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Study sets matching "exam genetics 4"

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Study sets matching "exam genetics 4"

20 terms
Genetics 4
Genetics
Offspring
Gene
Inherited
the scientific study of how genes control the characteristics…
Each new organism produced by sexual or asexual reproduction.
A specific sequence of DNA that determines one or more traits.
The passage of traits from parent to... offspring.
Genetics
the scientific study of how genes control the characteristics…
Offspring
Each new organism produced by sexual or asexual reproduction.
50 terms
genetics 4
population genetics
population
demes
purpose of population genetics
application of genetic principles to entire populations of or…
group of individuals of the same species in a given area... *Po…
Large populations are usually composed of smaller local popul…
Mainly concerned with genetic variation... -amount within popul…
population genetics
application of genetic principles to entire populations of or…
population
group of individuals of the same species in a given area... *Po…
37 terms
genetics 4
Mitochondria
Mitochondrial Genome
Mitochondrial Inheritance
Mitochondrial Inheritance example 2
Cytoplasmic organelles... "Powerhouse" ATP producers... Several h…
...
...
...
Mitochondria
Cytoplasmic organelles... "Powerhouse" ATP producers... Several h…
Mitochondrial Genome
...
10 terms
genetics 4
Regulation of gene... expression is diffe…
open reading frame start codon
open reading frame stop codonS
operons in prokaryotes
...
AUG
UAG, UAA, UGA
as tryptophan accumulates, it inhibits its own production by…
Regulation of gene... expression is diffe…
...
open reading frame start codon
AUG
50 terms
genetics 4
population genetics
population
demes
purpose of population genetics
application of genetic principles to entire populations of or…
group of individuals of the same species in a given area... *Po…
Large populations are usually composed of smaller local popul…
Mainly concerned with genetic variation... -amount within popul…
population genetics
application of genetic principles to entire populations of or…
population
group of individuals of the same species in a given area... *Po…
31 terms
Genetics 4
RFLP
Restriction enzymes
Pyrimidine dimers
p53
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms- variation in DNA f…
Enzymes that splice and move DNA
Most often TT can be CT base pairing
Tumor suppressor gene, a protein and transcription factor
RFLP
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms- variation in DNA f…
Restriction enzymes
Enzymes that splice and move DNA
87 terms
Genetics 4
Differentiate euploidy from aneuploidy
What is a constitutional abberation
What is the exception in a constitutio…
What is an acquired aberration?
euploidy is a change in number of chromosome sets i.e. 2n, 3n…
a chromosomal abnormality found in every cell of the body. Co…
mosaicism (only some cells in the body have a certain aberrat…
numerical or structural aberrations that are always mosaic! (…
Differentiate euploidy from aneuploidy
euploidy is a change in number of chromosome sets i.e. 2n, 3n…
What is a constitutional abberation
a chromosomal abnormality found in every cell of the body. Co…
18 terms
Genetics 4
brutally
matter
extract
point to
in a cruel and violent way
a kind of substance
use a special method to remove part of a substance
suggest that a situation exists or will exist
brutally
in a cruel and violent way
matter
a kind of substance
161 terms
Genetics Test 4
1865
1866
1869
1928
Mendel published "Experiments in plant Hybridization"
Ernest Heckel proposes that the cell nucleus contains the fac…
FRIEDRICH MIESCHER isolates the "nuclein" (later known as DNA…
FRIEDRICH GRIFFITH showed evidence for the transfer of a "tra…
1865
Mendel published "Experiments in plant Hybridization"
1866
Ernest Heckel proposes that the cell nucleus contains the fac…
10 terms
Genetics 4
homologous chromosome
allele
gene
locus
Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance a…
An alternative form of a gene.
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific tr…
Location of a gene on a chromosome
homologous chromosome
Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance a…
allele
An alternative form of a gene.
