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Study sets matching "final system pathology"

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Study sets matching "final system pathology"

19 terms
Respiratory System Pathology
Inflammation of the LU
Farmer's LU
Chronic bronchitis
Bronchiesctasis
acute laryngeotrachitis... bronchitis... pneumonia... suppurative diso…
hypersensitivity pneumonitis
mucous gland hyperplasia... Goblet cell hyperplasia & metaplasia…
Suppurative disease... chronic necrotizing of the bronchi & bron…
Inflammation of the LU
acute laryngeotrachitis... bronchitis... pneumonia... suppurative diso…
Farmer's LU
hypersensitivity pneumonitis
31 terms
OPTH - Cardiovascular System Pathology
acute coronary thrombosis
Myocardial infarction - pathological s…
normal myocardium
acute infarct
1. necrosis... 2. inflammation... 3. repair... 4. fibrosis (scar)
clearly see nuclei... lots of capillaries
Loss of nuclei... general shape preserved... coagulation necrosis
acute coronary thrombosis
Myocardial infarction - pathological s…
1. necrosis... 2. inflammation... 3. repair... 4. fibrosis (scar)
172 terms
Systemic Pathology Urinary
Anuria
Azotemia
Bactiuria
BUN or SUN
Lack of urin formation
increased non-protein nitrogenous compounds in the blood= ele…
bacteria in urine
Blood/serum urea nitrogen... - used as an indicator of glomerula…
Anuria
Lack of urin formation
Azotemia
increased non-protein nitrogenous compounds in the blood= ele…
56 terms
Male Genital System Pathology
Hypospadias: defect
Epispadias: defect
Epispasias: association
Penis: (3)
failure of urethral folds to close
abnormal positioning of the genital tubercle
bladder extrophy
1. Condyloma Acuminatum... 2. Lymphogranuloma venerum... 3. Squamou…
Hypospadias: defect
failure of urethral folds to close
Epispadias: defect
abnormal positioning of the genital tubercle
29 terms
Digestive System Histology/ Pathology
hepatic portal system
fibrosis of the liver
cirrhosis
causes of cirrhosis
-replacement of liver tissue with fibrous connective tissue…
-begins when fibrosis begins to interrupt blood flow... -can lea…
-chronic viral infection (... hepatitis C), fatty liver associat…
hepatic portal system
fibrosis of the liver
-replacement of liver tissue with fibrous connective tissue…
Systems Pathology: Skeletal System
Contusion
Purpura
Ecchymosis
Petechiae
A bruise
A bruise that is up 2 cm
A bruise that is greater than 1 cm
A bruise that is the size of a pinpoint
Contusion
A bruise
Purpura
A bruise that is up 2 cm
55 terms
Skeletal System Pathology
chiropractic
orthopedics
orthotics
podiatry
The healing specialty that emphasizes a system of therapy bas…
branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of di…
Use of equipment, such as splints and braces, to support a pa…
healthcare profession specializing in diagnosis and treatment…
chiropractic
The healing specialty that emphasizes a system of therapy bas…
orthopedics
branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of di…
86 terms
larose pathology Nervous System
etilogical degenerative
neoplastic tissue
developmental
arnold chirary formation malformation
Parkinson's... amnesia
neoblastoma... retinoblastoma
neural tube defects
type 1. cerebellar tonsils herniate through the Forame magnun…
etilogical degenerative
Parkinson's... amnesia
neoplastic tissue
neoblastoma... retinoblastoma
49 terms
Immune System Pathology
Hypersensitivity
Type 1
ACUTE ANAPHYLAXIS
FOOD ALLERGY
An "over-reaction" of the immune system in response to an ant…
IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY.... -Occurs within minutes of exposur…
-Large Numbers of antigens.... -Respiratory, intestinal, hepatic…
13% of allergies in dogs. ... Usually involves protein-rich food…
Hypersensitivity
An "over-reaction" of the immune system in response to an ant…
Type 1
IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY.... -Occurs within minutes of exposur…
21 terms
Endocrine System - Pathology problems
Gigantism
Acromegaly
Dwarfism
Midget
Hypersecretion human growth hormone ... prepuberty (during child…
Hypersecretion human growth hormone postpuberty... M... I
Hyposecretion of human growth hormone... M... I
"Proportionate dwarf" ... M... I
Gigantism
Hypersecretion human growth hormone ... prepuberty (during child…
