Study sets matching "exchange transport"

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Study sets matching "exchange transport"

30 terms
Exchange and transport
Surface area to volume ratio
Gas exchange in a single celled organi…
Structure of gas exchange surface in f…
Counter current system
Smaller animals have a larger SA:V so lose more heat so have…
Across their cell membrane as there is a large SA, short diff…
Many lamellae so there is a large surface area, thin epitheli…
Water and blood flow in opposite directions. Water flows next…
Surface area to volume ratio
Smaller animals have a larger SA:V so lose more heat so have…
Gas exchange in a single celled organi…
Across their cell membrane as there is a large SA, short diff…
51 terms
Exchange and transport
Cells need to take these in from their…
Cells need to excrete these into their…
How easy the axchange of substances is…
Higher SA:V is found in...
Oxygen and glucose
Carbon dioxide and urea
surface area to volume ratio.
smaller organisms.
Cells need to take these in from their…
Oxygen and glucose
Cells need to excrete these into their…
Carbon dioxide and urea
Exchange & Transport
Characteristics of exchange surfaces
Diffusion calculation
Pulmonary vein
Aorta
1)Large SA:vol 2)Very thin - short diffusion distance 3)Parti…
Diffusion = surface area x difference in concentration / leng…
Oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium
Oxygenated blood from left ventricle to arteries
Characteristics of exchange surfaces
1)Large SA:vol 2)Very thin - short diffusion distance 3)Parti…
Diffusion calculation
Diffusion = surface area x difference in concentration / leng…
5 terms
Exchange and Transport
CO2 enters and leaves by diffusion thr…
Obtain CO2 from atmosphere and release…
wind... Heat ... Dry
Guard cells
2 things that happen in flowering plants
What do stomata do
3 conditions that make water evaporation faster
Name of the cells controlling the size of stomata
CO2 enters and leaves by diffusion thr…
2 things that happen in flowering plants
Obtain CO2 from atmosphere and release…
What do stomata do
5 terms
Exchange and transport
Goblet cells
Cilia
Elastic fibres
Smooth muscle
•Secret mucus... •trap microorganisms and dust partciles in the…
•waft and beat the mucus ... •this moves the microorganisms and…
•In the walls of the teachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveol…
•in the walls of the trachea bronchi and bronchioles ... •allows…
Goblet cells
•Secret mucus... •trap microorganisms and dust partciles in the…
Cilia
•waft and beat the mucus ... •this moves the microorganisms and…
Exchange and transport
Surface area to volume ratio
Alveoli
Bronchi and bronchioles
Diaphragm
The surface area of an organism divided by it volume
Tiny folds of the lung epithelium to increase the surface area
Smaller airways leading into the lungs
A layer of muscle beneath the lungs
Surface area to volume ratio
The surface area of an organism divided by it volume
Alveoli
Tiny folds of the lung epithelium to increase the surface area
Exchange and transport
Single circulatory system
Double circulatory system
Open circulatory system
Closed circulatory system
Blood flows through heart and pumped out to travel all around…
Blood travels through the heart twice
Heart but few vessels to contain transport medium
Blood enclosed in blood vessels and does not come into direct…
Single circulatory system
Blood flows through heart and pumped out to travel all around…
Double circulatory system
Blood travels through the heart twice
15 terms
Exchange and Transport
Alveoli
Gills
Goblet cells
Tidal volume (TV)
gas exchange surface in the lungs
gas exchange surface in fish
(line airways) cells that secrete mucus that trap microorgani…
volume of air in each breath (0.4dm^3)
Alveoli
gas exchange surface in the lungs
Gills
gas exchange surface in fish
98 terms
Exchange and transport
A large surface area to volume ratio
Small organisms have a
Large organisms have a
Surface area to volume ratio of exchan…
Means faster, more efficient diffusion
Large surface area to volume ratio
Smaller surface area to volume ratio
Large, to increase the rate of exchange
A large surface area to volume ratio
Means faster, more efficient diffusion
Small organisms have a
Large surface area to volume ratio
30 terms
Exchange and Transport
Cell plasma membrane
