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Study sets matching "general chemistry 2"

15 terms
General Chemistry Ch. 2
Moseley
Periodic Law
period
group
He created the form of periodic table used now
The chemical and physical properties of the elements are depe…
Moseley
He created the form of periodic table used now
Periodic Law
The chemical and physical properties of the elements are depe…
30 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 2
energy
physical change
chemical change
endothermic
the capacity to do work
a change of matter from one form to another without a change…
a change that occurs when one or more substances change into…
describes a process in which heat is absorbed from the enviro…
energy
the capacity to do work
physical change
a change of matter from one form to another without a change…
258 terms
General Chemistry 2
Ludwig Wilhelmy
Rate of Chemical Change
Polarimetry, Spectroscopy, Pressure Me…
Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry,…
First person to measure rate of a chemical reaction
∆ in Concentration / ∆ in Time
Three ways to measure a change in concentration
Methods used to measure slow reactions with aliquots
Ludwig Wilhelmy
First person to measure rate of a chemical reaction
Rate of Chemical Change
∆ in Concentration / ∆ in Time
56 terms
Chapter 2 - General Chemistry
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Proust's Law of Definite Proportion
Law of Multiple Proportions
Law of Conservation of Mass
Different samples of the same compound always contain its con…
If 2 elements can combine to form more than 1 compound, the m…
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Proust's Law of Definite Proportion
Different samples of the same compound always contain its con…
12 terms
General Chemistry 2 Exam 2
molarity (M)
molality (m)
mole fraction (X)
mass percentage
moles solute / L solution
moles solute / kg solvent
moles substance / total moles
( mass solute / mass solution ) x 100
molarity (M)
moles solute / L solution
molality (m)
moles solute / kg solvent
44 terms
General Chemistry Vocab 2
Kinetic molecular theory
temperature
pressure
viscosity
explains the properties of gases in terms of the energy, size…
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a…
force applied per unit area
a measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow
Kinetic molecular theory
explains the properties of gases in terms of the energy, size…
temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a…
258 terms
General Chemistry 2
Ludwig Wilhelmy
Rate of Chemical Change
Polarimetry, Spectroscopy, Pressure Me…
Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry,…
First person to measure rate of a chemical reaction
∆ in Concentration / ∆ in Time
Three ways to measure a change in concentration
Methods used to measure slow reactions with aliquots
Ludwig Wilhelmy
First person to measure rate of a chemical reaction
Rate of Chemical Change
∆ in Concentration / ∆ in Time
37 terms
General Chemistry 7.2
quantum-mechanical model
electromagnetic radiation
magnetic field
electric field
explains the strange behavior of electrons
a type of energy embodied in oscillating electric and magneti…
a region of space where a magnetic particle experiences a force
a region of space where an electrically charged particle expe…
quantum-mechanical model
explains the strange behavior of electrons
electromagnetic radiation
a type of energy embodied in oscillating electric and magneti…
40 terms
APBio.2 General Chemistry
Element
Atom
Atomic number
Electron Shells
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by…
smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of…
number of protons, which is unique to that element
where electrons are found; outside the nucleus
Element
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by…
Atom
smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of…
238 terms
General Chemistry 2
Rate of Chemical Change
Polarimetry, Spectroscopy, Pressure Me…
Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry,…
k Rate Constant
∆ in Concentration / ∆ in Time
Three ways to measure a change in concentration
Methods used to measure slow reactions with aliquots
constant of proportionality
Rate of Chemical Change
∆ in Concentration / ∆ in Time
Polarimetry, Spectroscopy, Pressure Me…
Three ways to measure a change in concentration
47 terms
General Chemistry Ch. 2
STM
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy... (Gerd Bi…
Three Laws of nature to know
The Law of conservation of Mass 1.1
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Technique that can image (a visual representation of) and eve…
1. The Law of conversation of Mass.... 2. Law of Definite Propor…
Mass is not created or destroyed during a chemical reaction.
