How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Study sets matching "foaling"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "foaling"

8 terms
Foaling
Gestation
prior to foaling
1 month prior
two weeks
length: 335- 360... -majority of fetal growth in the last 3 months
-4 or so months ... -nutrition of mare ... -vaccination ... * best imm…
-booster vaccination... -mares blood and foal's blood do not mix
-remove Caslicks ... -start watching
Gestation
length: 335- 360... -majority of fetal growth in the last 3 months
prior to foaling
-4 or so months ... -nutrition of mare ... -vaccination ... * best imm…
17 terms
Foaling
Mares prefer:
Keep on hand:
Advantages to foaling a pasture
Foaling stalls
To birth at night in privacy... Foal the minute you leave
Vets number... Watch or clock... Clean, quiet place to foal... Stall... S…
Cleaner than a stall... Healthy environment and space to foal
Allow for more secure foaling ... Stalls a minimum of 14x14 ft.…
Mares prefer:
To birth at night in privacy... Foal the minute you leave
Keep on hand:
Vets number... Watch or clock... Clean, quiet place to foal... Stall... S…
27 terms
Foaling
gestation period
majority of fetal growth takes place w…
4 months prior to foaling
one month prior
335-360 days avg 340
true
increase nutrition and vaccination
booster vaccination
gestation period
335-360 days avg 340
majority of fetal growth takes place w…
true
15 terms
foaling
what is stage 1?
what is stage 2?
what is stage 3?
how long should stage 1 be?
cervical dilatation
active expulsion
placental delivery
hours, if stressed can be delayed for days
what is stage 1?
cervical dilatation
what is stage 2?
active expulsion
27 terms
Foaling
What is the gestational length of a ma…
What is the normal range of the gestat…
What is a caslicks?
What booster vaccinations should a hor…
340 d
320-365d
When we suture a portion of the upper vulva closed to prevent…
EHV-1, EEE, WEE, WNV, Tetanus, Influenza
What is the gestational length of a ma…
340 d
What is the normal range of the gestat…
320-365d
21 terms
Foal
A sick foal will ------ get better on…
Signs of a sick foal
TPR for a healthy foal
TPR on a sick foal
Rarely
Rarely gets up to nurse... Roots around mate but doesn't latch o…
T- 98-101.5... P- 90-120... R-20-40
T- <98 or >101.5... P- <90 or > 120... R - <20 or >40
A sick foal will ------ get better on…
Rarely
Signs of a sick foal
Rarely gets up to nurse... Roots around mate but doesn't latch o…
46 terms
Foals
High Risk Mare; Historical Events
High Risk Mare; Events During Current…
High Risk Mare; Events During Parturit…
Evaluation of the Neonate; Behaviour
- Unhealthy uterine environment; repeated breedings, abortion…
- Premature lactation; colostrum loss... - Disease during gestat…
- Poor udder development... - Dystocia; stage 1 = 30min-4h, stag…
- Sternal recumbency w/in 5 mins... - Suckle reflex w/in 20 mins…
High Risk Mare; Historical Events
- Unhealthy uterine environment; repeated breedings, abortion…
High Risk Mare; Events During Current…
- Premature lactation; colostrum loss... - Disease during gestat…
59 terms
Foals
How long should it take for a foal to…
Time for suck reflex to develop?
Time for a foal to stand?
Time for a foal to suck?
<5 mins
5-10 mins
0-1 hr
0-2 hours
How long should it take for a foal to…
<5 mins
Time for suck reflex to develop?
