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Study sets matching "fluid electrolytes"

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Study sets matching "fluid electrolytes"

55 terms
Fluid and electrolytes
ICF (intracellular compartment)
ECF (extracellular compartment)
275 and 300
ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
consists of fluid contained within all of the billions of cel…
one third body water. contains all fluids outside of cell, in…
serum osmolarity numbers
opposite effect of RAAS. increase GFR, decrease sodium reabso…
ICF (intracellular compartment)
consists of fluid contained within all of the billions of cel…
ECF (extracellular compartment)
one third body water. contains all fluids outside of cell, in…
Fluid and Electrolytes
Intracellular Compartment Fluid (ICF)
Extracellular Compartment Fluid (ECF)
Intravascular fluid (IVF)
Interstitial Fluid (ISF)
refers to all the fluid INSIDE the CELL; Most body fluids are…
refers to the fluid OUTSIDE the CELL
ECF location;... the extracellular fluid division that makes up…
ECF location;... the fluid that flows between the cells
Intracellular Compartment Fluid (ICF)
refers to all the fluid INSIDE the CELL; Most body fluids are…
Extracellular Compartment Fluid (ECF)
refers to the fluid OUTSIDE the CELL
30 terms
Fluid and electrolytes
Hypotonic solutions
Hypertonic solutions
Isotonic solutions
Na K pump
1/2 NS... 1/4 NS... 1/3 NS... Anything above 30% NS
Ws and small #s
NS+LR... *0.9 NaCl
Sodium pumped out... K in
Hypotonic solutions
1/2 NS... 1/4 NS... 1/3 NS... Anything above 30% NS
Hypertonic solutions
Ws and small #s
78 terms
fluid & electrolytes
A fluid balance occurs
edema
water is lost from the body in a numbe…
Fluid and electrolyte Imbalances-deficit
between the interstitial and the plasma; this balance is regu…
Some water returns to the blood stream through the lymphatic…
skin,lungs, intestines, kidneys(dissolving)
Common in most patients with illnesses... Excessive sweating... Flu…
A fluid balance occurs
between the interstitial and the plasma; this balance is regu…
edema
Some water returns to the blood stream through the lymphatic…
128 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Isotonic
Hypertonic
Hypotonic
2 primary isotonic IV fluids
SAME solute concentration as plasma
GREATER solute concentration than plasma---thicker, more conc…
LESS solute concentration than plasma----has more water/ liquid
NS 0.9% sodium chloride... LR
Isotonic
SAME solute concentration as plasma
Hypertonic
GREATER solute concentration than plasma---thicker, more conc…
115 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
What is homeostasis?
Homeostasis delivers nutrients such as:
Homeostasis removes waste such as:
What does an imbalance resulting from…
Attain & maintain internal balance
O2 and Glucose
CO2
Illness
What is homeostasis?
Attain & maintain internal balance
Homeostasis delivers nutrients such as:
O2 and Glucose
56 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Homeostasis
Water
Fluid intake
Fluid output/loss
delicate balance of fluids, electrolytes, acids and bases.
Primary body fluid; makes up 60% of weight
Avg. adult needs 2,500 ml/day
Avg. adult ~ 2,500 ml/ dy... urine - 1,400->1500 ml/day... other ro…
Homeostasis
delicate balance of fluids, electrolytes, acids and bases.
Water
Primary body fluid; makes up 60% of weight
96 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Acidosis
Alkalis
Alkalosis
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG's)
