How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Study sets matching "flaw"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "flaw"

38 terms
FLAW
Mistaken cause and effect answers
Answer for flaw in causal sequence of…
Answers for assuming a causal relation…
Answer for failing to consider alterna…
-Assuming a causal relationship on the basis of the sequence…
"mistakes observation that one thing happens after another fo…
"confusing the coincidence of two events with a causal relati…
"fails to exclude an alternative explanation for the observed…
Mistaken cause and effect answers
-Assuming a causal relationship on the basis of the sequence…
Answer for flaw in causal sequence of…
"mistakes observation that one thing happens after another fo…
8 terms
Flaw
Terms
Approach
Correct Answer Will..
Incorrect Answers Will...
Vulnerable to the criticism, questionable reasoning
1)Identify the main point... 2) Evaluate how the evidence suppor…
Describe the Flaw in the argument
-Simply not match the given argument. ... -The KEY STEP on a fla…
Terms
Vulnerable to the criticism, questionable reasoning
Approach
1)Identify the main point... 2) Evaluate how the evidence suppor…
55 terms
Flaw
must
is/are
will
do/does
necessity, strong
necessity
necessity
necessity
must
necessity, strong
is/are
necessity
23 terms
flaw
General Lack of relevant evidence for…
General Lack of relevant evidence for…
General Lack of relevant evidence for…
General Lack of relevant evidence for…
"It fails to give any reason for the judgment it reaches."
"The author cites irrelevant data."
draws a conclusion that is not warranted by the evidence prov…
It uses inapplicable information to draw a conclusion about t…
General Lack of relevant evidence for…
"It fails to give any reason for the judgment it reaches."
General Lack of relevant evidence for…
"The author cites irrelevant data."
36 terms
Flaw
O.P (General)
O.P (Correlation vs Causation)
O.P ( Necessity vs Sufficiency)
MMC
A failure to consider alternative explanations or possible ob…
A conclusion of causation based on evidence of correlation
A conclusion of treating a sufficient term in the evidence as…
A conclusion the scope or terms of which are unwarranted give…
O.P (General)
A failure to consider alternative explanations or possible ob…
O.P (Correlation vs Causation)
A conclusion of causation based on evidence of correlation
49 terms
FLAW
(1) The licensure examination shall be…
In order to *retake the examination (N…
If an applicant wishes to take the *…
All applicants are required to *take a…
five (5) years
An applicant must reapply, using DOH Form #DH-MQA 1143, *Re…
Satisfactory evidence of having successfully completed: ... → *A…
five (5) years
(1) The licensure examination shall be…
five (5) years
In order to *retake the examination (N…
An applicant must reapply, using DOH Form #DH-MQA 1143, *Re…
14 terms
The Flaw
Alan Greenspan
Rational actors
Efficient market hypothesis
Bubbles
-Former chairman of the federal reaerve board ... -Thought that…
People make rational economic choices that keep prices of con…
The theory that prices level out due to rational actors- pric…
An economic bubble is trade in an asset at a price that stron…
Alan Greenspan
-Former chairman of the federal reaerve board ... -Thought that…
Rational actors
People make rational economic choices that keep prices of con…
Flaws
I went outside
you will always doubt
you will always think
you will be persistent
я вышел на улицу
ты всегда будешь сомневаться
ты всегда будешь думать
ты будешь настойчив
I went outside
я вышел на улицу
you will always doubt
ты всегда будешь сомневаться
14 terms
Flaws
Appeal to popularity
Appeal to history
Appeal to tradition
Appeal to authority
Most people believe the Earth is flat, therefore the Earth ca…
Boca Raton Boys Soccer has always finished in the top 10 team…
All men in my family have become plumbers, therefore becoming…
Issac Newton was a genius. He believed in magic, therefore ma…
Appeal to popularity
Most people believe the Earth is flat, therefore the Earth ca…
Appeal to history
Boca Raton Boys Soccer has always finished in the top 10 team…
14 terms
FLAWS
Exclusivity
Sampling
Composition
Sufficiency and Necessity
1. an argument will fail to establish that the list of option…
1. the sample group must be an accurate representation of the…
1. from the fact that a whole has a certain property, it is c…
the fallacy of the converse and the inverse