Acromegaly
Hypersecretion human growth hormone postpuberty... M... I
50 terms
Urinary System Pathology
Hematuria
Differential Dx of Hematuria
Risk Factors for Hematuria
Hematuria Dx
-Presence of RBCs in the Urine... -Classification - Gross = Visi…
"Pee Pee ON THIS (4Ts)... P - Period... P - Prostate... O- Obstructiv…
-Age > 40 yrs... -Male... -Cigarette smoking... -Chemical exp (benzene…
-Urinalysis... -Specimen ... -Dipstick... -Microscopy to Confirm (> 3…
Hematuria
-Presence of RBCs in the Urine... -Classification - Gross = Visi…
Differential Dx of Hematuria
"Pee Pee ON THIS (4Ts)... P - Period... P - Prostate... O- Obstructiv…
49 terms
Urinary System Pathology
Hematuria
Hematuria Etiology
Urologic Malignancy risk factors relat…
Hematuria work up
Presence on RBCs in urine... Gross = visible... Microscopic = only…
Pee Pee ON THIS... Period, Prostate, Obstructive uropathy, Nephr…
Age >40... Male... Hx cigarette smoking... Hx of chemical exposure (cy…
Urinalysis... Specimen: freshly voided, clean catch, midstream o…
Hematuria
Presence on RBCs in urine... Gross = visible... Microscopic = only…
Hematuria Etiology
Pee Pee ON THIS... Period, Prostate, Obstructive uropathy, Nephr…
131 terms
Skeletal System Pathology
Define Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Describe osteogenesis imperfect type I
Describe osteogenesis imperfect type II
Describe osteogenesis imperfect type III
Group of mostly autosomal dominant disorders of CT... Mutation:…
AD... MOST MILD PHENOTYPE... presents with: multiple fractures at…
AD... LETHAL PERINATAL DISEASE... infants are stillborn or die few…
AD, rarely AR... affects both infants and children and sometime…
Define Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Group of mostly autosomal dominant disorders of CT... Mutation:…
Describe osteogenesis imperfect type I
AD... MOST MILD PHENOTYPE... presents with: multiple fractures at…
59 terms
Pathology of the Circulatory System
agglutination
aggregation
angioplasty
arteriosclerosis
The clumping of antigens with antibodies or of the red blood…
The coming together of entities such as platelets, blood cell…
Repair of a norrowed blood vessel through surgery of other an…
Hardening of arteries.
agglutination
The clumping of antigens with antibodies or of the red blood…
aggregation
The coming together of entities such as platelets, blood cell…
37 terms
Nervous System/ Pathology Problems
Shingles/Herpes Zoster
Multiple Sclerosis
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Neurofibromatosis
chicken pox virus rash appears on skin where nerves are infla…
Myelin sheath of both CNS and PNS are slowly destroyed, inter…
misaligned ribs, muscle spasms.... Leads to pinching of the nerv…
Genetic abnormal multiplication of Schwann cells.... Soft multip…
Shingles/Herpes Zoster
chicken pox virus rash appears on skin where nerves are infla…
Multiple Sclerosis
Myelin sheath of both CNS and PNS are slowly destroyed, inter…
10 terms
GI System Pathology
Causes of GERD
What testing might be recommended if s…
Gastric ulcer
Acute pancreatitis
Incompetent LES... Hiatal hernia... Irritant effects of refluxate…
Endoscopy... pH monitoring... Surgical fundoplication
Affects lining of stomach... Common causes: NSAIDs, ETOH, smoki…
Rapid inflammatory process ... may be caused by hypertriglycerid…
Causes of GERD
Incompetent LES... Hiatal hernia... Irritant effects of refluxate…
What testing might be recommended if s…
Endoscopy... pH monitoring... Surgical fundoplication
Pathology- Integumentary System Conditions
Functions of the Skin
3 layers of the skin
Subdermis
Dermis
Protection, Homeostasis, Sensory Envelope, Absorption, & Excr…
Epidermis, Dermis, & Subdermis
the deepest layer composed of loose collagen and elastin, thi…
a.k.a. the "true skin". this is the location of hair follicle…
Functions of the Skin
Protection, Homeostasis, Sensory Envelope, Absorption, & Excr…
3 layers of the skin
Epidermis, Dermis, & Subdermis
23 terms
Pathology of the Skeletal System
Bones
Osteochondritis Dessicans (OCD)
Osteochondritis Dessicans (OCD) common…
Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD)
A. Provide protection: Skull, spinal column, and thorax prote…
Usually in the should joint- a large flap of articular cartil…
