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Study sets matching "final environmental toxicology"

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Study sets matching "final environmental toxicology"

15 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Chemical Hazards
Biological Hazards
Physical Hazards
Cultural Hazards
Pesticides, disinfectants, herbicides.
Viruses, bacteria, malaria
Earthquake, drought, floods
Drug use, crime, transportation choice
Chemical Hazards
Pesticides, disinfectants, herbicides.
Biological Hazards
Viruses, bacteria, malaria
20 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Toxicity
Toxicant
Man- made and natural
Dose (internal)
Refers to a property of a material that produces a harmful ef…
Material that produces this harmful effect
The two categories of toxicants
amount present in the organism (mg/kg body weight)
Toxicity
Refers to a property of a material that produces a harmful ef…
Toxicant
Material that produces this harmful effect
40 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Point of Ecological RA?
Steps of ecological RA?
Which is more complex, human health or…
Persistence ***
to help risk managers determine which course of action to tak…
1) problem formulation - what is the focus for that assessmen…
ecological RA - involves multiple organisms, the compartment…
amount of time a chemical can stay in the environment... -resist…
Point of Ecological RA?
to help risk managers determine which course of action to tak…
Steps of ecological RA?
1) problem formulation - what is the focus for that assessmen…
16 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Mercury toxicity: Symptoms
Mercury toxicity: Molecular mechanism
Mercury toxicity: Treatment
Agent Orange carcinogenic contaminant
Neurological (tingling, numbness of limbs, impaired speech/vi…
Binds to tubulin on GTP-binding site, microtubule disassembly…
D-Penicillamine or N-Acetylcysteine (has a sulfhydryl group,…
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD)
Mercury toxicity: Symptoms
Neurological (tingling, numbness of limbs, impaired speech/vi…
Mercury toxicity: Molecular mechanism
Binds to tubulin on GTP-binding site, microtubule disassembly…
35 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Importance of toxicology
Toxicology
Paracelsus
Assumptions of Toxicology
-More than 80,000 chemicals registered (2,000 new ones each y…
-"The study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living org…
-Paracelsus was one of the founders of modern toxicology.... -Hi…
"All substances are poisons; there is none that is not a pois…
Importance of toxicology
-More than 80,000 chemicals registered (2,000 new ones each y…
Toxicology
-"The study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living org…
40 terms
Environmental toxicology
Which two issues contribute to the dev…
The atmosphere, rivers and oceans act…
Which organisms are most susceptible t…
Which types of chemicals are of most c…
An increase in the use of chemicals and expanding population
Pools; dilute; finite; accumulation
Organisms at the highest trophic level in the food chain.
Chemically stable and lipid soluble chemicals.
Which two issues contribute to the dev…
An increase in the use of chemicals and expanding population
The atmosphere, rivers and oceans act…
Pools; dilute; finite; accumulation
22 terms
Environmental Toxicology
What has mercury been used to treat?
What is the agricultural use of mercury?
What is the industrial use of mercury?
What are the three forms of mercury?
syphilis and gonorrhoea
organomercury fungicides
Production of plastics, paper and batteries
Elemental (Hg), inorganic (Hg+, Hg2+) and organic (methyl mer…
What has mercury been used to treat?
syphilis and gonorrhoea
What is the agricultural use of mercury?
organomercury fungicides
21 terms
Environmental Toxicology
What is toxicology?
What is poison?
What is toxin?
What is toxicant?
The study of the adverse effects of chemical agents on biolog…
Any agent capable of producing a deleterious response in a bi…
produced by biological systems
Produced by human activity
What is toxicology?
The study of the adverse effects of chemical agents on biolog…
What is poison?
Any agent capable of producing a deleterious response in a bi…
48 terms
Environmental Toxicology
3 environmental compartments
How toxic compounds
underlying chemistry
Effects of environmental pollution
air, water, soil. Chemicals move between these compartments
affect living things in the environment.
how these toxins move between these compartments
Related to population growth, effects of industrial revolutio…
3 environmental compartments
air, water, soil. Chemicals move between these compartments
How toxic compounds
affect living things in the environment.