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
The condition where the hydrogen ion concentration decreases…
A laboratory test used to evaluate acid-base balance and gas…
Acidosis
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
39 terms
Fluid and Electrolytes
Sodium: Common food source and Lab
Hyponatremia: Causes
Hyponatremia: Hypovolemic Cardiac Sx
135 to 145 mEq/L... Bacon... Butter... Canned food... Cheese, such as Am…
1. Increased sodium excretion: diuretics, excessive sweating,…
thready, weak, rapid pulse rate; hypotension;... flat neck veins…
Sodium: Common food source and Lab
135 to 145 mEq/L... Bacon... Butter... Canned food... Cheese, such as Am…
Hyponatremia: Causes
1. Increased sodium excretion: diuretics, excessive sweating,…
123 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
A nurse is assessing a client who has…
A nurse is assessing a client who is r…
A nurse is assessing a client who is u…
A nurse is assessing a client who has…
A. Decreased muscle strength
A. Sodium 128 mEq/L
C. Provide calming interventions.
B. Cardiac rhythm
A nurse is assessing a client who has…
A. Decreased muscle strength
A nurse is assessing a client who is r…
A. Sodium 128 mEq/L
121 terms
Fluid and Electrolytes
Diffusion
Osmosis
Active Transport
Filtration
random movement of particles through fluid and gas
water shifts back and forth across membrane
movement of solute against a pressure gradient
transfer of water and solute through a semi-permeable membran…
Diffusion
random movement of particles through fluid and gas
Osmosis
water shifts back and forth across membrane
69 terms
Fluid and Electrolytes
1L of water equals
Electrolytes
Cations
Anions
1 kg
Substance whose molecules dissociate into ions when placed in…
Positively charged... Na+, K+, Ca+, Mg+
Negatively charged... Cl-, PO4-, HCO3-
1L of water equals
1 kg
Electrolytes
Substance whose molecules dissociate into ions when placed in…
Fluid and electrolytes
JVD
flat neck veins
Pedal edema
Dry mucous membranes.
What is this? ... What fluid imbalance is this a sign of?
What fluid imbalance are flat neck veins a sign of?
What is this?... What fluid imbalance is this a sign of?
What age group is it especially important to assess mucous me…
JVD
What is this? ... What fluid imbalance is this a sign of?
flat neck veins
What fluid imbalance are flat neck veins a sign of?
191 terms
Fluid and Electrolytes
Hyperkalemia-causes
What is hyperkalemia
S/S of hyperkalemia
Potassium--what does it do
MACHINE... Meds- ACE inhib, NSAIDS, Potossium sparing diuretic... A…
*elevated potassium in the blood... *Meds and kidney damage can…
MURDER... *Muscle weakness... *Urine, oliguria, anuria... *Resp distre…
*Potassium is necessary for the transmission of electrical im…
Hyperkalemia-causes
MACHINE... Meds- ACE inhib, NSAIDS, Potossium sparing diuretic... A…
What is hyperkalemia
*elevated potassium in the blood... *Meds and kidney damage can…
96 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Acidosis
Alkalis
Alkalosis
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG's)
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
The condition where the hydrogen ion concentration decreases…
A laboratory test used to evaluate acid-base balance and gas…
Acidosis
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
59 terms
Fluid and Electrolytes
too much fluid in the vascular space
heart is ___, Co is ____, decreased___…
where is aldosterone found?
when blood volume gets low (vomiting,…
hypervolemia
weak, down, kidney. decrease
adrenal glands
up
too much fluid in the vascular space
hypervolemia
heart is ___, Co is ____, decreased___…
weak, down, kidney. decrease
39 terms
fluid and electrolytes
pH range
PaO2 range
PaCO2
HCO3
7.35-7.45
80mmHg-100mmHg
35mmHg-45mmHg
22mEq/L-26mEq/L
pH range
7.35-7.45
PaO2 range
80mmHg-100mmHg
37 terms
Fluid and Electrolytes
Isontonic solutions
Normal Ph
Ph < 7.35
Ph > 7.45
are most similar to blood plasma
7.35-7.45
acidosis
alkalosis
Isontonic solutions
are most similar to blood plasma
Normal Ph
7.35-7.45
92 terms
Fluid and Electrolytes
Loss of fluid in relation to substance…
Too much water in your vessels
Primary route of excretion
How do we lose fluids?
hemoconcentration
hemodilation
kidney
sweating... vomiting... peeing... diarrhea ... increased respirations or…
Loss of fluid in relation to substance…
hemoconcentration
Too much water in your vessels
hemodilation
50 terms
Fluids and Electrolytes
what is the proportion of water in a n…
what is the major positive ion which i…
what foods are rich in potassium?