Exclusivity
1. an argument will fail to establish that the list of option…
Sampling
1. the sample group must be an accurate representation of the…
95 terms
Flaws
confuses being an adequate solution wi…
fails to consider that there was more…
One possible solution to the problem c…
Focuses on nervousness and anxiety, on…
Exclusivity
Exclusivity
Exclusivity
Exclusivity
confuses being an adequate solution wi…
Exclusivity
fails to consider that there was more…
Exclusivity
25 terms
Flaws
Unwarranted Assumptions
Necessity vs. Sufficiency
Failure to Consider Alternative Possib…
Non-Representativeness
Is it relying on MMC? Ties with scope shift. Can be MMC or op
Overlooked possibilities, a conclusion treating a sufficient…
fails to consider other explanations, reasons, or outcomes ba…
One term or concept represents another... Study takes place ove…
Unwarranted Assumptions
Is it relying on MMC? Ties with scope shift. Can be MMC or op
Necessity vs. Sufficiency
Overlooked possibilities, a conclusion treating a sufficient…
26 terms
Flawed
faulty
blemished
a weakness in character
Dad merely stalls in his track
fehlerhaft
mangelhaft
eine schwäche im Charakter
Dad blockiert bloß in seinem Weg
faulty
fehlerhaft
blemished
mangelhaft
14 terms
FLAWS
Exclusivity
Sampling
Composition
Conditional
When an argument draws a conclusion based on the premise that…
1) The sample group must be an accurate representation of the…
Cake and Ingredients Analogy... When the author assumes that t…
Fallacy of the Converse and Inverse
Exclusivity
When an argument draws a conclusion based on the premise that…
Sampling
1) The sample group must be an accurate representation of the…
28 terms
Flaws
"the author cites irrelevant data"
"draws a conclusion that is not warran…
"it uses inapplicable information to d…
"it fails to give any reason for the j…
o Errors in the use of evidence-... • lack of evidence to prove…
o Errors in the use of evidence-... • lack of evidence to prove…
o Errors in the use of evidence-... • lack of evidence to prove…
o Errors in the use of evidence-... • lack of evidence to prove…
"the author cites irrelevant data"
o Errors in the use of evidence-... • lack of evidence to prove…
"draws a conclusion that is not warran…
o Errors in the use of evidence-... • lack of evidence to prove…
Flaws
Straw person
Tu quoque
Ad hominem
Slippery slope
Distorting an opponent to make them easier to attack
Course of actions because others have done so
Attacking the arguer rather than the argument
Cause of events not necessarily linked and ending with an ext…
Straw person
Distorting an opponent to make them easier to attack
Tu quoque
Course of actions because others have done so
24 terms
Flaws
Unwarranted Assumptions
Necessity vs. Sufficiency
Failure to Consider Alternative Possib…
Non-Representativeness
...
...
...
...
Unwarranted Assumptions
...
Necessity vs. Sufficiency
...
15 terms
Flaws
appeal to authority
appeal to popularity
appeal to tradition
appeal to history
claiming your conclusion must be right because an expert or s…
a form of argument which justifies a conclusion by its popula…
a form of argument which supports a conclusion by saying it's…
a form of argument which supports a conclusion by reference t…
appeal to authority
claiming your conclusion must be right because an expert or s…
appeal to popularity
a form of argument which justifies a conclusion by its popula…
22 terms
Flaws
Slippery slope
Ad Hominem
Straw person/man
Restricting the options
Where the argument goes too quickly and contains a number of…
Where the reasoning against an opponent's argument is based o…
When an arguer picks on a small or weak part of an opponent's…
Here the writer leads you to the conclusion by ignoring the o…
Slippery slope
Where the argument goes too quickly and contains a number of…
Ad Hominem
Where the reasoning against an opponent's argument is based o…
14 terms
Flaws
Exclusivity
Sampling
Composition
Sufficient and Necessary
Fails to consider other available options/ Assumes options ar…
Not an accurate representation/not understood by surveyed or…
Whole-Part or Part-Whole
Fallacy of converse (A-->B tf B-->A) or Fallacy of inverse (A…
Exclusivity
Fails to consider other available options/ Assumes options ar…
Sampling
Not an accurate representation/not understood by surveyed or…
20 terms
flaws
ascending sort
data type
datasheet view
descending sort
...
...
...
...
ascending sort
...
data type
...