38 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Healthy hospital
any poison or poisonous substance prod…
containing or being poisonous material…
the quality of degree of being toxic o…
Clemens University Hospital in Dallas... -decrease hallway conge…
toxin
toxic
toxicity
Healthy hospital
Clemens University Hospital in Dallas... -decrease hallway conge…
any poison or poisonous substance prod…
toxin
26 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Burning of fossil fuels gives off
Production of Ozone
Smog through Inversion
Types of Smog
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, nitrous oxide…
No2+UV-> NO+O... O2+o->O3
warm air acts as lid over cold air and traps pollution
Reducing smog, photochemical smog
Burning of fossil fuels gives off
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, nitrous oxide…
Production of Ozone
No2+UV-> NO+O... O2+o->O3
8 terms
environmental toxicology
botulinum
brevetoxin
Domoic acid
Latroroxin
Ach release blocker. clinical uses (at skeletal muscles): blo…
red tide dinoflagellate: activates VSSCs-holds active. Neurob…
Dinoflagellates: glutamate R agonist. Excitotoxin, structural…
Black Widow Spider: enhances Ach release. Normally a little b…
botulinum
Ach release blocker. clinical uses (at skeletal muscles): blo…
brevetoxin
red tide dinoflagellate: activates VSSCs-holds active. Neurob…
41 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Paracelcus
Mathieu Orfila
toxicology
environmental toxicology
one of the founders of modern toxicology; notion of target or…
author of "Trait des poisons"; foundation of forensic toxicol…
scientific study of adverse effects that occur in living orga…
examines how environmental exposures to chemical pollutants m…
Paracelcus
one of the founders of modern toxicology; notion of target or…
Mathieu Orfila
author of "Trait des poisons"; foundation of forensic toxicol…
24 terms
Environmental toxicology
Chemicals can undergo...
Animals at the highest trophic levels…
DDT
Mercury has been used to treat..
Photo-degradation, and biotransformation by microorganisms
More at risk of concentrated chemicals in the food chain
Can undergo biomagnification in the food chain
Syphilis and gonorrhoea
Chemicals can undergo...
Photo-degradation, and biotransformation by microorganisms
Animals at the highest trophic levels…
More at risk of concentrated chemicals in the food chain
32 terms
Environmental Health & Toxicology
health
disease
morbidity
mortality
state of physical and emotional well being; absence of diseas…
a deleterious change in the body's condition in response to d…
illness or disease
death rate in a population; the probability of dying
health
state of physical and emotional well being; absence of diseas…
disease
a deleterious change in the body's condition in response to d…
61 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Hazard
Risk
Bioaccumulation
biomagnification
ability of chemical agent to cause injury in a given situatio…
expected frequency of the occurrence of an undesirable effect…
intake of long-lating contaminant exceeds its metabolism or e…
concentration of contaminant may be virtually undetectable, b…
Hazard
ability of chemical agent to cause injury in a given situatio…
Risk
expected frequency of the occurrence of an undesirable effect…
9 terms
Environmental Toxicology
carcinogens
mutagens
teratogens
neurotoxins
types of radiation that cause cancer
substances that cause genetic mutations in the DNA of organis…
chemicals that cause birth defects
toxicant that attacks the nervous system: memory loss, anxiet…
carcinogens
types of radiation that cause cancer
mutagens
substances that cause genetic mutations in the DNA of organis…
39 terms
Environmental Toxicology
toxicology
five factors that affect responses to…
dose response relationship
acute effect
study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms
• Route of entry into the body... • Received dose of the chemica…
type of correlative relationship between 'the characteristics…
single exposure for less than 24 hrs
toxicology
study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms
five factors that affect responses to…
• Route of entry into the body... • Received dose of the chemica…
42 terms
Environmental Toxicology
toxicology
environmental toxicology
toxic
hazard
the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living tissu…
the study of how ecological systems are affected by pollutant…
the inherent property of an agent to have an adverse biochemi…
the opportunity for or probability of contact of a toxin with…
toxicology
the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living tissu…
environmental toxicology
the study of how ecological systems are affected by pollutant…
25 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Environmental Toxicology
Poison
Toxicity
Toxicants
study of how ecological systems are affected by pollutants
any agent capable of producing negative response in biologica…
something poisonous
man-made substances produced as result of anthrogpogenic
Environmental Toxicology
study of how ecological systems are affected by pollutants
Poison
any agent capable of producing negative response in biologica…
32 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Toxicology
Environmental Toxicology
Exposure
Xenobiotic
the science of poisons or the study of the adverse effects of…
the study of how pollutants affect ecosystems
contact or proximity such that transmission of an agent or th…
foreign chemical introduced to the body
Toxicology
the science of poisons or the study of the adverse effects of…
Environmental Toxicology
the study of how pollutants affect ecosystems
54 terms
environmental toxicology
4 environmental hazards
physical hazards
chemical hazards
biological hazards
Physical chemical biological cultural
occur naturally in our environment... UV radiation earthquakes v…
synthetic chemicals such as pharmaceuticals disinfectants pes…
result from ecological interactions
4 environmental hazards
Physical chemical biological cultural
physical hazards
occur naturally in our environment... UV radiation earthquakes v…
58 terms
environmental toxicology
What dos toxicology assume?