Concentration gradient
Upper epidermis
Waxy cuticle
The cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the…
Particles moving from a lower concentration to higher
Protective layer
Layer of protection that prevents water loss
Cell plasma membrane
The cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the…
Concentration gradient
Particles moving from a lower concentration to higher
26 terms
Exchange and transport
Importance of gaseous exchange system
Features o an efficient gas exchange s…
Nasal cavity
Trachea
- low surface area to volume ratio ... - high metabolic demands…
Large surface area ... Thin layer and good blood supply or venti…
Large surface area with good supply to warm air to body tempe…
Icomplete rings of flexible cartilage to provide strength and…
Importance of gaseous exchange system
- low surface area to volume ratio ... - high metabolic demands…
Features o an efficient gas exchange s…
Large surface area ... Thin layer and good blood supply or venti…
44 terms
Exchange and Transport
because cells need to take in oxygen a…
Smaller animals
Divide surface area by volume
In single celled organisms, substances…
Why do organsims need to exchange
Do smaller animals or larger animals have a higher surface ar…
How do you calculate surface area and volume
Explain the rate of diffusion in exchanging materials in sing…
because cells need to take in oxygen a…
Why do organsims need to exchange
Smaller animals
Do smaller animals or larger animals have a higher surface ar…
20 terms
Exchange and transport
Why do multicellular organisms need ex…
How do root hair cells make diffusion…
How do alveoli make diffusion efficient?
How do fish gills make diffusion effic…
Diffuse across outer membrane is too slow, cells in body are…
Grow into hairs which stick out into soil creating large surf…
They are thin, made from single layer of alveolar epithelium,…
Contain a network of capillaries to keep them well supplied w…
Why do multicellular organisms need ex…
Diffuse across outer membrane is too slow, cells in body are…
How do root hair cells make diffusion…
Grow into hairs which stick out into soil creating large surf…
27 terms
Exchange and transport
What is the affect on size and surface…
What are the special features of an ex…
Explain 3 reasons why diffusion is too…
What are the role of goblet cells and…
Smaller organisms have bigger surface area to volume ratios
A large surface area... Thin... Good blood supply or ventilation
Some cells are deep within the body... Lower surface area to vol…
Goblet cells found in the airways secret mucus to trap dust p…
What is the affect on size and surface…
Smaller organisms have bigger surface area to volume ratios
What are the special features of an ex…
A large surface area... Thin... Good blood supply or ventilation
13 terms
Exchange and transport
lungs
goblet cells
cilia
elastic fibres
exchange organs in animals
secrete mucus which traps microorganisms and stops them reach…
wafts the mucus and helps to prevent lung infections
help process of breathing out, allow them to stretch and recoil
lungs
exchange organs in animals
goblet cells
secrete mucus which traps microorganisms and stops them reach…
37 terms
Transport and Exchange
What does SA affect?
What does Volume affect?
Diffusion in amoeba or a leaf
Diffusion in large objects, elephant
Rate at which particles can enter and leave the cell
Rate of chemical reactions within the cell
The 02 diffuses very quickly from the environment as there is…
O2 can't diffuse in from environment because the outer cells…
What does SA affect?
Rate at which particles can enter and leave the cell
What does Volume affect?
Rate of chemical reactions within the cell
23 terms
Exchange and Transport
Why are exchange surfaces needed?
How easy the exchange of substances de…
How do you calculate the surface are t…
Give three reasons why multicellular o…
All cells need to take up oxygen and glucose for aerobic resp…
Surface area to volume ratio (SA:V)
Divide the surface area by the volume
Some cells are deep within the body - big distance between th…
Why are exchange surfaces needed?
All cells need to take up oxygen and glucose for aerobic resp…
How easy the exchange of substances de…
Surface area to volume ratio (SA:V)
Exchange and Transport
What are features of specialised excha…
What factors affect diffusion?