8 terms
Genetics 4
DNA Replication produces two identical…
After Chromosomes condense, the _____…
During Mitosis, microtubles attach to…
In dividing cells, most growth is during
Sister Chromatids
Centromere
kinetochore
interphase
DNA Replication produces two identical…
Sister Chromatids
After Chromosomes condense, the _____…
Centromere
14 terms
Genetics 4
Autosomes
Conditional mutation
Epigenetics
Epistasis
Chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes. In humans, there…
A mutation expressed only under a certain condition; that is,…
The study of the effects of reversible chemical modifications…
Nonreciprocal interaction between nonallelic genes such that…
Autosomes
Chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes. In humans, there…
Conditional mutation
A mutation expressed only under a certain condition; that is,…
16 terms
Genetics Ch 9 - DNA (quiz 11/4)
Friedrich Miescher
Frederick Griffiths
Hershey and Chase
Erwin Chargaff
discovered nucleic acids
Uses S and R type bacteria to discover bacterial transformation
Used radioisotopes to discover mechanism and DNA replication
Discovered base pairing rules
Friedrich Miescher
discovered nucleic acids
Frederick Griffiths
Uses S and R type bacteria to discover bacterial transformation
143 terms
Genetics 4
Thomas Cech 1981
What is likely the original gentic mat…
Which is more stable DNA or RNA
Central dogma (3)
Hammerhead ribosome - catalytic RNA... - no protein coat ... 1981
RNA could carry out primitive reactions
DNA
Replication --> transciption --> translation
Thomas Cech 1981
Hammerhead ribosome - catalytic RNA... - no protein coat ... 1981
What is likely the original gentic mat…
RNA could carry out primitive reactions
Unit 4: Genetics
Cell Division
Mitosis
Meiosis
Chromosome Structure
Functions in growth, repair, and reproduction.... Two types:... - M…
Produces two genetically identical diploid daughter cells.... Ch…
Produces gametes in gonads... Chromosome number (2n) is divided…
Kenetochores - disk-shaped protein that attaches chromatid to…
Cell Division
Functions in growth, repair, and reproduction.... Two types:... - M…
Mitosis
Produces two genetically identical diploid daughter cells.... Ch…
10 terms
genetics 4
inbreeding
restriction enzyme
gel electrophoresis
recombinant dna
Continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placi…
A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sou…
inbreeding
Continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
restriction enzyme
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
30 terms
Genetics pp 3-4
2
2, F or f
2, free and attached earlobes
1
A dihybrid cross involves ___ different genes/traits.
Each parent in this monohybrid cross (Ff x Ff) can produce __…
This monohybrid cross can produce ____ different phenotypes i…
A monohybrid cross involves ___ gene/trait.
2
A dihybrid cross involves ___ different genes/traits.
2, F or f
Each parent in this monohybrid cross (Ff x Ff) can produce __…
159 terms
4 Genetics
eukaryotic chromosomes made of
gene
allele
genome
DNA and protein... - DNA wrapped around histone proteins... - basic…
heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic... cons…
one specific form of a gene... - differs from other alleles by o…
the whole genetic information of an organism
eukaryotic chromosomes made of
DNA and protein... - DNA wrapped around histone proteins... - basic…
gene
heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic... cons…
20 terms
Genetics#4
Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacodynamics
Phase I reactions
Phase II reactions
Rate of drug metabolism
Variability in drug response due to allelic variation in down…
Introduction of a more polar group allowing another side grou…
Attachment of a SUGAR or ACETYL group to the polar group adde…
Pharmacokinetics
Rate of drug metabolism
Pharmacodynamics
Variability in drug response due to allelic variation in down…
8 terms
Genetics #4
Incomplete Dominance
Sexual Reproduction
Haploid
Diploid
neither allele is complete dominant
a process where a new organism is created by meiosis
reproductive cells that contain half the genetic material a c…
the joining of two haploids to create a cell with the full ge…
Incomplete Dominance
neither allele is complete dominant
Sexual Reproduction
a process where a new organism is created by meiosis
24 terms
4. GENETICS
Are bacteria haploid or diploid
What type of DNA is present in bacterium
Types of mutation
Missense mutation
Haploid (n)
Single circular double stranded DNA molecule
1. Base substitution ... 2. Addition/Deletion
In base substitution; different amino acid is inserted into t…
Are bacteria haploid or diploid
Haploid (n)
What type of DNA is present in bacterium
Single circular double stranded DNA molecule
30 terms
Genetics P4
Nucleotide
Phosphate & Sugar
Nitrogen base
Hydrogen bond
Monomer of Nucleic Acids
Backbone of DNA
Codes for proteins (traits)
Bond that connects the nitrogen bases
Nucleotide
Monomer of Nucleic Acids
Phosphate & Sugar
Backbone of DNA
72 terms
Genetics 4
nucleosomes
histones
scaffold
scaffold attachment regions
octomer of histones around which DNA is wound
one of 4 types of proteins composing the nucleus
higher order organization in a chromosome to which DNA loops…
hold loops of DNA/protein to the scaffold
nucleosomes
octomer of histones around which DNA is wound
histones
one of 4 types of proteins composing the nucleus
40 terms
Genetics 4
X and Y genes
sex determination
genic sex determination
sequential hermaphroditism
are not homologous and still pair during meoisis
by phenotype
genes at one or more loci determine sex phenotype
An individual organism that changes sex from female to male o…
X and Y genes
are not homologous and still pair during meoisis
sex determination
by phenotype
75 terms
Genetics 4
Gene Interactions
1) 2 or more alleles ... 2) incomplete do…
Haplosufficient
Haploinsufficient
The ways genes collaborate or interact to influence a phenoty…
What are some of the many types of gene interactions?