How many chemicals are registered for…
how many new chemicals are registered…
The National Toxicology program has sh…
All substances = poison but you can avoid this due to the dos…
over 80,000
2,000
2,500
What dos toxicology assume?
All substances = poison but you can avoid this due to the dos…
How many chemicals are registered for…
over 80,000
47 terms
Environmental Toxicology
toxicology
toxicity
hazard
risk
the study of the ways poisons interact with biological systems
the adverse effect of a chemical on living tissue (can be dea…
the inherent ability of a chemical to produce toxicity
the probability that a hazard (that a dose of sufficient size…
toxicology
the study of the ways poisons interact with biological systems
toxicity
the adverse effect of a chemical on living tissue (can be dea…
51 terms
Environmental Toxicology
acute toxicity
subacute toxicity
subchronic toxicity
chronic toxicity
adverse effect resulting from a single, large exposure
resulting from exposure of up to 1 month
between acute and chronic (1-3 mo)
harmful effect from repeated exposure to toxin for 3+ months
acute toxicity
adverse effect resulting from a single, large exposure
subacute toxicity
resulting from exposure of up to 1 month
8 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Two group classifications of Contamina…
importance of nonthreshold
TEC
importance of threshold agents
1. non-threshold, gradual agents; harmful at any concentratio…
toxic substances in the focus of toxicology: environmental ma…
Toxicological threshold effect concentration: concentration b…
various nutrients : ie. minerals *ecological periodic table i…
Two group classifications of Contamina…
1. non-threshold, gradual agents; harmful at any concentratio…
importance of nonthreshold
toxic substances in the focus of toxicology: environmental ma…
50 terms
Environmental Toxicology
hazard
risk
bioaccumulation
biomagnification
The ability of a chemical agent to cause injury in a given si…
The expected frequency of the occurrence of an undesirable ef…
The intake of a long-lasting contaminant exceeds its metaboli…
The concentration of a contaminant may be virtually undetecta…
hazard
The ability of a chemical agent to cause injury in a given si…
risk
The expected frequency of the occurrence of an undesirable ef…
Environmental Toxicology
Choose the incorrect statement below.…
Dose-response assessment refers to the…
Exposure assessment refers to the ques…
In comparison with the general populat…
D. was associated with heart problems among adults
B. What is the relationship between dose and occurrence of he…
C. What exposures are currently experienced or anticipated un…
B. At higher concentrations for much longer time periods
Choose the incorrect statement below.…
D. was associated with heart problems among adults
Dose-response assessment refers to the…
B. What is the relationship between dose and occurrence of he…
15 terms
Environmental Toxicology
hazard
Risk
Bioaccumulation
biomagnification
ability of a chemical agent to cause injury in a given situat…
expected frequency of occurrence of an undesirable effect fro…
- the intake of a long-lasting contaminant exceeds its metabo…
[contaminant] virtually undetectable in water, magnified hund…
hazard
ability of a chemical agent to cause injury in a given situat…
Risk
expected frequency of occurrence of an undesirable effect fro…
42 terms
Environmental toxicology
What is environmental toxicology
What does anthropogenic mean?
First organic chemical synthesised
What does 'solution involving dilution…
Effects of natural and anthropogenic
Made by man
urea
That chemicals will becomes dispersed by water and air curren…
What is environmental toxicology
Effects of natural and anthropogenic
What does anthropogenic mean?
Made by man
13 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Which of the following most accurately…
Biotransformation is part of which of…
Biotransformation always leads to deto…
Although acute and chronic exposures a…
-The quantity of a compound is what makes a poison.