Young, large breed dogs
A disorder of the formation of the hip joint. Heritable and v…
Bones
A. Provide protection: Skull, spinal column, and thorax prote…
Osteochondritis Dessicans (OCD)
Usually in the should joint- a large flap of articular cartil…
88 terms
Pathology- Musculoskeletal System
Functions of bone
Types of bones
Examples of long bones
Examples of short bones
Support... Protection... Movement... Mineral storage... Blood cell format…
Long bones... Short bones... Flat bones... Irregular bones
humerus, femur, phalanges
carpals, tarsals
Functions of bone
Support... Protection... Movement... Mineral storage... Blood cell format…
Types of bones
Long bones... Short bones... Flat bones... Irregular bones
32 terms
Pathology- Lymphatic System
Lymphatic system
palatine and pharyngeal tonsils
spleen
thymus gland
consists of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphoid tiss…
composed of lymphoid tissue and are located in a ring (waldey…
located on the left side of the abdominopelvic cavity directl…
consists of two lobes and is located in the mediastinum, lyin…
Lymphatic system
consists of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphoid tiss…
palatine and pharyngeal tonsils
composed of lymphoid tissue and are located in a ring (waldey…
17 terms
Lymphatic System Pathologies
lymphangitis
swelling, painful red streaks, muscle…
bacteria infection usually streptococcus
infection may spread to the blood, sep…
condition where there is inflammation of a lymph vessel which…
what are the symptoms of lymphangitis - SPM?
what are the causes of lymphangitis?
what is a complication of lymphangitis?
lymphangitis
condition where there is inflammation of a lymph vessel which…
swelling, painful red streaks, muscle…
what are the symptoms of lymphangitis - SPM?
56 terms
Neuromuscular and Nervous System Pathology
Spinal Cord Injury
Types of SCI's
Anterior Cord Syndrome
Brown-Sequard's Syndrome
-MVA's is the largest cause of traumatic SCI... -Other etiologie…
Complete Lesion:... -NO preserved motor or sensory function belo…
Incomplete Lesion... -Compression and damage of the anterior p…
Incomplete Lesion... -Usually caused by a stab wound producing…
Spinal Cord Injury
-MVA's is the largest cause of traumatic SCI... -Other etiologie…
Types of SCI's
Complete Lesion:... -NO preserved motor or sensory function belo…
18 terms
Pathology of Integumentary System
Tinea Pedia
Boils
Carbuncles
Cold sores/Fever blisters
Athlete's Foot; fungal infection due to chronic warm, moist e…
Inflammation of the hair follicle or sebaceous gland
Boils caused by bacterial infections, like Staphlococcus aureus
Small fluid-filled blisters around the mouth caused by the he…
Tinea Pedia
Athlete's Foot; fungal infection due to chronic warm, moist e…
Boils
Inflammation of the hair follicle or sebaceous gland
16 terms
Urinary System Pathology
Retention
Incontinence
Urethritis
Cystitis
inability to empty the bladder, caused by anatomical or neuro…
involuntary urination, many causes, treated with catheterizat…
infection of the urethra, more common in women, incomplete em…
infection of the bladder, more common in women, incomplete em…
Retention
inability to empty the bladder, caused by anatomical or neuro…
Incontinence
involuntary urination, many causes, treated with catheterizat…
153 terms
Neuromuscular and Nervous System Pathology
Alzheimer's Disease
Etiology of Alzheimer's Disease
Signs & Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease
Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease
Progressive... -Deterioration and irreversible damage within t…
-Exact etiology is unknown.... -Low levels of neurotransmitters.…
Onset:... -Change in higher cortical functions (difficulty with…
No cure... -Medications used to inhibit acetylcholinesterase,…
Alzheimer's Disease
Progressive... -Deterioration and irreversible damage within t…
Etiology of Alzheimer's Disease
-Exact etiology is unknown.... -Low levels of neurotransmitters.…
106 terms
Pathology of the Digestive system
Aphthous ulcers
ulcer
cheilosis
herpes labiallis
(canker sores)(mouth ulcers), grey-white pits with a red bord…
open lesion, of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tiss…
(cheilitis) disorder of the lips characterized by crack like…