Describe gas exchange in single celled…
Describe features of gas exchange in i…
Large surface area, thin, partially permeable, movement of in…
surface area, difference in concentration and length of diffu…
they are small so have a large surface area to volume ratio,…
Waterproof coverings to prevent water loss and small surface…
What are features of specialised excha…
Large surface area, thin, partially permeable, movement of in…
What factors affect diffusion?
surface area, difference in concentration and length of diffu…
Exchange and Transport
What do cells need for aerobic respira…
What do cells need to excrete?
Who has a bigger surface area to volum…
In what cells do substances diffuse di…
Oxygen and glucose
Carbon dioxide and urea
Mouse
Single Celled
What do cells need for aerobic respira…
Oxygen and glucose
What do cells need to excrete?
Carbon dioxide and urea
23 terms
Exchange and transport
Why is diffusion alone is enough to su…
What is the volume for the surface are…
What is the volume for the volume of a…
What are the adaptions of specialised…
The metabolic activity of a single-celled organism is usually…
4πr^2
4/3πr^3
They have an increased surface area which provides area neede…
Why is diffusion alone is enough to su…
The metabolic activity of a single-celled organism is usually…
What is the volume for the surface are…
4πr^2
25 terms
AS Definitions Exchange and Transport
Exchange Surface
Gaseous Exchange
Inspiration(inhalation) and Expiration…
Transport
Specialized area that is adapted to make it easier for molecu…
movement of gases via diffusion between an organism and it's…
Breathing in and out!
movement of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, waste and heat aroun…
Exchange Surface
Specialized area that is adapted to make it easier for molecu…
Gaseous Exchange
movement of gases via diffusion between an organism and it's…
37 terms
Gas exchange and Transport
Describe oxygen and carbon dioxide mov…
Respiration
Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide…
whole-body diffusion gradients
Ventilation is process of moving gas in and out of lung.... Resp…
-process of moving oxygen to tissues for aerobic metabolism a…
Gas move because of Diffusion gradient. ... O2 move from the air…
-gas moves across system by simple diffusion.... -O2 cascade mov…
Describe oxygen and carbon dioxide mov…
Ventilation is process of moving gas in and out of lung.... Resp…
Respiration
-process of moving oxygen to tissues for aerobic metabolism a…
9 terms
Gas exchange and transport
Respiration
Alveoli
Diaphram
Circulation
Exchanging gases
Microscopic air sacs at the ends of the smallest bronchioles;…
Large, flat muscle that lies flat across the bottom of the ch…
Moved throughout the body to where it is needed
Respiration
Exchanging gases
Alveoli
Microscopic air sacs at the ends of the smallest bronchioles;…
20 terms
Gaseous Exchange and Transport Systems
Respiratory system
Circulatory system
Excretory system
Spiracle
System responsible for gas exchange (taking in oxygen and rel…
System that transports materials around the body
System that removes metabolic wastes from the body
Breathing tubes of insects located on abdomen
Respiratory system
System responsible for gas exchange (taking in oxygen and rel…
Circulatory system
System that transports materials around the body
36 terms
Plant Transport & Gas Exchange
Carries water & minerals in a plant
Direction of flow of xylem
As an organism get bigger, its surface…
Root hair cells are found on...
Xylem
Up the plant only
Smaller
Roots!