13 terms
Flaws
False contrapositive
Correlation v. causation
Parts v. whole
Overstating the evidence (some evidence)
Treating a necessary condition as though it were sufficient t…
Even if event A happens before or with event B, that doesn't…
What is true of a part isn't necessarily true of the whole; w…
Some evidence for doesn't mean the conclusion is true; some e…
False contrapositive
Treating a necessary condition as though it were sufficient t…
Correlation v. causation
Even if event A happens before or with event B, that doesn't…
23 terms
Flaws
Strawman
Slippery slope
Special pleading
Black-or-white
Misrepresenting someone's argument to make it easier to attack
Asserting that if we allowed "A" to happen, then "Z" will con…
Moving the goalposts to create exceptions when a claim is sho…
Where two alternatives states are presented as the only possi…
Strawman
Misrepresenting someone's argument to make it easier to attack
Slippery slope
Asserting that if we allowed "A" to happen, then "Z" will con…
19 terms
Flaws
Overlooked Possibility
Scope shift
Faulty Analogy
Causation
The author disregards the fact that there are other possible…
Uses the language, "takes for granted" @fails to demonstrate"…
The author relies upon a bad analogy betweeb two things that…
Very closely related to the flaw of correlationv. Causeation,…
Overlooked Possibility
The author disregards the fact that there are other possible…
Scope shift
Uses the language, "takes for granted" @fails to demonstrate"…
14 terms
Flaws
Exclusivity
Sampling
Composition
Sufficient & Necessary
an argument will fail to establish that the list of options i…
arguments sometimes rely on sample, survey, or poll to justif…
arguments sometimes make the conclusions about a whole entity…
Many arguments will confuse a sufficient condition w/ a neces…
Exclusivity
an argument will fail to establish that the list of options i…
Sampling
arguments sometimes rely on sample, survey, or poll to justif…
47 terms
Flaw in the Flaw
What 3 sources does modern thinking ab…
What two things mostly distort shakesp…
What is the tragic flaw?
What is the most familiar distorted th…
Shakespeare's practice, descriptive theory of Aristotle, and…
Time and translation
the notion that the tradic figure is cursed by an inescapable…
The tragic flaw
What 3 sources does modern thinking ab…
Shakespeare's practice, descriptive theory of Aristotle, and…
What two things mostly distort shakesp…
Time and translation
14 terms
Flaws
Slippery Slope
Post hoc (false cause)
Circular Argument of Begging the Quest…
False Dichotomy
The arguer claims that a sort of chain reaction, usually endi…
Assuming that because B comes after A, A caused B.... -Of cours…
The argument relies on a premise that says the same thing as…
In false dichotomy, the arguer sets up the situation so it lo…
Slippery Slope
The arguer claims that a sort of chain reaction, usually endi…
Post hoc (false cause)
Assuming that because B comes after A, A caused B.... -Of cours…
27 terms
Flaw & Parallel Flaw Characterization
Exclusivity
Exclusivity
Sampling
Composition Fallacy
an argument will fail to establish that the list of options i…
an argument will falsely assume that two options are exclusiv…
To draw a credible conclusion that generalizes from a sample…
occurs when the assumption is made that the whole is nothing…
Exclusivity
an argument will fail to establish that the list of options i…
Exclusivity
an argument will falsely assume that two options are exclusiv…
9 terms
Flaw Types
Unjustified Comparison
Unrepresentative Samples
Assuming Uniqueness
Mismatched Terms
Conclusion about rank/importance/priority w/o evidence
Too broad generalizations from strict samples, opposite of as…
Wrongly assuming characteristic of one group is unique, oppos…
Equating two groups w/o justification
Unjustified Comparison
Conclusion about rank/importance/priority w/o evidence
Unrepresentative Samples
Too broad generalizations from strict samples, opposite of as…
26 terms
Flaw in the Reasoning
Correct answer:
Incorrect answer:
Uncertain use of a term or concept
Examples of questions addressing "unce…
Will identify the error in the author's reasoning and then de…
Describe a portion of the stimulus but fail to identify the e…
Uncertain Use of a Term or Concept. Using a term in different…
"Depending on the ambiguous use of a key term"
Correct answer:
Will identify the error in the author's reasoning and then de…
Incorrect answer:
Describe a portion of the stimulus but fail to identify the e…
18 terms
Flaw Questions--types of flaws
1. MMC: Some similarities BUT not exac…
2. MMC: Group/Member
3. MMC: Part/Whole
4. MMC: Representation
