetic material a c…
the joining of two haploids to create a cell with the full ge…
Incomplete Dominance
neither allele is complete dominant
Sexual Reproduction
a process where a new organism is created by meiosis
31 terms
Genetics-4
change in a DNA sequence is rare in a…
"loss of function" mutations
"gain of function" mutations
genetic change that is largely artific…
mutation
recessive
dominant
polymorphism
change in a DNA sequence is rare in a…
mutation
"loss of function" mutations
recessive
30 terms
Genetics pp 3-4
2
2, F or f
2, free and attached earlobes
1
A dihybrid cross involves ___ different genes/traits.
Each parent in this monohybrid cross (Ff x Ff) can produce __…
This monohybrid cross can produce ____ different phenotypes i…
A monohybrid cross involves ___ gene/trait.
2
A dihybrid cross involves ___ different genes/traits.
2, F or f
Each parent in this monohybrid cross (Ff x Ff) can produce __…
Genetics 4
the 4 types of non classic patterns of…
Mosaicism
incontinentia pigmenti
signs of ... incontinentia pigmenti
1) mosaicism... 2) genomic imprinting and uniparental disomy... 3)…
the presence of at least 2 cell lines from a single zygote (e…
X-inactivation mosaicism... effects skin/hair/teeth/nails
blisters... wart like rash... swirling macular hyperpigment-> linea…
the 4 types of non classic patterns of…
1) mosaicism... 2) genomic imprinting and uniparental disomy... 3)…
Mosaicism
the presence of at least 2 cell lines from a single zygote (e…
38 terms
Genetics 4
Which of the following is NOT an examp…
Activator proteins are cis-acting elem…
Repressor proteins can bind to enhance…
Which of the following point(s) of gen…
Alternative splicing
FALSE
TRUE
Initiation of transcription. Post-translational processing
Which of the following is NOT an examp…
Alternative splicing
Activator proteins are cis-acting elem…
FALSE
Unit 4: Genetics
Cell Division
Mitosis
Meiosis
Chromosome Structure
Functions in growth, repair, and reproduction.... Two types:... - M…
Produces two genetically identical diploid daughter cells.... Ch…
Produces gametes in gonads... Chromosome number (2n) is divided…
Kenetochores - disk-shaped protein that attaches chromatid to…
Cell Division
Functions in growth, repair, and reproduction.... Two types:... - M…
Mitosis
Produces two genetically identical diploid daughter cells.... Ch…
27 terms
Genetics 4
Topoisomerase
Telomerase
Retrovirus
Purine
Molecular swivel
Catalyzes the synthesis of a tandemly repeated DNA sequence
Incorperate their henes into the host cell genome
AG
Topoisomerase
Molecular swivel
Telomerase
Catalyzes the synthesis of a tandemly repeated DNA sequence
27 terms
4) Genetics
blending theory of inheritance vs the…
Peas as a model organism
Monohybrid cross through the F2 genera…
heterozygous vs homozygous
particulate theory- 2nd gen crosses could give back offspring…
easy to see traits, many offspring, controlled matings
F1= one dominant trait (purple) seen... F2= 3 purple: 1 white... 3:…
hetero- carry one of each domin or recessive... homozygous- eith…
blending theory of inheritance vs the…
particulate theory- 2nd gen crosses could give back offspring…
Peas as a model organism
easy to see traits, many offspring, controlled matings
10 terms
Genetics 4: Human Genetics
2 parts of genetics
Pedigree
Studies of Human genetics
Autosomal chromosomes
Pedigrees and karyotype
Help to study how traits are inherited in families
Cannot choose crosses and few offspring
1-22 chromosomes
2 parts of genetics
Pedigrees and karyotype
Pedigree
Help to study how traits are inherited in families
42 terms
Genetics 4- human genetics
Human applicatiors of DNA technology
The human genome prodject
Medician
Gene therapy
- Human Genome Prodject... - medician... - gene theory ... - forensic…
- J. Craig Venter... -sequence the entire set of genes of a huma…
- human genome project ... .........- lead to the identification…
- alter a person's DNA to make him well( this is still in fut…
Human applicatiors of DNA technology
- Human Genome Prodject... - medician... - gene theory ... - forensic…
The human genome prodject
- J. Craig Venter... -sequence the entire set of genes of a huma…
Genetics 4-population genetics
Population
Gene pool
Polymorphic
If hardy weinburg assumptions were met…
Group of individuals living at the same time and place
Sum total of alleles carried in all members of a species
More than one allele or variant at a site
Constant over time
Population
Group of individuals living at the same time and place
Gene pool
Sum total of alleles carried in all members of a species
Genetics #4 Chapter 13
Genetic Code
Hemiglobin
Codon
Anticodon
- The correspondence btw a codon and the functional role that…
Composed of 2 α-globin and 2 β-globin polypeptides
Groups of 3 nucleotides on mRNA that codes for a particular a…
Found on tRNA and recognizes/corresponds to codon on mRNA
Genetic Code
- The correspondence btw a codon and the functional role that…
Hemiglobin
Composed of 2 α-globin and 2 β-globin polypeptides
Cancer Genetics (Genetics 4)
Differentiate between Germ-Line and So…
List the normal functions of Tumour Su…
List the normal functions of Oncogenes.