5-10 mins
48 terms
Foals
mare abnormalities that could lead to…
labor and delivery problems that can l…
what to do first for a sick foal
O2 flow rate
systemic illness... purulent discharge... premature lactation
abnormal gestation length... dystocia... prolonged delivery... hypoxia
stabilization
4-5 L/min
mare abnormalities that could lead to…
systemic illness... purulent discharge... premature lactation
labor and delivery problems that can l…
abnormal gestation length... dystocia... prolonged delivery... hypoxia
16 terms
Foals
Prematurity/dysmaturity
Risk factors for neonatal disease
Immune function/Colostrum
Failure of passive transfer
Premature <320 days... Dysmature >320 days but signs of immaturi…
Mare... - Placentitis... - Placental insufficiency... - Illness... - Earl…
Need 1l of colostrum in first 8 hours, transporters close by…
Should stand in 1 hours and suck within 2 ... <4g/l is failure,…
Prematurity/dysmaturity
Premature <320 days... Dysmature >320 days but signs of immaturi…
Risk factors for neonatal disease
Mare... - Placentitis... - Placental insufficiency... - Illness... - Earl…
28 terms
Foals
post foaling
if foal is not active
first 24 hrs
Vet call
rule 1-2-3... stand within 1 hr... nurse within 2 hr... - colostrum... -…
- call vet... - mouth to nose resuscitation... 20 - 25/ min... - cardi…
- foal nurse every 30 min to 2 hr... - urinate and defecate... - na…
- 12 - 24 hr after birth... - physical exam of foal and mare... - e…
post foaling
rule 1-2-3... stand within 1 hr... nurse within 2 hr... - colostrum... -…
if foal is not active
- call vet... - mouth to nose resuscitation... 20 - 25/ min... - cardi…
125 terms
foals
post foaling check when is it done and…
what do you assess in a foaling check
what is normal TPR for a foal (at 24 h…
what are you looking for on foal clini…
done at 1 day of age... Aim to detect & address problems early
- Clinical examination of foal... - Assess passive transfer of t…
T: 37 - 39oC... P: 80 - 100 bpm ... R: 30 - 35 bpm... higher than an a…
bear in mind congenital disease... Eyes - entriopion?... Umbilicus…
post foaling check when is it done and…
done at 1 day of age... Aim to detect & address problems early
what do you assess in a foaling check
- Clinical examination of foal... - Assess passive transfer of t…
69 terms
the foal
A healthy foal
a sick foal
TPR A healthy foal (neonate)
TPR a sick foal ( neonate)
Is up and nursing 4-6 times an hour... Latches on vigorously and…
Only gets up to nurse 1-2 x an hour, or not at all.... Roots aro…
T: 98-101.5F... P: 90-120bpm... R: 20-40/min... MM: pink, moist... CRT: <…
T: <98F or > 101.5F... P: <90 or >120bpm... R: <20 or > 40/min... MM:…
A healthy foal
Is up and nursing 4-6 times an hour... Latches on vigorously and…
a sick foal
Only gets up to nurse 1-2 x an hour, or not at all.... Roots aro…
23 terms
Broodmare - Foaling
Gestation period
Expected foaling date
Signs of impending foaling
Bagging up
325-365 days, average 345
Subtract 3 weeks from date of ovulation
Bagging up, waxing, vulva elongates, tail head softens, evacu…
Increase in mammary development, fluid starts to accumulate.…
Gestation period
325-365 days, average 345
Expected foaling date
Subtract 3 weeks from date of ovulation
11 terms
Foaling Mare and Newborn Foal
Foaling stalls:
Clues the mare is about to foal:
Prior to foaling:
Normal presentation of foal:
Minimum of 14x14 feet with bedding and disinfected. Straw is…
The teats become engorged 4-6 days before birth and the teats…
Wrap the mare's tail when the first sign of labor is observed…
Diving position, front feet first, head, and then hind.