how much urine must the kidneys produc…
50-70%
potassium
apricots, asparagus, potatoes and bananas
30 ml per hour
what is the proportion of water in a n…
50-70%
what is the major positive ion which i…
potassium
8 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Major Electrolytes
Sodium
Chloride
Bicarbonate
Sodium(Na+), Calcium(Ca+), Potassium (K+), Magnesium(Mg2+), C…
135-145 mEq/L
95-105 mEq/L
22-30 mEq/L
Major Electrolytes
Sodium(Na+), Calcium(Ca+), Potassium (K+), Magnesium(Mg2+), C…
Sodium
135-145 mEq/L
96 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Acidosis
Alkalis
Alkalosis
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG's)
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
The condition where the hydrogen ion concentration decreases…
A laboratory test used to evaluate acid-base balance and gas…
Acidosis
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
Fluid & Electrolytes
Acidosis
Alkalis
Alkalosis
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG's)
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
The condition where the hydrogen ion concentration decreases…
A laboratory test used to evaluate acid-base balance and gas…
Acidosis
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
32 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Describe the composition of the major…
Describe the processes involved in reg…
Describe common fluid, electrolyte imb…
Identify risk factors for fluid and el…
Intracellular 2/3:... the two fluid compartments in the body ar…
Water regulation:... Hypothalamic-Pituitary Regulation:... Water in…
Page 292 lewis (fluid imbalance) ... Page 295 table (lewis) (ele…
Fluid and electrolyte imbalances occur to some degree in most…
Describe the composition of the major…
Intracellular 2/3:... the two fluid compartments in the body ar…
Describe the processes involved in reg…
Water regulation:... Hypothalamic-Pituitary Regulation:... Water in…
16 terms
fluid/electrolytes
fluid intake
leads to thirst
sodium value
hyponatremia risk
from oral intake ... 2300ml
increased plasma osmololity... decreased plasma volume ... angioten…
135-145
too much water, vomit, diarrhea, SIADH
fluid intake
from oral intake ... 2300ml
leads to thirst
increased plasma osmololity... decreased plasma volume ... angioten…
78 terms
fluid & electrolytes
A fluid balance occurs
edema
water is lost from the body in a numbe…
Fluid and electrolyte Imbalances-deficit
between the interstitial and the plasma; this balance is regu…
Some water returns to the blood stream through the lymphatic…
skin,lungs, intestines, kidneys(dissolving)
Common in most patients with illnesses... Excessive sweating... Flu…
A fluid balance occurs
between the interstitial and the plasma; this balance is regu…
edema
Some water returns to the blood stream through the lymphatic…
14 terms
Fluid & electrolytes
Fluid vol. excess
Fluid vol. deficit
>145 mEq/L... serum osm >300
<135 mEq/L (mmol/L)
Fluid vol. excess
Fluid vol. deficit
83 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
How much does weight vary in 24 hours…
Vital functions of water to health and…
Factors affecting total body water. (3)
The proportion of body water decreases…
>0.2 kg (0.5 lb) regardless of the amount of fluid ingested.
Medium for metabolic reactions within cells.... Transport nutrie…
Age, Sex, & Body fat
True. In people older than 60 years of age, it represents onl…
How much does weight vary in 24 hours…
>0.2 kg (0.5 lb) regardless of the amount of fluid ingested.