One copy of a gene, usually wild type, IS enough for normal f…
One copy of a gene, usually wild type, is NOT enough for norm…
Gene Interactions
The ways genes collaborate or interact to influence a phenoty…
1) 2 or more alleles ... 2) incomplete do…
What are some of the many types of gene interactions?
27 terms
4) Genetics
blending theory of inheritance vs the…
Peas as a model organism
Monohybrid cross through the F2 genera…
heterozygous vs homozygous
particulate theory- 2nd gen crosses could give back offspring…
easy to see traits, many offspring, controlled matings
F1= one dominant trait (purple) seen... F2= 3 purple: 1 white... 3:…
hetero- carry one of each domin or recessive... homozygous- eith…
blending theory of inheritance vs the…
particulate theory- 2nd gen crosses could give back offspring…
Peas as a model organism
easy to see traits, many offspring, controlled matings
10 terms
Genetics 4
Self pollination (self)
cross pollination (cross)
pureline
dominant phenotype
Pollen and egg from the same flower... Both parents have the sam…
pollen from one plant fertilizes an egg from another plant... pa…
all offspring produced by selfing or crossing individuals wit…
expressed in the F1 progeny when two different pure lines are…
Self pollination (self)
Pollen and egg from the same flower... Both parents have the sam…
cross pollination (cross)
pollen from one plant fertilizes an egg from another plant... pa…
44 terms
genetics 4
the central dogma of genetics\molecula…
central dogma (crick)
transcription literally means
In genetics, the term 'central dogma'…
"The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detail…
dna replication: makes dna copies that are transmitted from c…
the act, or process, of making a copy of a nucleic acid
copying of a DNA sequence into an RNA sequence that is either…
the central dogma of genetics\molecula…
"The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detail…
central dogma (crick)
dna replication: makes dna copies that are transmitted from c…
103 terms
Genetics 4
Controlled matings
How was Mendel so lucky?
How does independent assortment happen?
Mendel's first rule of inheritance
cross pollination/ self fertilization and reciprocal crosses,…
varieties without intermediates, all alleles followed indepen…
genes are often on different chromosomes, so one type of game…
alternate versions of genes (alleles) account for variations…
Controlled matings
cross pollination/ self fertilization and reciprocal crosses,…
How was Mendel so lucky?
varieties without intermediates, all alleles followed indepen…
79 terms
Genetics 4
What are the types of genomics?
What are genes separated by? and where…
Functional genomics:
Genome sizes chicken, mouse and human:
Structural, comparative, functional and metabolics
Separated by non-coding, intergenic DNA and non-coding regions
Measure the expression of different mRNAs and has 400-600 bas…
1000Mb, 3000Mb, 3000Mb
What are the types of genomics?
Structural, comparative, functional and metabolics
What are genes separated by? and where…
Separated by non-coding, intergenic DNA and non-coding regions
11 terms
Genetics 4
3 main allele classes of trinucleotide…
Friedrich's Ataxia
Fragile X Syndrome
Fragile X associated hemorrhage ataxia…
Common, pre-mutation, and full mutation
Loss of fxn. One of most frequent causes of ataxia. Childhood…
Expansion of CGG repeat in 5' region, upstream of FMRI gene.…
Gain of fxn-RNA mediated. Pre-mutation to fragile X.
