Study sets matching "gene expression"

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Study sets matching "gene expression"

20 terms
Gene Expression
Transcription
Translation
Proteins
DNA template strand
A process that occurs in the nucleus to create an mRNA strand…
The process that occurs at a ribosome to create a chain of am…
Biological molecules made out of amino acids and coded for by…
The strand with complementary bases to the mRNA strand being…
Transcription
A process that occurs in the nucleus to create an mRNA strand…
Translation
The process that occurs at a ribosome to create a chain of am…
11 terms
Gene Expression
gene expression
transcription
translation
5' cap
The process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or…
The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template.
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information…
A modified form of guanine nucleotide added onto the nucleoti…
gene expression
The process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or…
transcription
The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template.
24 terms
Gene expression
adenine
cytosine
thymine
guanine
One of the 4 nucleic acids that pairs with thymine. A purine…
One of the 4 nucleic acids that pairs with guanine. A pyrimid…
One of the 4 nucleic acids that pairs with adenine. A pyrimid…
One of the 4 nucleic acids that pairs with cytosine. A purine…
adenine
One of the 4 nucleic acids that pairs with thymine. A purine…
cytosine
One of the 4 nucleic acids that pairs with guanine. A pyrimid…
25 terms
Gene Expression
activator
catabolite activator protein CAP
inducible operon
lac operon
protein that binds to prokaryotic operators to increase trans…
protein that complexes with cAMP to bind to the promoter sequ…
operon that can be activated or repressed depending on cellul…
operon in prokaryotic cells that encodes genes required for p…
activator
protein that binds to prokaryotic operators to increase trans…
catabolite activator protein CAP
protein that complexes with cAMP to bind to the promoter sequ…
Gene Expression
macromolecules
monomer
glucose
RNA is copied from DNA
these is a large molecule.
single part or unit(building blocks)
I'm a simple sugar, who just so happens to be a carbohydrate.
What is the first step of protein synthesis?... A. Peptide bonds…
macromolecules
these is a large molecule.
monomer
single part or unit(building blocks)
21 terms
Gene Expression
Gene
Triplet
Codon
Polypeptide chain
A section of DNA that codes for a polypeptide chain
A unit of 3 consecutive nucleotides in DNA that code for an a…
A unit of 3 consecutive nucleotides in mRNA that code for an…
A chain of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
Gene
A section of DNA that codes for a polypeptide chain
Triplet
A unit of 3 consecutive nucleotides in DNA that code for an a…
15 terms
Gene Expression
Transcription
Translation
Proteins
DNA template strand
A process that occurs in the nucleus to create an mRNA strand…
The process where a ribosome creates a chain of amino acids f…
Biological molecules made out of amino acids and coded for by…
The strand with complementary bases to the mRNA strand being…
Transcription
A process that occurs in the nucleus to create an mRNA strand…
Translation
The process where a ribosome creates a chain of amino acids f…
Gene Expression
DNA
RNA
mRNA
tRNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, double stranded
ribonucleic acid, single stranded
messenger RNA
transfer RNA
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, double stranded
RNA
ribonucleic acid, single stranded
8 terms
Gene Expression
DNA Replication
Semiconservative Replication
Transcription
Translation
DNA makes a copy of itself
DNA separates into two strands, making two new identical DNA…
DNA copied into mRNA (in the nucleus)
mRNA turned into protein (outside the nucleus)
DNA Replication
DNA makes a copy of itself
Semiconservative Replication
DNA separates into two strands, making two new identical DNA…
Gene Expression
Transcription
Translation
codon
tRNA
Process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a com…
Process where a ribosome builds a chain of amino acids accord…
Group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that specify a partic…
A strand of nucleotides with an amino acid attached at one en…
Transcription
Process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a com…
Translation
Process where a ribosome builds a chain of amino acids accord…
31 terms
Gene Expression
Define gene expression.
Define transcription.
What is messenger RNA?