Carries water & minerals in a plant
Xylem
Direction of flow of xylem
Up the plant only
44 terms
Gas Exchange & Transport
Cellular respiration
Why - Respiration
Respiratory physiology phases
Ventricles
Glucose & oxygen --> CO2, H2O, ATP (energy)
To provide cells with oxygen for anaerobic respiration ... To re…
Ventilation - air into the lungs... Gas exchange - to & from alv…
Left ventricle sends oxygenated blood around the body ... Right…
Cellular respiration
Glucose & oxygen --> CO2, H2O, ATP (energy)
Why - Respiration
To provide cells with oxygen for anaerobic respiration ... To re…
Module 3: Exchange and Transport
as organisms increase in size
why smaller animals have higher metabo…
how a seal is adapted for the cold
why hippos spend lots of time in water
their surface area : volume ratio decreases... the increase in…
small animals have a large SA:V... so if they are homeothermic,…
small sa:v... so rate of heat loss low... thick blubber offers insu…
the huge mass of cells will be producing metabolic heat from…
as organisms increase in size
their surface area : volume ratio decreases... the increase in…
why smaller animals have higher metabo…
small animals have a large SA:V... so if they are homeothermic,…
27 terms
more exchange & transport systems
chemical digestion
physical digestion
mouth
salivary gland
hydrolysis (splitting molecules by adding water) of large, in…
break food into smaller pieces, increasing surface area for e…
physical digestion through chewing - increase surface area of…
produces slavior containing amylases - catalyses breakdown of…
chemical digestion
hydrolysis (splitting molecules by adding water) of large, in…
physical digestion
break food into smaller pieces, increasing surface area for e…
30 terms
Module 3: Exchange and Transport
Surface area to volume ratio
Multicellular organisms
Single celled organisms
Exchange surfaces
The rate of exchange of substances depends on this . ... To calc…
Need exchange surfaces as diffusion across the outer membrane…
Don't need exchange surfaces as substances can diffuse direct…
These have have a large surface area, they are also thin and…
Surface area to volume ratio
The rate of exchange of substances depends on this . ... To calc…
Multicellular organisms
Need exchange surfaces as diffusion across the outer membrane…
121 terms
Biology - Exchange and Transport
Need for specialised exchange surfaces
Features of gas exchange surfaces
Buccal/nasal cavity
(Pharynx and Larynx
* High metabolic activity ... * Low surface area to volume ratio…
* Increased SA - e.g root hair cell, villi ... * Thin layers - e…
* Moist - increased humidity reduces evaporation from exchang…
back of throat and voice box )
Need for specialised exchange surfaces
* High metabolic activity ... * Low surface area to volume ratio…
Features of gas exchange surfaces
* Increased SA - e.g root hair cell, villi ... * Thin layers - e…
3A Exchange and transport systems
Every organism needs...
small organisms
big organisms
cube volume
to exchange substances with its enviroment
have a high surface area to volume ratio
have a low surface area to volume ratio
l x w x h
Every organism needs...
to exchange substances with its enviroment
small organisms
have a high surface area to volume ratio
224 terms
topic 4 - transport and exchange
fluid mosaic model
glycoproteins
integral proteins
peripheral proteins
phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins
antigens for cell recognition, receptors for hormones, cell a…
transport, pores, carrier proteins, active pumps
enzymes, cell signalling
fluid mosaic model
phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins
glycoproteins
antigens for cell recognition, receptors for hormones, cell a…
14 terms
Options: Transport and Gas Exchange
Mechanisms that control the heartbeat…
Explain the events of the cardiac cycle.
Outline atherosclerosis and the causes…
Factors that affect CHD
SA node is located in the wall of the right atrium of heart m…
(a) SA (sino atrial) node/pacemaker receives signal to fire;…
atherosclerosis - fatty deposits in arteries, hardening of th…
genetic - some people predisposed for high cholesterol levels…
Mechanisms that control the heartbeat…
SA node is located in the wall of the right atrium of heart m…
Explain the events of the cardiac cycle.
(a) SA (sino atrial) node/pacemaker receives signal to fire;…
gas exchange and Transport
Ventilation perfusion ratio
Partial pressure and atmospheric
Gas exchange in lungs
Gas transfer in the tissues
-approx. .08 ... -Alveolar ventilation over cardiac ouput ... -If a…
- The pressure that an particular gas exerts independently ... -…
Inspired air... -H20 variable... - CO2 000.3 mmHG... - O2 (sea level)…
-Flow of gas goes from high pressure to low pressure ... - At no…
Ventilation perfusion ratio
-approx. .08 ... -Alveolar ventilation over cardiac ouput ... -If a…
Partial pressure and atmospheric
- The pressure that an particular gas exerts independently ... -…
137 terms
Transport & Gas Exchange
semipermeable
dialysis tubing
blood streams
CO2 & H2O
cell membrane is
cell membrane diffusion simulated by
diffusion in human body seen in
main products of aerobic cellular respiration
semipermeable
cell membrane is
dialysis tubing
cell membrane diffusion simulated by
18 terms
Chapter 13: Exchange and Transport
What are examples of things needed to…
In which two ways can exchange take pl…
How can exchange be effective?