cold sores or fever blisters, are blister-like sores on the l…
Aphthous ulcers
(canker sores)(mouth ulcers), grey-white pits with a red bord…
ulcer
open lesion, of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tiss…
53 terms
Pathology: Renal & Urologic Systems
UTI
Pyelonephritis
Renal Cancer
Renal Cancer, Stage I-IV
PATHO: Most UTI are fecal-associated, gram-negative organisms…
Acute/ chronic infection of kidney parenchyma and renal pelvi…
1) Clear cell (80%)... 2) Papillary (10-15%)... 3) Chromophobe (4%)…
Stage I: tumor encapsulated... Stage II: tumor has invaded perin…
UTI
PATHO: Most UTI are fecal-associated, gram-negative organisms…
Pyelonephritis
Acute/ chronic infection of kidney parenchyma and renal pelvi…
16 terms
Pathology of the urinary system
4% Gluteraldehyde
H&E
PAS
Trichrome
EM
General
basement membrane and mesangial matrix
fribosis
4% Gluteraldehyde
EM
H&E
General
26 terms
Pathology of Male Reproductive System
Hypospadias vs Epispadias
Phimosis
Paraphimosis
Balanitis and Balanoposthitits
Hypo is opening on the underside ... Epi is opening on the uppe…
Inability to normally retract foreskin ... usually due to post i…
foreskin becomes trapped behind the glans penis and can't be…
Balanitis is inflammation ... If it involves foreskin will be c…
Hypospadias vs Epispadias
Hypo is opening on the underside ... Epi is opening on the uppe…
Phimosis
Inability to normally retract foreskin ... usually due to post i…
130 terms
Repro systemic Pathology II
what does the mesonephric duct or Wolf…
What does the paramesonephric or mulle…
gonadal sex is controlled by what gene
for male reproductive tract developmen…
vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and epididymis
oviduct, uterus, cervix, and upper part of the vagina
SRY
sertoli cells--mullerian inhibitory factor... interstitial cells…
what does the mesonephric duct or Wolf…
vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and epididymis
What does the paramesonephric or mulle…
oviduct, uterus, cervix, and upper part of the vagina
37 terms
Digestive system pathology
Achalasia
Appendicitis
Barrett esophagus
Bezoar
failure of smooth muscle of alimentary canal to relax, result…
inflammation of the appendix.
peptic ulcer of lower esophagus, often with stricture.
mass in the stomach formed by material that does not pass int…
Achalasia
failure of smooth muscle of alimentary canal to relax, result…
Appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix.
37 terms
Respiratory System Pathology
auscultation
percussion
pleural rub
rales
Listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structure…
Gently but firmly strikes the chest wall with a cupped hand,…
Scratchy sound produced by inflamed or irritated pleural surf…
A crackling, rattling breath sound that signals fluid in the…
auscultation
Listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structure…
percussion
Gently but firmly strikes the chest wall with a cupped hand,…
56 terms
Pathology: Endocrine & Metabolic Systems
5 basic fxns of endocrine & metabolic…
Master control organ for endocrine sys…
Portal stim of AP
Neural stimulation of posterior pituit…
1. Differentiate reproductive tissues & CNS... 2. Growth and dev…
Hypothalamus
◾Releasing factors- ACTH, TSH, LH, FSH, GH (stimulate organs…
ADH (anti-diuretic hormone or vasopressin) to kidney... Oxytocin…
5 basic fxns of endocrine & metabolic…
1. Differentiate reproductive tissues & CNS... 2. Growth and dev…
Master control organ for endocrine sys…
Hypothalamus
Pathology: GI system
Achalasia
Coffee ground emesis
Hematemesis
Melena
Failure to relax smooth muscle of lower esophagus
Blood has been in contact with gastric acid
Vomitting bright-red blood
Black, tarry stools
Achalasia
Failure to relax smooth muscle of lower esophagus
Coffee ground emesis
Blood has been in contact with gastric acid
38 terms
Pathology - Endocrine System
exophthalmia
glucosuria
goiter
hirsutism
protrusion of eyeballs from their orbits
presence of glucose in the urine. may indicate diabetes melli…
enlargement of the thyroid gland
hypertrichosis; abnormal hairiness especially in women
exophthalmia
protrusion of eyeballs from their orbits
glucosuria
presence of glucose in the urine. may indicate diabetes melli…
354 terms
Exam 4 System Pathology
What is Asthma?