Define translation.
the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or…
Transcription is the synthesis of RNA using a DNA template
... is a type of RNA, which is synthesized using a DNA templa…
Translation is the synthesis of a polypeptide using the genet…
Define gene expression.
the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or…
Define transcription.
Transcription is the synthesis of RNA using a DNA template
18 terms
Gene Expression
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Replication
Template
Nucleotides
A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the ce…
Copying DNA by the enzyme DNA polymerase
A model, pattern, mold, or impression of a structure that can…
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate…
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the ce…
Replication
Copying DNA by the enzyme DNA polymerase
29 terms
Gene expression
mRNA
tRNA
rRNA
RNA processing
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosom…
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucl…
makes up ribosomes
The modification of mRNA before it leaves the nucleus that is…
mRNA
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosom…
tRNA
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucl…
21 terms
Gene Expression
catabolite activator protein CAP
inducible operon
lac operon
negative regulator
protein that complexes with cAMP to bind to the promoter sequ…
operon that can be activated or repressed depending on cellul…
operon in prokaryotic cells that encodes genes required for p…
protein that prevents transcription
catabolite activator protein CAP
protein that complexes with cAMP to bind to the promoter sequ…
inducible operon
operon that can be activated or repressed depending on cellul…
35 terms
Gene Expression and Gene Regulation
alkaptonuria
amino acid
codon
stop codon
an autosomal recessive trait with altered metabolism of homog…
one of the 20 subunits of proteins; each contains an amino gr…
triplets of nucleotides in mRNA that encode the information f…
a codon in mRNA that signals the end of translation; UAA, UAG…
alkaptonuria
an autosomal recessive trait with altered metabolism of homog…
amino acid
one of the 20 subunits of proteins; each contains an amino gr…
GENE EXPRESSION AND GENE REGULATION
Transcription
Translation
RNA Polymerase
Promoter
process of making an RNA copy of a gene sequence. This copy,…
is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA…
is an enzyme that produces primary transcript RNA. In cells,…
is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particul…
Transcription
process of making an RNA copy of a gene sequence. This copy,…
Translation
is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA…
15 terms
Gene Expression
Nucleus
Gene Expression
Transcription
Translation
Spherical or oval shaped... contains the DNA... Nuclear Envelope: a…
DNA - transcription - RNA ... MRNA - translation - Protein (Ribo…
RNA polymerase (enzyme that makes RNA polymer molecules) zips…
Requires: mRNA (made during transcription), amino acids, ener…
Nucleus
Spherical or oval shaped... contains the DNA... Nuclear Envelope: a…
Gene Expression
DNA - transcription - RNA ... MRNA - translation - Protein (Ribo…
14 terms
Gene Expression
tRNA
mRNA
Gene
rRNA
brings a specific amino acid to the ribosome
is a complementary copy of the gene
is a specific length of DNA that codes for a protein or part…
is found in ribosomes, helps codons to "lock in"
tRNA
brings a specific amino acid to the ribosome
mRNA
is a complementary copy of the gene
38 terms
Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein
Central dogma
gene expression
transcription
messenger RNA
the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or…
the synthesis of RNA using a DNA template
a type of RNA, synthesized using a DNA template, that attache…
Central dogma
gene expression
the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or…
53 terms
Gene expression
20
Fibrous proteins... Globular proteins
Primary structure:... Chain of amino acid…
Protein group: structural components o…
How many different amino acids are there?
What are the two distinct groups of protein structures?
The protein folding stages
Name 4 protein groups, their functions and examples.
20
How many different amino acids are there?
Fibrous proteins... Globular proteins
What are the two distinct groups of protein structures?