Foaling stalls:
Minimum of 14x14 feet with bedding and disinfected. Straw is…
Clues the mare is about to foal:
The teats become engorged 4-6 days before birth and the teats…
60 terms
foaling management
320-360 days
subtract 25 from ovulation day or minu…
longer
late winter or early spring
how long is gestation
how to calculate the due date
mares bred earlier in the season tend to have ____ gestation
duration of pregnancy is 5-10 days longer in mares due to foa…
320-360 days
how long is gestation
subtract 25 from ovulation day or minu…
how to calculate the due date
60 terms
Foaling management
dystocia
uterine inertia, narrowing of birth ca…
abnormal presentation, abnormal postur…
red bag
refers to an abnormal or difficult birth most prevalent in ma…
maternal causes of dystocia
fetal causes of dystocia
Premature placental seperation, emergency, rupture membrane i…
dystocia
refers to an abnormal or difficult birth most prevalent in ma…
uterine inertia, narrowing of birth ca…
maternal causes of dystocia
9 terms
Predicting Foaling
Mechanical aids
milk strip test
external signs
weeks from foaling
Birth alarm... Foal Alert sutured to the vulva water breaks
rise in calcium
anatomical changes weeks days hours before
relax muscles udder enlarges... nipples fill out asymmetrical vi…
Mechanical aids
Birth alarm... Foal Alert sutured to the vulva water breaks
milk strip test
rise in calcium
52 terms
foaling, dystocia
what care should owners take during th…
what care should owners take during th…
what vaccines should be given to the p…
average length of pregnancy in the mare
treat the mare like normal! there are benefits from moderate…
restricted exercise - light to moderate. even a pasture mare…
boosters (5 way)- one month b4 foaling to increase the Ab lev…
338-343 (320-380) d
what care should owners take during th…
treat the mare like normal! there are benefits from moderate…
what care should owners take during th…
restricted exercise - light to moderate. even a pasture mare…
9 terms
Breeding/Foaling
By how many weeks is a brood mare at p…
On which month of pregnancy is the mar…
When is a brood mare vaccinated for Rh…
What hormone is administered to help b…
7 weeks after foaling
10th month
5th, 7th, and 9th months of pregnancy
Progesterone
By how many weeks is a brood mare at p…
7 weeks after foaling
On which month of pregnancy is the mar…
10th month
16 terms
Foaling 1
Basic approach for keeping a foal heal…
How often does a foal drink, and what…
Normal TPR for a 24 hour old foal?
When does optimal absorption of colost…
Hygiene! Very important, clean environment = healthier foal
They feed for 2 minutes every 10 minutes. ... Foals drink 25% of…
T - 37-39... P - 80-100... R - 30-35
Within the first 8 hours of life (but none after 24hours)
Basic approach for keeping a foal heal…
Hygiene! Very important, clean environment = healthier foal
How often does a foal drink, and what…
They feed for 2 minutes every 10 minutes. ... Foals drink 25% of…
23 terms
Foaling 2
Treatment of foal colic (non-surgical)
When do you refer?
2 most common differentials for foal c…
How to diagnose MI?
-NSAIDs... -Muscle relaxants (GIT)... -Butorphonal (sedatives)
-unresponsive to NSAIDs... -not feeding... -increasingly distended…
-Meconium impaction... -Bladder rupture (dystocia)
-Digital rectal... -ultrasound/radiograph... -signalment/history
Treatment of foal colic (non-surgical)
-NSAIDs... -Muscle relaxants (GIT)... -Butorphonal (sedatives)
When do you refer?
-unresponsive to NSAIDs... -not feeding... -increasingly distended…
36 terms
Breeding and Foaling
300 days
Warm cloth
Teats wax
Rump and tailhead
Horse's gestation period
When mare is too sensitive to let foal nurse
Foal will be born in next day or so
Muscles that soften before foaling
300 days
Horse's gestation period
Warm cloth
When mare is too sensitive to let foal nurse
Gestation and Foaling
Gestation Length
Mares with fillies foal on average ___…
Early Embryo
Embryo migrates in the uterus for
Average 338-343 days.... Normal gestation can range from 320-380…
3 days
5-6 days enters uterus
16 day
Gestation Length
Average 338-343 days.... Normal gestation can range from 320-380…
Mares with fillies foal on average ___…
3 days
34 terms
foaling and the neonate
when does most foaling occur?
what are some signs of impending partu…
stage 1 is also the
what are clinical signs of stage 1
night
edema of legs and ventral abdomen... udder enlargement 2-4 weeks…
preparatory stage
restlessness, pacing, sweating, not eatin
when does most foaling occur?
night
what are some signs of impending partu…
edema of legs and ventral abdomen... udder enlargement 2-4 weeks…
63 terms
Foaling and Foal Management~ First Exam
Pastures, paddocks, stall
Weather, owners preference, mares foal…
Things foaling attendant should consider
Advantages of pastures
What are three types of fooling facilities?