-Metabolism.
False.
False.... (Note: The outcomes associated with acute and chronic…
Which of the following most accurately…
-The quantity of a compound is what makes a poison.
Biotransformation is part of which of…
-Metabolism.
Environmental Toxicology
What are the SEs of anticholinergic po…
How do we treat anticholinergic poison…
What are signs of sympathomimetic synd…
How do we treat sympathomimetic syndro…
- Tachycardia... - little change in BP... - Dry flushed hot skin... -…
Physostigmine
- Tachycardia... -HTN... - Fever... - Diaphoresis... - Mydriasis ... - seizu…
IV benzos, lidocaine for V-fib, BBs only if severe HTN
What are the SEs of anticholinergic po…
- Tachycardia... - little change in BP... - Dry flushed hot skin... -…
How do we treat anticholinergic poison…
Physostigmine
25 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Mec…
A Xenobiotic is?
5 xenobiotics
How do Environmental Estrogens Work?
Receptors with high affinity for other molecules that result…
A foreign substance that acts on the body by blocking or trig…
1. phytoestrases - coumesterol... 2. fungal mycotoxins - zearano…
antagonistically or agonistically on receptors
Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Mec…
Receptors with high affinity for other molecules that result…
A Xenobiotic is?
A foreign substance that acts on the body by blocking or trig…
28 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Define a Population
Define a Community
Give example of a Biome/Ecosystem
List the 4 phases of chemicals moving…
Interbreeding within the same species
Assemblage of plants + animals in the same environment
Deserts, forests, grasslands
1. Atmosphere... 2. Water... 3. Soil... 4. Biosphere
Define a Population
Interbreeding within the same species
Define a Community
Assemblage of plants + animals in the same environment
Environmental Toxicology
methemoglobinemia
when may an infant possibly develop me…
are breastfed infants at risk for meth…
what is brain damage a major consequen…
blood disorder with abnormal amounts of methemoglobin
if the infant is exposed to nitrates via vegetables or infant…
no
lead toxicity
methemoglobinemia
blood disorder with abnormal amounts of methemoglobin
when may an infant possibly develop me…
if the infant is exposed to nitrates via vegetables or infant…
40 terms
APES Environmental Health and Toxicology
Plasmodium
Cultural hazards
Biological Hazards
Endocrine disruptors
The multinucleate cytoplasm of a slime mold that is surrounde…
Human health hazards that result from the place we live, our…
Any living organisms or its properties that can cause an adve…
Environmental contaminants that mimics hormones and interfere…
Plasmodium
The multinucleate cytoplasm of a slime mold that is surrounde…
Cultural hazards
Human health hazards that result from the place we live, our…
25 terms
Environmental Toxicology
Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Mec…
A Xenobiotic is?
5 xenobiotics
How do Environmental Estrogens Work?
Receptors with high affinity for other molecules that result…
A foreign substance that acts on the body by blocking or trig…
1. phytoestrases - coumesterol... 2. fungal mycotoxins - zearano…
antagonistically or agonistically on receptors
Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Mec…
Receptors with high affinity for other molecules that result…
A Xenobiotic is?
A foreign substance that acts on the body by blocking or trig…
8 terms
Environmental and Toxicology
11. The treatment for acetaminophen po…
12. Antidote for Coumadin overdose is
13. Treatment of Digitalis toxicity wo…
15. The drug of choice for a patient e…
B. N-acetylcysteine (NAC)
C. Vitamin K, FFP
D. Beta-blockers
C. Dantrolene
11. The treatment for acetaminophen po…
B. N-acetylcysteine (NAC)
12. Antidote for Coumadin overdose is
C. Vitamin K, FFP
41 terms
Environmental and toxicology
Bodys response to cold
When do we lose shivering?
Physiologcal response to hypothermia
What happens to respiratory rate with…
Periphreal vasocontriction, skelital muscle vasodilation, inc…
32C
Metabolism initially increases. BGL shoots up with severe hyp…
Respiratory acidosis
Bodys response to cold
Periphreal vasocontriction, skelital muscle vasodilation, inc…
When do we lose shivering?