What are the two types of Asthma?
What are the causes of Asthma?
What is Extrinsic asthma?
• A condition that is characterized by variable airflow obstr…
• Extrinsic asthma... • Intrinsic asthma
• Allergens... • Drug induced... • Occupationally induced... • Intrins…
• Allergic (Type I Hypersensitivity)... • Usually seen in childh…
What is Asthma?
• A condition that is characterized by variable airflow obstr…
What are the two types of Asthma?
• Extrinsic asthma... • Intrinsic asthma
95 terms
System Pathology: Exam 1
Can there be multiple endocrinopathies…
T/F There is generally only one endocr…
What usually causes hyperfunciton of t…
What usually causes hypofunction of a…
Yes, one for each hormone produced by the gland
True. Usually a disease that causes hypofunction of a gland,…
Hyperplasia or Tumor
agenesis, atrophy, or destruction, caused by infection, tumor…
Can there be multiple endocrinopathies…
Yes, one for each hormone produced by the gland
T/F There is generally only one endocr…
True. Usually a disease that causes hypofunction of a gland,…
32 terms
Muscular System: Anatomy and Pathology Terms
fascial
muscular
myocardial
skeletal
fasci/o = fibrous band... -al = pertaining to... pertaining to fas…
muscul/o = muscle... -ar = pertaining to ... pertaining to muscles
my/o = muscle... cardi/o = heart... -al = pertaining to... pertaining…
-al = pertaining to... pertaining to the skeleton
fascial
fasci/o = fibrous band... -al = pertaining to... pertaining to fas…
muscular
muscul/o = muscle... -ar = pertaining to ... pertaining to muscles
44 terms
Pathology of the Peripheral Nervous System
The Motor Unit
Peripheral nerve ... --- functional unit
A nerve consists of
Schwann cells & unmyelinated axons
Lower motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord o…
nerve fiber... which consists of an axon with its associated S…
nerve fibers grouped together into fascicles... Myelinated and…
cytoplasm of one Schwann cell envelops and isolates a large n…
The Motor Unit
Lower motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord o…
Peripheral nerve ... --- functional unit
nerve fiber... which consists of an axon with its associated S…
28 terms
Pathology of systemic hypertensions
hypertension
decision to treat
Systemic hypertension: classifications
BP regulation
- line is arbitrary, but sustained rise of over 90 and/or 140…
- based on "absolute risk" - other risk factors of CVD and ev…
Primary (essential) :... - no specific identifiable cause... - can…
1. Cardiac output... * Cardiac factors: stroke vol, HR... * blood…
hypertension
- line is arbitrary, but sustained rise of over 90 and/or 140…
decision to treat
- based on "absolute risk" - other risk factors of CVD and ev…
128 terms
Urinary System Pathology
The ______________ contains two kidney…
The ___________ present in the urinary…
Kidneys balance the intake and outtake…
The kidneys are bean shaped and are di…
Urinary System.
Kidneys.
Regulate blood pressure.
Upper and lower poles.
The ______________ contains two kidney…
Urinary System.
The ___________ present in the urinary…
Kidneys.