Whether a particular system is used depends on several factor…
Mare has to be present long enough to produce colostral antib…
Most hygienic, maximum freedom from infection. Privacy & isol…
Pastures, paddocks, stall
What are three types of fooling facilities?
Weather, owners preference, mares foal…
Whether a particular system is used depends on several factor…
8 terms
foaling final - misc
neonatal maladjustment
causes of neonatal maladjustment
how to treat neonatal maladjustment
levels of foal rejection
may not have gotten enough oxygen in the foaling process, com…
hypoxic episode before or during birth, have higher level of…
the big squeeze, replicate birth process by squeezing chest f…
avoidance of foal, prevention of nursing, agression
neonatal maladjustment
may not have gotten enough oxygen in the foaling process, com…
causes of neonatal maladjustment
hypoxic episode before or during birth, have higher level of…
28 terms
foaling final - lactation
provides antibody transfer and the nut…
mammary gland structure
milk is produced by ___
milk is secreted into duct system aka…
mammary glands
divided into 2 halves, 4 quarters, results in 2 jets of milk
specialized epithelial cells aka alveoli
lumen of alveoli
provides antibody transfer and the nut…
mammary glands
mammary gland structure
divided into 2 halves, 4 quarters, results in 2 jets of milk
33 terms
foaling final - diseases
lethal white
lethal white results from ___
signs of lethal white
SCID
absence of normal intestinal movement, born with narrow or ab…
foals of overo-overo breeding
pure white, colic signs 2-24 hours after birth, no fecal mate…
inherited disease in arabians, ineffective immune system and…
lethal white
absence of normal intestinal movement, born with narrow or ab…
lethal white results from ___
foals of overo-overo breeding
13 terms
foaling final - postpartum
most common problem in early post part…
medical problems from a retained place…
signs of retained placenta
treatment of retained placenta
retained placenta
rapid bacterial growth, sepsis, death
red discharge, depression, anorexia, fever
could give a single dose of oxytocin, or infusion of fluid in…
most common problem in early post part…
retained placenta
medical problems from a retained place…
rapid bacterial growth, sepsis, death
33 terms
foaling final - dystocia
an abnormal or difficult birth, consid…
dystocia occurs in ____ of all births
maternal causes of dystocia
___ cause of dystocia most common
dystocia
4-8%
uterine inertia, narrowing of birth canal from a pelvic fract…
fetal
an abnormal or difficult birth, consid…
dystocia
dystocia occurs in ____ of all births
4-8%
11 terms
foaling final - induction of labor
is routine induction of labor recommen…
reasons to induce
guidelines for induction
techniques - oxytocin
no, can promote delivery of dysmature foal
high risk mares, history of dystocia, premature separation of…
at least 330 days gestation, enlarged mammary gland, waxing u…
best choice in mare, give low dose and mare will deliver 8-10…
is routine induction of labor recommen…
no, can promote delivery of dysmature foal
reasons to induce
high risk mares, history of dystocia, premature separation of…
45 terms
Foaling Test 2
What do micro cotyledons do?
What is important for utero-placental…
Utero-placental function
What are the factors affecting fetal m…
Transfer nutrients and remove waste
Relies on adequate exchange of nutrients
Fetal well being... Any stage of gestation (later stages)
Age... Fertility... Reproductive health... Present health
What do micro cotyledons do?