32C
Environmental health & Toxicology Vocabulary
ACUTE EFFECTS
ANTIGENS
BIOACCUMULATION
BIOMAGNIFICATION
sudden, severe effects
chemical compounds to which antibodies bind
the selective adsorption and concentration of molecules of ce…
an increase in concentration of certain stable chemicals in s…
ACUTE EFFECTS
sudden, severe effects
ANTIGENS
chemical compounds to which antibodies bind
33 terms
Chapter 14: Environmental Health and Toxicology
disease
infectious diseases
chronic diseases
acute diseases
any impaired function of the body with a characteristic set o…
diseases caused by infectious agents, known as pathogens (ex.…
diseases that slowly impair the functioning of a person's bod…
diseases that rapidly impair the functioning of a person's body
disease
any impaired function of the body with a characteristic set o…
infectious diseases
diseases caused by infectious agents, known as pathogens (ex.…
18 terms
Ch 14: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Environmental Health
Carcinogens
Mutagens
Teratogens
The study of how environmental factors influence human health…
Any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent di…
A physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic materia…
Any agent that can disturb the development of an embryo or fe…
Environmental Health
The study of how environmental factors influence human health…
Carcinogens
Any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent di…
21 terms
pollutants- environmental toxicology
bisphenol a
benzo(a)pyrene (pahs)
acrylamide
pcb polychlorinated biphenyl
bisphenol a
benzo(a)pyrene (pahs)
20 terms
Environmental Toxicology: Groundwater
Point Source Contamination
Non-Point Source Contamination
Sources of Groundwater Pollution
Groundwater Pollution Examples
"you can point to the source," you know where the contaminant…
You do not know where the chemical is coming from, undefined…
Landfills, leakage of under water storage tanks, lagoons, sep…
Natural (arsenic, radiation)... Agriculture (nitrate, pesticide)
Point Source Contamination
"you can point to the source," you know where the contaminant…
Non-Point Source Contamination
You do not know where the chemical is coming from, undefined…
19 terms
Chapter 3 Environmental Toxicology
fathers of toxicology
Paracelsus
Mathieu Orfila
in vivo
1. Paracelsus... 2. Mathieu Orfila
-early 16th century... -concept of the dose-response relationshi…
-1800s... -Trait des poisons... -poisons and their bodily effects
when animals are purposely exposed to chemicals to test toxic…
fathers of toxicology
1. Paracelsus... 2. Mathieu Orfila
Paracelsus
-early 16th century... -concept of the dose-response relationshi…
43 terms
Environmental Toxicology Class Quizzes
Baseline toxicity requires ___________…
_____________ stands for programmed ce…
_________ is due to unplanned cell dea…
The function of ____________ is to iso…
Higher; additive
Apoptosis
Necrosis
Inflammation
Baseline toxicity requires ___________…
Higher; additive
_____________ stands for programmed ce…
Apoptosis
11 terms
Chapter 3: Environmental Toxicology
Which of the following abbreviation is…
Internal dose
The concentration and toxicity of a ch…
Of the following routes of exposure, w…
LD50
the portion of a substance that becomes internalized in the b…
Route of entry into the body, received dose of the chemical,…
intravenous
Which of the following abbreviation is…
LD50
Internal dose
the portion of a substance that becomes internalized in the b…
39 terms
Ch. 3 Environmental Toxicology
Toxicology
Basic assumption of toxicology
Who is Paracelsus?
Areas of toxicology
the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organ…
-all substance are poisons... -right dose differentiates a poiso…
-father of modern toxicology
1)regulatory... 2)forensic... 3)clinical... 4)environmental... 5)reproduc…
Toxicology
the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organ…
Basic assumption of toxicology
-all substance are poisons... -right dose differentiates a poiso…
28 terms
Environmental Toxicology / Ecotoxicology
Dilution paradigm
Boomerang paradigm
Pollutant
Contaminant
the solution to pollution is dilution
What you throw away can come back to hurt you
a substance that occurs in the environment at least in part a…
a substance released by man's activities
Dilution paradigm
the solution to pollution is dilution
Boomerang paradigm
What you throw away can come back to hurt you
27 terms
Toxicology IB Environmental
Endocrine disrupters
toxicant
acute toxicity
chronic toxicity
A chemical that mimics or interferes with the actions of the…
a chemical with adverse human health effects
adverse effects that occur within a short period of time afte…
adverse effects that occur some time after exposure to a toxi…
Endocrine disrupters
A chemical that mimics or interferes with the actions of the…
toxicant
a chemical with adverse human health effects
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