How to calculate surface area?
- Respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)... - Nutrients…
1. Passively... - No energy required... - By diffusion... - By osmosis…
When the surface area of the organism is larger compared with…
area of one side x number of sides
What are examples of things needed to…
- Respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)... - Nutrients…
In which two ways can exchange take pl…
1. Passively... - No energy required... - By diffusion... - By osmosis…
23 terms
Gas Exchange and Transport
what is the percentage of nitrogen in…
what is the percentage of oxygen in th…
define partial pressure
what is the amount of total atmospheri…
79%
21%
- how much a specific gas exerts pressure in a mixture
760 mmHg
what is the percentage of nitrogen in…
79%
what is the percentage of oxygen in th…
21%
20 terms
Gas Exchange & Transport
What is Gas Exchange?
What are the 2 types of Gas respiration?
What is External respiration?
What is Internal respiration?
The exchange of O2 and CO2 in the lungs and in the tissues
External and Internal respiration
- occurs in the lungs... - oxygen diffuses into blood and CO2 in…
- occurs in the body tissues... - oxygen diffuses out of the blo…
What is Gas Exchange?
The exchange of O2 and CO2 in the lungs and in the tissues
What are the 2 types of Gas respiration?
External and Internal respiration
Plant Transport & Gas Exchange
Carries water & minerals in a plant
Direction of flow of xylem
As an organism get bigger, its surface…
Root hair cells are found on...
Xylem
Up the plant only
Smaller
Roots!
Carries water & minerals in a plant
Xylem
Direction of flow of xylem
Up the plant only
69 terms
Gas Exchange and Transport
Body's supply of oxygen depends on
composition of gases in ambient air
Pressure at sea level
Dalton's Law
concentration... pressure
20.93% oxygen... 79.04% nitrogen... 0.03% carbon dioxide
760 mmHg
The total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of th…
Body's supply of oxygen depends on
concentration... pressure
composition of gases in ambient air
20.93% oxygen... 79.04% nitrogen... 0.03% carbon dioxide
71 terms
Exchange and transport (Bio 2)
Examples of things which need to be in…
2 ways exchange can take place
What surface area:volume ratio is want…
How have larger organisms solved the p…
1) respiratory gases... 2) nutrients... 3) excretory products... 4) heat
1) passively- by diffusion and osmosis... 2) actively- by active…
Large surface area compared to volume
1) evolved to have a flattened shape so that no cell is ever…
Examples of things which need to be in…
1) respiratory gases... 2) nutrients... 3) excretory products... 4) heat
2 ways exchange can take place
1) passively- by diffusion and osmosis... 2) actively- by active…
16 terms
Plant Transport and Gas Exchange
Phloem
Xylem
Root Hair Cell
Transpiration
Transport tissue in plants, carrying dissolved sugars and ami…
Transport tissue in plants that carries water and dissolved m…
A cell found on the outside of roots. Has an increased surfac…
The evaporation of water from leaves.