Transfer nutrients and remove waste
What is important for utero-placental…
Relies on adequate exchange of nutrients
22 terms
Neonatal Foal
Urachus
Nosocomial
Omphalitis
Bacteremia
A canal in the umbilicus that drains the urinary bladder
Resistant infections acquired in the hospital
Inflammation of the umbilicus
Infection in the bloodstream
Urachus
A canal in the umbilicus that drains the urinary bladder
Nosocomial
Resistant infections acquired in the hospital
25 terms
Foal Medicine
How long does it take for the foal to…
Define dysmaturtiy
Foals will be immunocompetent at birth…
When will maternal IgG levels decline…
24-48 hours
Foal that is born at full term (340 days) that displays immat…
Foals can produce antibodies to an infection, but lack memory…
After 1-2 months.
How long does it take for the foal to…
24-48 hours
Define dysmaturtiy
Foal that is born at full term (340 days) that displays immat…
15 terms
Foal Information
Foal Weaning
Meconium Complications
Prematurity
Immaturity
-between 5 and 6 months of age (sometimes earlier)... -better wh…
Fetal Life... -meconium defecation in amniotic fluid... -a sign of…
-born before terms (less than 320 days)
-born at term but with signs of delayed/poor development
Foal Weaning
-between 5 and 6 months of age (sometimes earlier)... -better wh…
Meconium Complications
Fetal Life... -meconium defecation in amniotic fluid... -a sign of…
10 terms
The Princess And The Foal
Straddling
Smattering
Precariously
Pantomime
To walk, stand, or sit with one leg on each side of; stand or…
A small amount.
Having insufficient, little, or no foundation.
A play or entertainment in which the performers express thems…
Straddling
To walk, stand, or sit with one leg on each side of; stand or…
Smattering
A small amount.
80 terms
Foal Medicine
What common problems of the dam may re…
What should you do if a high risk preg…
How do you obtain a fetal ECG?
When might the placenta be thickened?
- previous /common disease... - poor perineal conformation... - poo…
assess foetus for viability - feel for movement on rectal exa…
place adult ECG over the abdomen... fetal HR in the last months…
placentitis
What common problems of the dam may re…
- previous /common disease... - poor perineal conformation... - poo…
What should you do if a high risk preg…
assess foetus for viability - feel for movement on rectal exa…
Vaccinations for foals
Tetanus CORE
Eastern/western equine encephalomyelit…
Rabies CORE
West Nile virus CORE
vaccinated mom- 1st dose 4-6 months, 2nd dose 4-6 wks, 3rd do…
vacc. same; unvacc- 1st dose 3-4 months 2nd 4 wks after and 3…
2 dose; unvacc- annual revacc
ugh same.
Tetanus CORE
vaccinated mom- 1st dose 4-6 months, 2nd dose 4-6 wks, 3rd do…
Eastern/western equine encephalomyelit…
vacc. same; unvacc- 1st dose 3-4 months 2nd 4 wks after and 3…
21 terms
Foal Management
suitable location for foaling
preparing for parturition
pre-partum changes
monitoring parturition
4-6 weeks prior to due date... clean, dry, protection against e…
suitable location for foaling, udder cleansed with mild deter…
waxing of teats... -early colostrum formation... -typically 1-4 day…
sleep in the barn, video, sound monitors, various foal alert…
suitable location for foaling
4-6 weeks prior to due date... clean, dry, protection against e…
preparing for parturition
suitable location for foaling, udder cleansed with mild deter…
25 terms
Diarrhea in Foals
Rotavirus etiology
Rotavirus pathogenesis
Clinical signs of Rotavirus
Diagnosis of Rotavirus
- fecal oral route... - 2 days to 4-5 months of age... - at least 1…
- destruction of lactose-producing cells and absorptive cells…
- depression... - failure to suckle -- "milk face" because canno…
- easy usually -- lot of foals with SAME diarrhea... - epidemiol…
Rotavirus etiology
- fecal oral route... - 2 days to 4-5 months of age... - at least 1…
Rotavirus pathogenesis
- destruction of lactose-producing cells and absorptive cells…
10 terms
Sepsis in Foals
Contributing factors
Routes of introduction
Passive transfer needed
Sepsis definition
failure of passive transfer, placentitis, pathogenic bacteria…
inhalation, ingestion, wounds, umbilicus.