3 main allele classes of trinucleotide…
Common, pre-mutation, and full mutation
Friedrich's Ataxia
Loss of fxn. One of most frequent causes of ataxia. Childhood…
Genetics CH-4 Vocabulary
Modes of Inheritance
Law of Segregation
Homozygous
Heterozygous
The patterns in which single-gene traits occur in families.
States that alleles of a gene are distributed into separate g…
A diploid individual with two identical alleles.
A diploid individual with two different alleles of a gene.
Modes of Inheritance
The patterns in which single-gene traits occur in families.
Law of Segregation
States that alleles of a gene are distributed into separate g…
24 terms
Genetics 4
gain of function
P53
Tumor Suppresor
loss of function
dominant, it will always be expressed even though there is a…
locus- 17 p 13.1... encoded in the TP 53 gene... Transcription fact…
stops mitosis
recessive- two mutations for the cell to be out of control
gain of function
dominant, it will always be expressed even though there is a…
P53
locus- 17 p 13.1... encoded in the TP 53 gene... Transcription fact…
13 terms
Genetics 4
Allele
Homozygous
Heterozygous
Genotype
An alternative form of a gene e.g. P or p
Refers to an organism having a pair of identical alleles of a…
Refers to an organism having two different alleles for a char…
An organisms genetic makeup e.g. PP, Pp, or pp
Allele
An alternative form of a gene e.g. P or p
Homozygous
Refers to an organism having a pair of identical alleles of a…
17 terms
Genetics 4
Allele
Homozygous
Heterozygous
Genotype
Alternative versions of a gene e.g. P or p
Refers to an organism having a pair of identical alleles of a…
Refers to an organism having two different allele for a chara…
An organisms genetic makeup e.g. PP, Pp or pp
Allele
Alternative versions of a gene e.g. P or p
Homozygous
Refers to an organism having a pair of identical alleles of a…
31 terms
Genetics-4
change in a DNA sequence is rare in a…
"loss of function" mutations
"gain of function" mutations
genetic change that is largely artific…
mutation
recessive
dominant
polymorphism
change in a DNA sequence is rare in a…
mutation
"loss of function" mutations
recessive
16 terms
genetics 4
incomplete dominance
codominance
multiple alleles
polygenic inheritance
neither allele is completely dominant over the other... both all…
both alleles contribute to the phenotype of the organism and…
many alleles for a trait are present for some genes... due to mu…
trait produced by the interaction of 2 or more genes... increase…
incomplete dominance
neither allele is completely dominant over the other... both all…
codominance
both alleles contribute to the phenotype of the organism and…
25 terms
Genetics 4
Cytogenetic Disorders affect what?
Cytogenetic Disorders alter what?
Karotype
Numerical abnormalities of cytogenetic…
Autosomes or sex CHROMOSOMES
the number OR structure of chromosomes... affects: 1/200 newborn…
Look at chromosome, the structure or any problems in lengths,…
Euploid- multiple of haploid number n... Polyploid- 3n and 4n-sp…
Cytogenetic Disorders affect what?
Autosomes or sex CHROMOSOMES
Cytogenetic Disorders alter what?
the number OR structure of chromosomes... affects: 1/200 newborn…
10 terms
Genetics 4: Human Genetics
2 parts of genetics
Pedigree
Studies of Human genetics
Autosomal chromosomes
Pedigrees and karyotype
Help to study how traits are inherited in families
Cannot choose crosses and few offspring
1-22 chromosomes
2 parts of genetics
Pedigrees and karyotype
Pedigree
Help to study how traits are inherited in families
46 terms
Genetics #4 Chapter 13
Genetic Code
Hemiglobin
Codon
Anticodon
- The correspondence btw a codon and the functional role that…
Composed of 2 α-globin and 2 β-globin polypeptides
Groups of 3 nucleotides on mRNA that codes for a particular a…
Found on tRNA and recognizes/corresponds to codon on mRNA
Genetic Code
- The correspondence btw a codon and the functional role that…
Hemiglobin
Composed of 2 α-globin and 2 β-globin polypeptides
188 terms
Genetics 4
Multifactorial/polygenic trait or diso…
The term "multifactorial heredity" mea…
Quantitative traits are determined in…
Intelligence is determined in multifac…
no
yes
yes
yes
Multifactorial/polygenic trait or diso…
no
The term "multifactorial heredity" mea…
yes
20 terms
Genetics 4
the 4 types of non classic patterns of…
Mosaicism
incontinentia pigmenti
signs of ... incontinentia pigmenti
1) mosaicism... 2) genomic imprinting and uniparental disomy... 3)…
the presence of at least 2 cell lines from a single zygote (e…
X-inactivation mosaicism... effects skin/hair/teeth/nails
blisters... wart like rash... swirling macular hyperpigment-> linea…
the 4 types of non classic patterns of…
1) mosaicism... 2) genomic imprinting and uniparental disomy... 3)…
Mosaicism
the presence of at least 2 cell lines from a single zygote (e…
28 terms
Genetics: Topic 4 Genetic Testing
karyotyping
1. downs syndrome... 2. turner syndrome
downs syndrome
which type of genetic test is used to detect aneuploidy, poly…
which two disorders would karyotyping be best for?