Describe the consequences of some muta…
A Germ-Line mutation is a detectable and heritable variation…
Regulating cell division ... DNA damage checkpoints ... Apoptosis…
Regulation of Growth and Proliferation - e.g. growth factors,…
Inactivation of TSGs results in uncontrolled cell division, a…
Differentiate between Germ-Line and So…
A Germ-Line mutation is a detectable and heritable variation…
List the normal functions of Tumour Su…
Regulating cell division ... DNA damage checkpoints ... Apoptosis…
18 terms
Genetics 4
brutally
matter
extract
point to
in a cruel and violent way
a kind of substance
use a special method to remove part of a substance
suggest that a situation exists or will exist
brutally
in a cruel and violent way
matter
a kind of substance
44 terms
Genetics 4
Gene Mapping
Mendelian Trait
Quantitative Trait
Quantitative Trait Locus
The connections between Genome and Phenotype
1 gene only described in one way
Caused by multiple genes... and or environmental factors... Many i…
A region in a genome that influences a continuously varying t…
Gene Mapping
The connections between Genome and Phenotype
Mendelian Trait
1 gene only described in one way
Unit 4 Genetics
PART 13
Two general types of genes in bacteria
Machinery involved in gene regulation…
OPERATOR
gene regulation in bacteria
A) DNA sequences... 1) promoter... +1 site... -10 sequence ... -35 sequen…
dna sequence
PART 13
gene regulation in bacteria
Two general types of genes in bacteria
72 terms
Genetics 4
nucleosomes
histones
scaffold
scaffold attachment regions
octomer of histones around which DNA is wound
one of 4 types of proteins composing the nucleus
higher order organization in a chromosome to which DNA loops…
hold loops of DNA/protein to the scaffold
nucleosomes
octomer of histones around which DNA is wound
histones
one of 4 types of proteins composing the nucleus
Genetics 4
homologous chromosome
allele
gene
locus
Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance a…
An alternative form of a gene.
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific tr…
Location of a gene on a chromosome
homologous chromosome
Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance a…
allele
An alternative form of a gene.
83 terms
Genetics Ch 1-4
Genotype
phenotype
chromosome
DNA, RNA, Protein
an organisms specific allelic or genetic constitution
an organisms observable sum or features
composed of DNA complexed with proteins, and many genes are f…
central dogma of molecular genetics in time and space within…
Genotype
an organisms specific allelic or genetic constitution
phenotype
an organisms observable sum or features
Genetics Exam 4
Gene regulation in eukaryotes
Transcriptional regulation
Activators
DNA-binding domain
Start: Gene... Transcriptional controls: ... -No mRNA... -mRNA (Post-t…
A. Promoter elements... -activators, co-activators, response ele…
Stimulate transcription initiation. They have 2 key domains.…
can bind to a particular DNA sequence-its DNA-binding site.…
Gene regulation in eukaryotes
Start: Gene... Transcriptional controls: ... -No mRNA... -mRNA (Post-t…
Transcriptional regulation
A. Promoter elements... -activators, co-activators, response ele…
15 terms
Genetics 4: Cancer genetics
Cancer Predisposition
Genetics Vs. The Environment (Germline…
Knudson's 2-Hit Hypothesis
Genes in Tumorigenesis: Loss of Function
All cancers are due to DNA mutations (most mutations are acqu…
- Genetic events are the primary basis of carcinogenesis (fre…
- The requirement for more than one mutation in a cell to beg…
- Most common for inherited predisposition syndromes... - Loss o…
Cancer Predisposition
All cancers are due to DNA mutations (most mutations are acqu…
Genetics Vs. The Environment (Germline…
- Genetic events are the primary basis of carcinogenesis (fre…
Genetics: Chapter 4
interphase
cytokinesis
cell cycle check points
condensins
A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during whic…
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Is a critical point in the cell cycle that is regulated. At e…
proteins that coat the DNA and condense them at the end of G2…
interphase
A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during whic…
cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Genetics #4 Chapter 12
Gene
Structional Gene
Promoter
Terminator
Segment of DNA that is used to make a functional product (e.g…
Encodes the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide (90% of all…
Sequence that specifies a site to BEGIN transcription; direct…
Sequence that specifies a site to END transcription
Gene
Segment of DNA that is used to make a functional product (e.g…
Structional Gene
Encodes the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide (90% of all…
159 terms
4 Genetics
eukaryotic chromosomes made of
gene
allele
genome
DNA and protein... - DNA wrapped around histone proteins... - basic…
heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic... cons…
one specific form of a gene... - differs from other alleles by o…
the whole genetic information of an organism
eukaryotic chromosomes made of
DNA and protein... - DNA wrapped around histone proteins... - basic…
gene
heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic... cons…
66 terms
Genetics Ch. 4
Sex-Linked Characteristics
X-linked characteristics
Y-linked characteristics
Thomas Hunt Morgan
characteristics determined by genes located on the sex chromo…
Genes on the X chromosome determine...... (i.e) White-eyed Droso…
Genes on Y chromosome determine...also called holandric trait…
The first person to explain sex-linked inheritance was Americ…
Sex-Linked Characteristics
characteristics determined by genes located on the sex chromo…
X-linked characteristics
Genes on the X chromosome determine...... (i.e) White-eyed Droso…
1 of 10