IgG>800 mg/dl considered adequate.
systemic disease caused by circulating microorganisms and the…
Contributing factors
failure of passive transfer, placentitis, pathogenic bacteria…
Routes of introduction
inhalation, ingestion, wounds, umbilicus.
19 terms
Foal Pneumonia
What are predisposing factors for foal…
How can the foals acquire an infection?
What are the more common clinical signs?
What other clinical signs are there?
immaturity of the lung, immature immune system, FPT, poor hyg…
in-utero (ascending bacterial infection of placenta), during…
weakness and depression
non-specific signs (depression, fever, anorexia, dehydration)…
What are predisposing factors for foal…
immaturity of the lung, immature immune system, FPT, poor hyg…
How can the foals acquire an infection?
in-utero (ascending bacterial infection of placenta), during…
19 terms
Dz & foal
Navlcular syndrome (heel pain)
Laminitis (founder)
Foot abscess (subsolar)
Equine infectious anemia (EIA)
upright feet egg shells worse when work on hard surface (Infl…
Inflam of sensitive laminae (+/- rotation of coffin bone low…
open wound w/ infection (whiteline-wall &bulb-coronary bad)
Retro-virus = blood sucking fly (WBC)... coggins test Re portable
Navlcular syndrome (heel pain)
upright feet egg shells worse when work on hard surface (Infl…
Laminitis (founder)
Inflam of sensitive laminae (+/- rotation of coffin bone low…
21 terms
2016 Foals
Cowboy
Penny
Kaya
Leddy
Regal Ransom
Brilliant Speed
Tizdejavu
Invasor
Cowboy
Regal Ransom
Penny
Brilliant Speed
15 terms
Mares and Foals
Length of gestation
domperidone
last 3 months
rhinopneumonitis
340 days
fescue toxin antecdote... given 15 days prior to calculated foa…
increase grain with high quality legume
3, 5, 7 & 9 months with killed vaccine for pregnant mares
Length of gestation
340 days
domperidone
fescue toxin antecdote... given 15 days prior to calculated foa…
109 terms
Foal medicine
What problems in the Dam can result in…
What should be assessed if the pregnan…
What is the normal fetal HR in the lat…
What may help support a high risk preg…
- Previous/current disease... - Poor perineal conformation... - Poo…
Fetal viability... - Fetal movement on rectal palpation... - US ass…
65-115 bpm
Exogenous progesterone (altrenogest (regumate)) given daily u…
What problems in the Dam can result in…
- Previous/current disease... - Poor perineal conformation... - Poo…
What should be assessed if the pregnan…
Fetal viability... - Fetal movement on rectal palpation... - US ass…
29 terms
Foal Diarrhea
Rotavirus etiology
Rotavirus pathogenesis
Rotavirus clinical signs
Rotavirus dx
Fecal oral route... 2 days to 4-5 mos. of age ... High morbidity, l…
destruction o the lactose- producing cells and absorptive cel…
depression, failure to suckle... Diarrhea varies from mild to pr…
signs... ELISA... latex agglutination
Rotavirus etiology
Fecal oral route... 2 days to 4-5 mos. of age ... High morbidity, l…
Rotavirus pathogenesis
destruction o the lactose- producing cells and absorptive cel…
20 terms
peripartum foal
Normal mare gestation length
what mares may produce low qualtiy col…
what should you do if a mare is drippi…
What is the problem with foaling on wo…
340 +/- 25 days
old or very young
ultrasound to look for placentitis
They have higher levels of Klebbsiella: foal on straw or gree…
Normal mare gestation length
340 +/- 25 days
what mares may produce low qualtiy col…
old or very young
127 terms
Foal Medicine
Where do most problems that neonatal f…
Which common problems of the dam can l…
How can you assess fetal viability?
What would an increased placental thic…
in utero
previous/current dz... poor perineal conformation... poor nutrition…
feel for movement on rectal exam or US... assess fetal fluids... pl…
placentitis
Where do most problems that neonatal f…
in utero
Which common problems of the dam can l…
previous/current dz... poor perineal conformation... poor nutrition…
1 of 10