Vital functions of water to health and…
Medium for metabolic reactions within cells.... Transport nutrie…
38 terms
Fluid/Electrolytes
Anion
Cation
Osmolality
Osmolarity
Ion that carries a negative charge
Ion that carries a positive charge
A measure of the total solute concentration per kilogram of s…
A measure of the total solute concentration per liter of solu…
Anion
Ion that carries a negative charge
Cation
Ion that carries a positive charge
72 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Anions
Cations
Sodium
Serum Sodium normal levels
are electolytes that generate a negative charge. IE: bicarbon…
are electrolytes that generate a positive charge. IE: calcium…
Main ECF cation. Effect serum osmolarity and extracellular fl…
135-145 mEq/L
Anions
are electolytes that generate a negative charge. IE: bicarbon…
Cations
are electrolytes that generate a positive charge. IE: calcium…
96 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Acidosis
Alkalis
Alkalosis
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG's)
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
The condition where the hydrogen ion concentration decreases…
A laboratory test used to evaluate acid-base balance and gas…
Acidosis
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
23 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Sodium
Normal range for sodium
Hypernatremia >145
Hyponatremia < 135
Extracellular- ion with a positive charge... water follows sodiu…
135-145
FRIED... Fever... restless... increased fluid retention & increased BP…
Restlessness, irritability, N/V, H/A, cramps, seizures, fatig…
Sodium
Extracellular- ion with a positive charge... water follows sodiu…
Normal range for sodium
135-145
52 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Total Body Water (TBW)
2/3
1/3
interstitial fluid, intravascular, mis…
sum of all fluids within all body compartments... - 45-80% of bo…
amount of intracellular fluid out of TBW
amount of extracellular fluid out of TBW
extracellular fluid components
Total Body Water (TBW)
sum of all fluids within all body compartments... - 45-80% of bo…
2/3
amount of intracellular fluid out of TBW
96 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Acidosis
Alkalis
Alkalosis
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG's)
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
The condition where the hydrogen ion concentration decreases…
A laboratory test used to evaluate acid-base balance and gas…
Acidosis
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
96 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Acidosis
Alkalis
Alkalosis
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG's)
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
The condition where the hydrogen ion concentration decreases…
A laboratory test used to evaluate acid-base balance and gas…
Acidosis
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
91 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Homeostasis
Intracellular fluid
Extracellular fluid
7.35-7.45
What is the delicate balance of fluids, electrolytes, and aci…
Components inside the cell; electrolytes and glucose
Components outside the cell, transports nutrients/waste.
What is the normal pH of blood?
Homeostasis
What is the delicate balance of fluids, electrolytes, and aci…
Intracellular fluid
Components inside the cell; electrolytes and glucose
35 terms
Fluid/Electrolytes
2 fluid compartments
ECF
ICF
Diffusion
ECF and ICF
water outside of the cell
water in the cell, 2/3 of body weight, most resistant to chan…
movement of particles across a permeable membrane from high c…
2 fluid compartments
ECF and ICF
ECF
water outside of the cell
30 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
electrolytes
intracellular fluid (ICF)
extracellular fluid (ECF)
intravascular fluid
a compound that separates into ions (charged particles) when…
a compartment of body fluid that's located inside the cells;…
the extracellular compartment of body fluid, encompassing *…
the liquid portion of the blood (i.e., the plasma)
electrolytes
a compound that separates into ions (charged particles) when…
intracellular fluid (ICF)
a compartment of body fluid that's located inside the cells;…
fluid & electrolytes
Why are older adults at risk for dehyd…
s/s of dehydration in older adults
Who are at most risk for developing de…
How much percentage of body fluid loss…
-fat replaces lean muscle... -kidney can't concentrate urine = e…
-thirst... -dry mucous membranes... -increased heart rate... -decrease…
-very young... -very old... -obese
serious = 10%... fatal = 20%... Infants... serious = 5%... very serious =…
Why are older adults at risk for dehyd…
-fat replaces lean muscle... -kidney can't concentrate urine = e…
s/s of dehydration in older adults
-thirst... -dry mucous membranes... -increased heart rate... -decrease…
110 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
What is the importance of fluid?
Where is intracellular fluid located?
What solutes are in intracellular fluid?
What are the electrolytes in intracell…
-transports nutrients, oxygen, electrolytes & waste products…
within cells
-oxygen... -glucose... -phosphate... -electrolytes
-Potassium... -Magnesium... -Chloride
What is the importance of fluid?
-transports nutrients, oxygen, electrolytes & waste products…
Where is intracellular fluid located?
within cells
40 terms
fluid and electrolytes
normal hct values
normal hgb levels
WBC count
platelet count
42-52%
12-18
5,000 - 10,000 mm^3
Normal 150,000-400,00
normal hct values
42-52%
normal hgb levels
12-18
96 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
Acidosis
Alkalis
Alkalosis
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG's)
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
The condition where the hydrogen ion concentration decreases…
A laboratory test used to evaluate acid-base balance and gas…
Acidosis
The condition in which the hydrogen ion concentration increas…
Alkalis
Alkalis are bases that accept hydrogen ions in solution.