24 terms
Gene expression
Nucleotides
Transcription
Messenger RNA
Transfer RNA
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate…
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a…
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the asse…
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes…
Nucleotides
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate…
Transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a…
29 terms
Gene Expression
Gene Expression
Genome
Structural Gene
Operator
The manifestation of the genetic material of an organism in t…
The complete genetic material contained in an individual or s…
A gene that codes for a product, such as an enzyme, protein,…
A short sequence of viral or bacterial DNA to which a repress…
Gene Expression
The manifestation of the genetic material of an organism in t…
Genome
The complete genetic material contained in an individual or s…
22 terms
Gene Expression
Plasmids
Restriction Enzymes
Regulator Gene
Repressor Protein
Prokaryote's small circular DNA... -Scientists insert a gene we…
cut DNA at a specific sequence
codes for the repressor protein
prevents the RNA polymerase from transcripting specific genes…
Plasmids
Prokaryote's small circular DNA... -Scientists insert a gene we…
Restriction Enzymes
cut DNA at a specific sequence
28 terms
Gene Expression
Transcription
Translation
Proteins
DNA template strand
A process that occurs in the nucleus to create an mRNA strand…
The process that occurs at a ribosome to create a chain of am…
Biological molecules made out of amino acids and coded for by…
The strand with complementary bases to the mRNA strand being…
Transcription
A process that occurs in the nucleus to create an mRNA strand…
Translation
The process that occurs at a ribosome to create a chain of am…
23 terms
Gene Expression
Central Dogma
Definition of a Gene
Transcription
Transcription is similar to replicatio…
-DNA -> DNA (replication)... -DNA -> RNA (transcription)... -RNA…
A region of DNA that codes for a functional product (protein…
-DNA is copied into RNA... -Different genes are transcribed in d…
-Only one DNA strand is copied... -The copy is in the form of RN…
Central Dogma
-DNA -> DNA (replication)... -DNA -> RNA (transcription)... -RNA…
Definition of a Gene
A region of DNA that codes for a functional product (protein…
23 terms
Gene expression
Codon
Degeneracy
Redundancy
DNA
a sequence of three nucleotides which together form a unit of…
codons coding for the same amino acid often differ only by a…
several codons code for the same amino acid (e.g UUA and UUG…
deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material which is p…
Codon
a sequence of three nucleotides which together form a unit of…
Degeneracy
codons coding for the same amino acid often differ only by a…
13 terms
gene expression
Transcription
Process of Transcription
Translation
Insertion or Deletion
rewrites the DNA code into RNA, using the same nucleotide "la…
1) Initiation: RNA polymerase binds to a promoter, where the…
a polypeptide chain (and eventually protein) is synthesized f…
A way for mutation to occur is when a base is either incorrec…
Transcription
rewrites the DNA code into RNA, using the same nucleotide "la…
Process of Transcription
1) Initiation: RNA polymerase binds to a promoter, where the…
Gene Expression
Transcription
rRNA
tRNA
Retroviruses
Info encoded in DNA is copied into complementary mRNA sequenc…
Catalyzes peptide bond formation and provides structural fram…
Recognizes a specific codon in mRNA while carrying the specif…
After infecting host cell, makes DNA copy of its RNA genome (…
Transcription
Info encoded in DNA is copied into complementary mRNA sequenc…
rRNA
Catalyzes peptide bond formation and provides structural fram…
Gene Expression
Early researchers knew genetic materia…
Frederick Griffith mice experiment
Oswald Avery ... (1944)
Transformation of Organisms Today
1. able to store information... 2. stable so it can be replicate…
1.mice injected with encapsulated S strain pneumococcus and a…
-known for reporting that the transforming substance was DNA
-experiments done in biotechnology labs... -being used in commer…
Early researchers knew genetic materia…
1. able to store information... 2. stable so it can be replicate…
Frederick Griffith mice experiment
1.mice injected with encapsulated S strain pneumococcus and a…
16 terms
Gene Expression
gene expression
gene
central dogma
one gene encodes for one protein
genetic info stored in DNA is expressed thru RNA
encodes proteins & controls cell funct'ns & interactions