Phloem
Transport tissue in plants, carrying dissolved sugars and ami…
Xylem
Transport tissue in plants that carries water and dissolved m…
23 terms
Gas Exchange and Transport
Respiration
How does gas exchange occur between th…
Is CO2 greater in the cells or in the…
What is the formula for alveolar carbo…
a total process of delivering oxygen to the cells and ... carryi…
diffusion
in the cells
PACO2 = (VCO2 X 0.863)/ VA
Respiration
a total process of delivering oxygen to the cells and ... carryi…
How does gas exchange occur between th…
diffusion
52 terms
exchange and transport, biology
name and label all the parts of the stem
name and label all the parts of the root
why do plants need a transport system?
what do plants need?
epidermis, phloem, cambium, xylem, cortex, pith and vascular…
epidermis, cortex, endodermis, phloem, cambium, xylem and stele
-multicellular: lots of cells, need to get through all of the…
water, glucose, oxygen, carbon dioxide and light
name and label all the parts of the stem
epidermis, phloem, cambium, xylem, cortex, pith and vascular…
name and label all the parts of the root
epidermis, cortex, endodermis, phloem, cambium, xylem and stele
52 terms
phys: gas exchange & transport
What is Dalton's Law?
what is the partial pressure of O2 in…
how does Henry's Law relate to O2 in l…
what is the difference in the solubili…
the total of pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of…
atmospheric pressure x 21% O2... 760 x .12 = 160 mmHg
the conc of O2 dissolved in water is proportional to PO2 in t…
solubility of CO2 is 27x higher than O2... this means you can c…
What is Dalton's Law?
the total of pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of…
what is the partial pressure of O2 in…
atmospheric pressure x 21% O2... 760 x .12 = 160 mmHg
5 terms
Gas Exchange and Transport
How does emphysema affect the lungs? (…
What is oxyhemoglobin (think about the…
What is arterial PO2 is established by…
What do you call a shift in the hemogl…
Emphysema is a degenerative lung disease most often caused by…
Hemoglobin bound to oxygen, abbreviated HbO2
PO2 is established by... (1) the composition of inspired air,... (…
The Bohr Effect
How does emphysema affect the lungs? (…
Emphysema is a degenerative lung disease most often caused by…
What is oxyhemoglobin (think about the…
Hemoglobin bound to oxygen, abbreviated HbO2
27 terms
AS Biology: exchange and transport
what do cells need to exchange
what is surface area to volume ratio (…
Explaining SA:V
why don't single-celled organisms need…
cells need to take in things like oxygen glucose for aerobic…
how easy the exchange of substances is depends on the organis…
A hippo could be represented by a block measuring 2CM X 4CM X…
Substances in single-celled organisms can diffuse directly in…
what do cells need to exchange
cells need to take in things like oxygen glucose for aerobic…
what is surface area to volume ratio (…
how easy the exchange of substances is depends on the organis…
34 terms
Membrane Transport: Capillary Exchange
what creates the membrane potential in…
What is hydrostatic pressure?
which ions are at high concentration l…
which ions are at a high concentration…
ion channels
pressure opposing osmotic pressure... -created by water
anions - proteins... K+
Cl-... Na+
what creates the membrane potential in…
ion channels
What is hydrostatic pressure?
pressure opposing osmotic pressure... -created by water
37 terms
AS Exchange and Transport Systems
Describe the feature of a specialised…
Why do insects need a specialised exch…
Explain how insects exchange gases.
How do insects balance the need to exc…
~ Large surface area... ~ They're thin - this provide a short d…
Insects have evolved adaptations to minimise water loss witho…
They have microscopic air-filled pipes called tracheae which…
If insects are losing too much water, they close their spirac…
Describe the feature of a specialised…
~ Large surface area... ~ They're thin - this provide a short d…
Why do insects need a specialised exch…
Insects have evolved adaptations to minimise water loss witho…
19 terms
AS Biology - Exchange and Transport
Why are exchange systems needed?
Why don't single celled organisms need…
What are the features of a good exchan…
Describe the structure of the mammalia…
Cells need to take in things like oxygen and glucose for aero…
Substances can diffuse directly into the cell and across the…
1. A large surface area - eg, Root hair cells.... 2. Thin - decr…
Air will enter the trachea that will split into two bronchi,…
Why are exchange systems needed?
Cells need to take in things like oxygen and glucose for aero…
Why don't single celled organisms need…
Substances can diffuse directly into the cell and across the…
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