author equates two things that while similar, may have some d…
author equates properties of a group with properties of a mem…
author equates properties of a part of a whole with the whole…
author equates a specific part/group with a larger more gener…
1. MMC: Some similarities BUT not exac…
author equates two things that while similar, may have some d…
2. MMC: Group/Member
author equates properties of a group with properties of a mem…
16 terms
Flaw Types
Exhaustiveness
Exclusivity
Sampling flaw
Composition
When an argument fails to consider other relevant options.... C…
Failing to consider multiple things could be true at the same…
Depending on an unrepresentative sample.... Clues: "General pop…
Something true of the parts need not be true of the whole, an…
Exhaustiveness
When an argument fails to consider other relevant options.... C…
Exclusivity
Failing to consider multiple things could be true at the same…
38 terms
Design flaw
flaw
defects
roughly
fuzzy
un défaut... une faille
les malfaçons... défauts / erreurs
en gros... Approximativement... à peu près
flou
flaw
un défaut... une faille
defects
les malfaçons... défauts / erreurs
14 terms
Lesson 17: Flaw + Match the Flaw
"The reasoning in the argument is most…
"The reasoning in the argument is flaw…
"Which of the following is an error in…
Flaw Questions
Flaw
Flaw
Flaw
What's wrong? Reasoning Flaws are not contained in the conclu…
"The reasoning in the argument is most…
Flaw
"The reasoning in the argument is flaw…
Flaw
11 terms
Flaw Types
The Causal Flaw
The Bait + Switch
The Ascriptive Error
The Prescriptive Error
Assumption of Cause - 1.) Supposed causal condition does not…
When you start an argument by offering evidence about Thing A…
The Flaw is the introduction of evidence that has no direct b…
The assumption that the prescription works.
The Causal Flaw
Assumption of Cause - 1.) Supposed causal condition does not…
The Bait + Switch
When you start an argument by offering evidence about Thing A…
22 terms
Flaw Types
mismatched equivocation
mismatched representation
mismatched representation
mismatched representation
allows a key phrase to shift in meaning from one use to the n…
draws a general conclusion from a few isolated instances
generalizes from an unrepresentative sample
assumes parts are equal to whole / assumes whole is equal to…
mismatched equivocation
allows a key phrase to shift in meaning from one use to the n…
mismatched representation
draws a general conclusion from a few isolated instances
12 terms
Flaw Headers
Presupposes that...
Forgets that
Fails to Consider that
Overlooks the possibility that
Assumes Header
Forgets Header
Forgets Header
Forgets Header
Presupposes that...
Assumes Header
Forgets that
Forgets Header
17 terms
Flaw types
OLP General
OLP correlation v causation
OLP necessity v sufficiency
Mismatched concepts
A failure to consider alternative explaination or possible ob…
A conclusion of causation based on evidence of correlation
A conclusion treating a sufficient term in the evidence as if…
A conclusion the scope of terms of which are unwarranted give…
OLP General
A failure to consider alternative explaination or possible ob…
OLP correlation v causation
A conclusion of causation based on evidence of correlation
17 terms
Flaw types
OLP General
OLP correlation v causation
OLP necessity v sufficiency
Mismatched concepts
A failure to consider alternative explaination or possible ob…
A conclusion of causation based on evidence of correlation
A conclusion treating a sufficient term in the evidence as if…
A conclusion the scope of terms of which are unwarranted give…
OLP General
A failure to consider alternative explaination or possible ob…
OLP correlation v causation
A conclusion of causation based on evidence of correlation
23 terms
Flaw Types
Overlooks the possiblity that/ignores…
Assumes only one possibility when more…
Treats one explanation of many as thou…
Mistakes correlation for causation
OP-General
OP-General
OP-General
OP-Causation
Overlooks the possiblity that/ignores…
OP-General
Assumes only one possibility when more…
OP-General
14 terms
FLAW QUESTIONS
Exclusivity Fallacy
Sampling Fallacy
Composition Fallacy
Conditional Fallacy
1. An argument will fail to establish that the list of option…
1. The sample group must be an accurate representation of the…
Fallacies of composition occur when the author assumes that t…
Arguments confusing a sufficient condition with a necessary c…
Exclusivity Fallacy
1. An argument will fail to establish that the list of option…
Sampling Fallacy
1. The sample group must be an accurate representation of the…
17 terms
Flaw Questions
Deconstructing the AC
Forgets