gene--->function... DNA---transcription--->RNA---translation----…
-polygenic... -some genes NEVER make protein... -epistasis(interact…
gene expression
genetic info stored in DNA is expressed thru RNA
gene
encodes proteins & controls cell funct'ns & interactions
14 terms
Gene Expression
transcription
translation
RNA polymerase
mRNA
the process that creates a mature RNA molecule from a DNA tem…
the process that creates a protein from an mRNA molecule
enzyme that adds RNA nucleotides to a growing RNA molecule
molecule that delivers a genetic code to a ribosome for its t…
transcription
the process that creates a mature RNA molecule from a DNA tem…
translation
the process that creates a protein from an mRNA molecule
9 terms
Gene expression
Trans
Ation
Helix
Scribe
Across
Act of
Spiral
Write, writing
Trans
Across
Ation
Act of
8 terms
Gene Expression
Promotor
Open Reading Frame
Enhancer
Transcription Factor
The initial binding site on DNA for RNA polymerase is known a…
A region of DNA that looks like it would code for a protein o…
A DNA segment containing multiple control elements that can r…
Collection of proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polyme…
Promotor
The initial binding site on DNA for RNA polymerase is known a…
Open Reading Frame
A region of DNA that looks like it would code for a protein o…
36 terms
Gene Expression
Gene Expression
3 Stages of Gene Expression
Beadle and Tatum Experiment
Minimum Medium
process by which DNA directs protein synthesis
Transcription, RNA Processing, Translation
proved one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis
culture containing minimum nutrients
Gene Expression
process by which DNA directs protein synthesis
3 Stages of Gene Expression
Transcription, RNA Processing, Translation
13 terms
Gene Expression
Benign
RNA polymerase
Protein
Point mutation
tumor that does not spread
Enzyme responsible for making RNA
Folded chain of Amino Acids
Mutation that changes one nucleotide or just a few nucleotide…
Benign
tumor that does not spread
RNA polymerase
Enzyme responsible for making RNA
Gene Expression
Gene expression
Central Dogma states that ___________…
Transcription
mRNA
the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins
DNA-->RNA-->Protein... cant
the synthesis of RNA using information in the DNA... DNA-->RNA
a faithful transcript of the genes protein-building instructi…
Gene expression
the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins
Central Dogma states that ___________…
DNA-->RNA-->Protein... cant
39 terms
Gene Expression
Genome
Gene
Genomics
4 nucleotides in DNA
complete set of genetic information
Functional Unit
Study of nucleotide sequences
Adenine (A)... Thymine (T)... Cytosine (C)... Guanine (G)
Genome
complete set of genetic information
Gene
Functional Unit
6 terms
Gene Expression
DNA
mRNA
tRNA
Transcription
deoxyribonucleic acid
messenger Ribonucleic acid
transfer Ribonucleic acid
DNA is copied by mRNA in the nucleus
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
mRNA
messenger Ribonucleic acid
Gene Expression
Gene Expression
RNA
Transcription
Translation
the process of DNA "expressing itself" as a protein
single stranded nucleic acid that has "U" instead of "T"
the process of producing RNA from DNA
the process of producing amino acids from RNA
Gene Expression
the process of DNA "expressing itself" as a protein
RNA
single stranded nucleic acid that has "U" instead of "T"
8 terms
Gene Expression
Turning on the lac operon
Turning off the lac operon
Reactivation of lac operon
- 1976: Philip Sharp & Susan Berget
A. RNA polymerase attaches to... promoter region near the... genes…
**repressor - protein that... inhibits gene from being... express…
**if cell needs more enzyme**... A. when inducer enters cell i…
discovered that m RNA not exactly complementary to strand of…
Turning on the lac operon
A. RNA polymerase attaches to... promoter region near the... genes…
Turning off the lac operon
**repressor - protein that... inhibits gene from being... express…
8 terms
Gene Expression
gene expression
transcription
mRNA (messenger RNA)
translation
the process that DNA directs the synthesis of proteins
the synthesis of RNA using info in the DNA
carries a genetic message from the DNA to protein synthesis s…
the synthesis of a polypeptide using info in the mRNA
gene expression
the process that DNA directs the synthesis of proteins
transcription
the synthesis of RNA using info in the DNA
68 terms
Gene Expression
Where does transcription begin in prok…
Operon
Polycistronic RNA
Each gene subsection of a polycistroni…
At a promoter.