which disorder is characterized by an extra copy of chromosom…
karyotyping
which type of genetic test is used to detect aneuploidy, poly…
1. downs syndrome... 2. turner syndrome
which two disorders would karyotyping be best for?
27 terms
Genetics 4
Topoisomerase
Telomerase
Retrovirus
Purine
Molecular swivel
Catalyzes the synthesis of a tandemly repeated DNA sequence
Incorperate their henes into the host cell genome
AG
Topoisomerase
Molecular swivel
Telomerase
Catalyzes the synthesis of a tandemly repeated DNA sequence
32 terms
Genetics 4
RNA pol I
It will not produce ribosomes
Transcription from upstream and enhanc…
RNA poly III
Transcribes rRNA in nucleolus where genes are tandemly repeat…
If a cell can't form a nucleolus...
Proximal terminator of RNA poly I terminates...
tRNA and 5 S rRNA, some splicing in some genes but not common.
RNA pol I
Transcribes rRNA in nucleolus where genes are tandemly repeat…
It will not produce ribosomes
If a cell can't form a nucleolus...
38 terms
Genetics 4
Which of the following is NOT an examp…
Activator proteins are cis-acting elem…
Repressor proteins can bind to enhance…
Which of the following point(s) of gen…
Alternative splicing
FALSE
TRUE
Initiation of transcription. Post-translational processing
Which of the following is NOT an examp…
Alternative splicing
Activator proteins are cis-acting elem…
FALSE
42 terms
Genetics 4- human genetics
Human applicatiors of DNA technology
The human genome prodject
Medician
Gene therapy
- Human Genome Prodject... - medician... - gene theory ... - forensic…
- J. Craig Venter... -sequence the entire set of genes of a huma…
- human genome project ... .........- lead to the identification…
- alter a person's DNA to make him well( this is still in fut…
Human applicatiors of DNA technology
- Human Genome Prodject... - medician... - gene theory ... - forensic…
The human genome prodject
- J. Craig Venter... -sequence the entire set of genes of a huma…
64 terms
Genetics b-4 vocab
DNA
Chromosomes
sex chromosomes
Nucleotide sequence
code of life instructions for building each protein that an o…
A structure in the nucleus of a cell that consists of one lon…
one pair of chromosomes in an organism determines the sex (ma…
each individual organism has unique characteristics that aris…
DNA
code of life instructions for building each protein that an o…
Chromosomes
A structure in the nucleus of a cell that consists of one lon…
140 terms
Genetics Exam 4
Gene regulation in eukaryotes
Transcriptional regulation
Activators
DNA-binding domain
Start: Gene... Transcriptional controls: ... -No mRNA... -mRNA (Post-t…
A. Promoter elements... -activators, co-activators, response ele…
Stimulate transcription initiation. They have 2 key domains.…
can bind to a particular DNA sequence-its DNA-binding site.…
Gene regulation in eukaryotes
Start: Gene... Transcriptional controls: ... -No mRNA... -mRNA (Post-t…
Transcriptional regulation
A. Promoter elements... -activators, co-activators, response ele…
9 terms
Genetics 4-population genetics
Population
Gene pool
Polymorphic
If hardy weinburg assumptions were met…
Group of individuals living at the same time and place
Sum total of alleles carried in all members of a species
More than one allele or variant at a site
Constant over time
Population
Group of individuals living at the same time and place
Gene pool
Sum total of alleles carried in all members of a species
1 of 10