57 terms
Genitourinary System Pathology
Kidney Agenesis/Atresia
Kidney Hypoplasia
Renal Abscess
Renal Abscess - source
Renal agenesis is the absence of one or both kidneys. It can…
abnormally small kidneys with normal morphology and reduced n…
A renal abscess is one that is confined to the kidney and is…
The source of this infection may be from sepsis or from the b…
Kidney Agenesis/Atresia
Renal agenesis is the absence of one or both kidneys. It can…
Kidney Hypoplasia
abnormally small kidneys with normal morphology and reduced n…
17 terms
Cardiovascular System Pathology
Deoxygenated blood
Oxygenated blood
Systole
Diastole
Enters right atrium via superior and inferior vena cavae, flo…
Enters left atrium via pulmonary vein, flows through left ven…
Heart contracts; pushing blood out
Heart relaxes; fills with blood
Deoxygenated blood
Enters right atrium via superior and inferior vena cavae, flo…
Oxygenated blood
Enters left atrium via pulmonary vein, flows through left ven…
99 terms
Pathology of the Gallbladder and Biliary System
Female ,Fat, Fertile, Forty, and Fair-…
Sludge:
sludge
sludge
risk factors of gallbladder disease: 5 f's
thickened bile is also known as
Low level echoes... Gravity dependent... GB is packed and difficult…
Patient may be asymptomatic. It is considered an abnormal fin…
Female ,Fat, Fertile, Forty, and Fair-…
risk factors of gallbladder disease: 5 f's
Sludge:
thickened bile is also known as
48 terms
Pathology of the Nervous System+Endocrine
Conventional Radiography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Computed Tomography (CT)
Ultrasound
can provide important information in evaluation of the Centra…
is the modality of choice for a wide range of CNS abnormalities
plays a significant role in the evaluation of CNS
is useful for evaluating the brain of neonates before the clo…
Conventional Radiography
can provide important information in evaluation of the Centra…
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
is the modality of choice for a wide range of CNS abnormalities
28 terms
Western Pathology Urinary System
4 major components of the urinary system
Kidneys based on Nephron Anatomy
Glomerus
Bowman's capsule
- Kidneys... - Ureter... - Bladder... - Urethra
- Glomerus... - Bowman's capsule... - Capillary tuft... - Proximal con…
Entire unit of filtration
Where the initial filtrate is collected
4 major components of the urinary system
- Kidneys... - Ureter... - Bladder... - Urethra
Kidneys based on Nephron Anatomy
- Glomerus... - Bowman's capsule... - Capillary tuft... - Proximal con…
72 terms
RT Pathology Cardiovascular System
Myocardium
hypertension
arteriosclerosis
Vegetations
the middle muscular layer of the heart
High blood pressure
Hardening of arteries
Abnormal growth of tissue around heart valve
Myocardium
the middle muscular layer of the heart
hypertension
High blood pressure
21 terms
endocrine system for pathology final
endocrine system
pituitary gland
pineal gland
adrenal glands
responsible for metabolic activities within the human cells t…
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the infl…
Secretes melatonin
consist of the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla, on top of…
endocrine system
responsible for metabolic activities within the human cells t…
pituitary gland
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the infl…
21 terms
Musculoskeletal System Pathology
Spasm
Cramp
Strains
Muscular Dystrophy
an involuntary contraction of a voluntary muscle. A spasm ten…
an involuntary contraction of a voluntary muscle, cramps are…
injuries to muscles involving torn fibers. Pain, stiffness, a…
Group of related inherited disorders characterized by progres…
Spasm
an involuntary contraction of a voluntary muscle. A spasm ten…
Cramp
an involuntary contraction of a voluntary muscle, cramps are…
19 terms
Male Genitourinary System Pathology
Congenital anomalies of Penis
Phimosis
Tumors of penis
Penile Invasive Carcinoma
Hypospadias: urethra opens ventrally... Epispadias: urethra open…
-Orifice of the prepuce (foreskin) is too small to retract ov…
Condyloma acunminatum--HPV 6 and 11 (genital wart)... Carcinoma…
HPV 16 or 18... -Squamous cell carcinoma... -Circumcision protects…
Congenital anomalies of Penis
Hypospadias: urethra opens ventrally... Epispadias: urethra open…
Phimosis
-Orifice of the prepuce (foreskin) is too small to retract ov…
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