A group of prokaryotic genes that encode for proteins that ar…
The resultant RNA that is developed from the translation of a…
1. Shine-Dalgarno sequence ... 2. Start Codon ... 3. Stop Codon
Where does transcription begin in prok…
At a promoter.
Operon
A group of prokaryotic genes that encode for proteins that ar…
30 terms
Gene Expression
Anticodon
Frameshift
Genotype
Leading Strand
Three bases that are complementary to a codon on the mRNA - b…
A type of gene mutation where the addition or deletion of a b…
The genetic makeup of an organism
Stand of DNA that is synthesised continuously, with no gaps
Anticodon
Three bases that are complementary to a codon on the mRNA - b…
Frameshift
A type of gene mutation where the addition or deletion of a b…
Gene Expression
enhancer
promoter
genes
Transcription
In genetics, an enhancer is a short (50-1500 bp) region of DN…
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates tra…
a gene is a segment of DNA (on a specific site on a chromosom…
Transcription is the process by which the information in a st…
enhancer
In genetics, an enhancer is a short (50-1500 bp) region of DN…
promoter
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates tra…
64 terms
Gene Expression
Constitutive genes
Mechanism of regulation of gene expres…
Mechanism of regulation of gene expres…
Mechanism of regulation of gene expres…
Genes that are transcribed all of the time
Transcriptional control
Translational control
Posttranslational control
Constitutive genes
Genes that are transcribed all of the time
Mechanism of regulation of gene expres…
Transcriptional control
Gene Expression
Anaphase
Sex Chromosomes
Autosomes
Germ Mutations
4th stage of mitosis... Chromosomes are moved to poles of the…
Chromosomes that determine the gender of an individual
Chromosomes 1 to 22
Mutation that affects reproductive cells and there for offspr…
Anaphase
4th stage of mitosis... Chromosomes are moved to poles of the…
Sex Chromosomes
Chromosomes that determine the gender of an individual
37 terms
Gene expression
Transcriptional control
translational control
post-translational control
constitutive transcription
method that is most efficient (saves most energy). Slower tha…
method that allows a cell to make rapid changes in the amount…
method that is most rapid, because all that usually needs to…
genes that are always being transcribed, no matter what (e.g.…
Transcriptional control
method that is most efficient (saves most energy). Slower tha…
translational control
method that allows a cell to make rapid changes in the amount…
20 terms
Gene Expression
Transcription
Translation
Proteins
DNA template strand
A process that occurs in the nucleus to create an mRNA strand…
The process that occurs at a ribosome to create a chain of am…
Biological molecules made out of amino acids and coded for by…
The strand with complementary bases to the mRNA strand being…
Transcription
A process that occurs in the nucleus to create an mRNA strand…
Translation
The process that occurs at a ribosome to create a chain of am…
42 terms
Gene Expression
Discuss the basics of eukaryotic trans…
Promoter Proximal Elements
Enhancers
List the different eukaryotic DNA cont…
DNA control elements are part of the DNA sequence that act lo…
Generally located within 200 bps upstream of transcription... st…
Contain multiple control elements, each 8-20 bps in length. T…
Tata boxes, promoter proximal element, and enhancers. The par…
Discuss the basics of eukaryotic trans…
DNA control elements are part of the DNA sequence that act lo…
Promoter Proximal Elements
Generally located within 200 bps upstream of transcription... st…
13 terms
Gene expression
mutagen
degeneracy
metabolic pathway
polypeptide chain
an environmental factor, increasing the frequency of mutation…
The process which relates to the fact, that more than one cod…
A series of enzyme controlled reactions, where the product of…
Chains of amino acids, linked together by peptide bonds.
mutagen
an environmental factor, increasing the frequency of mutation…
degeneracy
The process which relates to the fact, that more than one cod…
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