Assumes
Assumes
Evidence to Conclusion Separators (Flow Words)... Common Flaws &…
Overlooks the possibility that
Presupposes that
Presumes without providing justification that
Deconstructing the AC
Evidence to Conclusion Separators (Flow Words)... Common Flaws &…
Forgets
Overlooks the possibility that
21 terms
Flaw questions
How are they different from describe q…
Correct answer on FQ
prompts for flaw question
common characteristics of incorrect an…
They ask you to describe the fallacy as opposed to describe h…
- It names the flaw... -And that flaw occurred in stimulus... *key…
-describe error... -most vulnerable to criticism... -argument is qu…
-fallacies not committed in stimulus... -It miss an important as…
How are they different from describe q…
They ask you to describe the fallacy as opposed to describe h…
Correct answer on FQ
- It names the flaw... -And that flaw occurred in stimulus... *key…
8 terms
Flaw Questions
Exclusivity Fallacy
Sampling Fallacy
Fallacy of Composition
Sufficiency and Necessity Fallacy
1) An argument will fail to establish that the list of option…
To not be a sampling fallacy:... 1) The sample group must be an…
1) From the fact that a whole has a certain property =m it is…
Fallacies of Converse and Inverse occur
Exclusivity Fallacy
1) An argument will fail to establish that the list of option…
Sampling Fallacy
To not be a sampling fallacy:... 1) The sample group must be an…
22 terms
Flaw in the Reasoning
Similar to MOR, but
The question stem will
Correct answer choice will
Must identify
the question stem will indicate that there is a flaw in the r…
indicate that there is a flaw in the reasoning
identify the flaw in the reasoning and describe the error in…
common errors of reason - more know forms of invalid reasonin…
Similar to MOR, but
the question stem will indicate that there is a flaw in the r…
The question stem will
indicate that there is a flaw in the reasoning
26 terms
Flaw in the Reasoning
Correct answer:
Incorrect answer:
COMMON ERRORS OF REASONING EXPLAINED
Examples of questions addressing "unce…
Will identify the error in the author's reasoning and then de…
Describe a portion of the stimulus but fail to identify the e…
Uncertain Use of a Term or Concept. Using a term in different…
"Depending on the ambiguous use of a key term"
Correct answer:
Will identify the error in the author's reasoning and then de…
Incorrect answer:
Describe a portion of the stimulus but fail to identify the e…
31 terms
Flaw in Reasoning
general lack of relevant evidence for…
Self-Contradicting
Overgeneralization
lack of evidence for a position is tak…
misuse information to such a degree that they fail to provide…
occurs when an author makes conflicting statements... __________…
takes a small number of instances and treats those instances…
just because no evidence proving a position has been introduc…
general lack of relevant evidence for…
misuse information to such a degree that they fail to provide…
Self-Contradicting
occurs when an author makes conflicting statements... __________…
16 terms
Flaw in Reasoning
Lack of Relevant Evidence
Internal Contradiction
Exceptional Case/Over-exaggeration
Errors in assessing the Force of Evide…
Failure to provide any information to support conclusion or t…
An internal contradiction occurs when an author makes conflic…
This error takes a small number of instances and treats those…
1. Lack of evidence for a position is taken to prove that pos…
Lack of Relevant Evidence
Failure to provide any information to support conclusion or t…
Internal Contradiction
An internal contradiction occurs when an author makes conflic…
13 terms
Flaw in Reasoning
What family is Flaw in reasoning quest…
The correct answer will reveal...
What are the common errors in reasonin…
what is errors in evidence?... How will…
Prove ... -Accept stimulus information use to prove answer choic…
error in the author's reasoning and then describe that error…
errors used in evidence... internal contradiction ... exceptional c…
-information is misused and does not support the conclusion…
What family is Flaw in reasoning quest…
Prove ... -Accept stimulus information use to prove answer choic…
The correct answer will reveal...
error in the author's reasoning and then describe that error…
210 terms
Flaws (Stimuli)
The senator has long held the general…
Interviewer: You have shown that biofe…
A few critics have dismissed my poems…
Many people do not understand themselv…
Circular reasoning
Circular Reasoning
Circular reasoning.
Circular reasoning
The senator has long held the general…
Circular reasoning
Interviewer: You have shown that biofe…
Circular Reasoning
1 of 10