133 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
What is the average amount of "fluid i…
What is insensible loss? What happens…
Insensible loss is minimized due to th…
T or F: The increased fluid loss after…
2300ml... Ingestion = 2100... Breakdown of carbs = 200
-Fluid lost through the skin and lungs... -nothing changes; inse…
Cornified
true
What is the average amount of "fluid i…
2300ml... Ingestion = 2100... Breakdown of carbs = 200
What is insensible loss? What happens…
-Fluid lost through the skin and lungs... -nothing changes; inse…
83 terms
Fluid & Electrolytes
How much does weight vary in 24 hours…
Vital functions of water to health and…
Factors affecting total body water. (3)
The proportion of body water decreases…
>0.2 kg (0.5 lb) regardless of the amount of fluid ingested.
Medium for metabolic reactions within cells.... Transport nutrie…
Age, Sex, & Body fat
True. In people older than 60 years of age, it represents onl…
How much does weight vary in 24 hours…
>0.2 kg (0.5 lb) regardless of the amount of fluid ingested.
Vital functions of water to health and…
Medium for metabolic reactions within cells.... Transport nutrie…
27 terms
Fluid and Electrolytes
Intracellular Compartment Fluid (ICF)
Extracellular Compartment Fluid (ECF)
Intravascular fluid (IVF)
Interstitial Fluid (ISF)
refers to all the fluid INSIDE the CELL; Most body fluids are…
refers to the fluid OUTSIDE the CELL
ECF location;... the extracellular fluid division that makes up…
ECF location;... the fluid that flows between the cells
Intracellular Compartment Fluid (ICF)
refers to all the fluid INSIDE the CELL; Most body fluids are…
Extracellular Compartment Fluid (ECF)
refers to the fluid OUTSIDE the CELL
25 terms
fluid and electrolytes
2 fluid compartments
why are fluid compartments dependent o…
fluid intake
preformed water
blood plasma and interstitial fluid
continuously work together to keep an isotonic solution ... - w…
addition of water to the body. ... -2 categories = preformed wat…
the water absorbed from food and drink taken into the GI trac…
2 fluid compartments
blood plasma and interstitial fluid
why are fluid compartments dependent o…
continuously work together to keep an isotonic solution ... - w…
180 terms
Fluid and Electrolytes
Hyperkalemia-causes
What is hyperkalemia
S/S of hyperkalemia
Potassium--what does it do
MACHINE... >Meds- ACE inhib, NSAIDS, Potossium sparing diuretic…
*elevated potassium in the blood... *Meds and kidney damage can…
MURDER... *Muscle weakness, abdominal cramps... *Urine (oliguria, a…
*Potassium is necessary for the transmission of electrical im…
Hyperkalemia-causes
MACHINE... >Meds- ACE inhib, NSAIDS, Potossium sparing diuretic…
What is hyperkalemia
*elevated potassium in the blood... *Meds and kidney damage can…
28 terms
Fluid and Electrolytes
Hypotonic
0.45% saline
Hypertonic
10% dextrose in water
Less solute than isotonic solutions
1/2 strength normal saline
Higher concentration of solutes
Replace electrolytes (D10 W)
Hypotonic
Less solute than isotonic solutions
0.45% saline
1/2 strength normal saline
65 terms
Fluid and Electrolytes
Magnesium (Mg2+)
Hypermagnesemia
Hypomagnesemia
Phosphorus (P3-)
1.5 - 2.5... Muscle relaxations
-Muscles are too relaxed... -Decreased deep tendon reflexes (Dtr…
-Muscles are excited... -Increased deep tendon reflexes... -Seizure…
2.5 - 4.5... Muscle contractions
Magnesium (Mg2+)
1.5 - 2.5... Muscle relaxations
Hypermagnesemia
-Muscles are too relaxed... -Decreased deep tendon reflexes (Dtr…
172 terms
Fluid and Electrolytes
Water percentage of body weight is wat…
Location of fluid in the body? (2)
Fluid in spaces between cells
Liquid part of blood
50-60% Men>Women ... 70-80% younger>older... 45-55%
ICF Intracellular fluid (inside cells)... ECF Extracellular flui…
interstitial fluid
Plasma
Water percentage of body weight is wat…
50-60% Men>Women ... 70-80% younger>older... 45-55%
Location of fluid in the body? (2)
ICF Intracellular fluid (inside cells)... ECF Extracellular flui…
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