STM
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy... (Gerd Bi…
Technique that can image (a visual representation of) and eve…
31 terms
Chapter 2 General Chemistry
Mass
Volume
Extensive property
Intensive property
The object is a measure of the amount of matter the object co…
The measure of the space occupied by an object
A property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample
a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample, no…
Mass
The object is a measure of the amount of matter the object co…
Volume
The measure of the space occupied by an object
24 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 2
Subatomic Particles
Radioactivity
Nucleus
Electronic Charge
Particles such as protons, electrons, and neutrons that are s…
The spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus…
The very small, very dense, positively charged portion of an…
The negative charge carried by an electron; it has a magnitud…
Subatomic Particles
Particles such as protons, electrons, and neutrons that are s…
Radioactivity
The spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus…
30 terms
General Chemistry: Worksheet - Nomenclature # 2
NaNO₂
HNO₃
NH₄Br
Sn₃(PO₄)₂
Sodium Nitrite
Nitric Acid or Hydrogen Nitrate
Ammonium Bromide
Tin (II) Phosphate
NaNO₂
Sodium Nitrite
HNO₃
Nitric Acid or Hydrogen Nitrate
22 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 2
atom
atomic mass unit
atomic number
atomic theory
the smallest particle of a given type of matter
used to compare masses of different elements, about the same…
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element
the idea that matter is made up of fundamental particles call…
atom
the smallest particle of a given type of matter
atomic mass unit
used to compare masses of different elements, about the same…
97 terms
General Chemistry 2
Fluid movement; hot air rises, cold ai…
Direct contact; collision of molecules
Electromagnetic waves emitted into the…
Types of heat exchange
Convection
Conduction
Radiation
RC Car... Radiation Conduction Convection
Fluid movement; hot air rises, cold ai…
Convection
Direct contact; collision of molecules
Conduction
31 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 2
Mass
Volume
Extensive Properties
Intensive Properties
Measure of the amount of matter in an object
The amount of space something takes up
Property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample
Property that depends on the type of matter in a sample
Mass
Measure of the amount of matter in an object
Volume
The amount of space something takes up
42 terms
General Chemistry- Ch. 2
Atomic Mass Unit (u)
Ion
Cation
Anion
1/12 the mass of a carbon atom that contains six protons and…
An atom with an unequal number of protons and electrons.
An ion with a positive charge
An ion with a negative charge
Atomic Mass Unit (u)
1/12 the mass of a carbon atom that contains six protons and…
Ion
An atom with an unequal number of protons and electrons.
96 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 2
Nucleus
Proton
Neutron
Atomic Mass Unit
composed of protons and neutrons
nuclear particle with a positive charge... mass 1800 times large…
nuclear particle with no charge... stabilizes nucleus... mass is al…
a mass unit equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon atom
Nucleus
composed of protons and neutrons
Proton
nuclear particle with a positive charge... mass 1800 times large…
9 terms
Chemistry - Set 2 - General
Acid
Base
Soluble
Insoluble
any of various compounds having a sour taste and capable of t…
any of various compounds capable of turning litmus blue and r…
able to dissolve... Example: Water (solvent) will dissolve salt…
inability of substance to dissolve in another substance... Examp…
Acid
any of various compounds having a sour taste and capable of t…
Base
any of various compounds capable of turning litmus blue and r…
31 terms
General Chemistry: Chapter 2
Do elements with similar valence elect…
We can predict that elements in the sa…
Valence Electrons
Representative elements (IA - VIIIA)
Yes, as long as they are the same type (metal, metalloid, or…
Share similar chemical properties due to them having similar…
Have the highest energy and are the furthest from the nucleus…
These groups have valence electrons in their S or P subshells.
Do elements with similar valence elect…
Yes, as long as they are the same type (metal, metalloid, or…
We can predict that elements in the sa…
Share similar chemical properties due to them having similar…
24 terms
General Chemistry 2 - Exam 2 (Ch. 19)
acid-base buffer
common ion effect
Addition of common ion A-
buffer component ratio affect on H+ co…
a solution that lessons the impact on pH from the addition of…
occurs when a given ion is added to an equilibrium that alrea…
causes the reaction to shift towards HA, suppressing the diss…
[HA]/[A-] increases, [H3O+] increases... [HA]/[A-] decreases, [H…
acid-base buffer
a solution that lessons the impact on pH from the addition of…
common ion effect
occurs when a given ion is added to an equilibrium that alrea…
9 terms
Chemistry - Set 2 - General
Acid
Base
Soluble
Insoluble
any of various compounds having a sour taste and capable of t…
any of various compounds capable of turning litmus blue and r…
able to dissolve... Example: Water (solvent) will dissolve salt…
inability of substance to dissolve in another substance... Examp…
Acid
any of various compounds having a sour taste and capable of t…
Base
any of various compounds capable of turning litmus blue and r…
General Chemistry: Chapter 2
Brownian motion
Jean Perrin
scanning tunneling microscope (STM)
nanotechnology
model by Einstein that explains the continuous motion due to…
French physicist who confirmed Einstein's Brownian model and…
used to pick up and move individual atoms (creates structures…
image, move, and build atoms
Brownian motion
model by Einstein that explains the continuous motion due to…
Jean Perrin
French physicist who confirmed Einstein's Brownian model and…
42 terms
chapters 2 General Chemistry
Many biological processes are ________…
Start with Lowest (smallest) level of…
basic type of matter and can't be brok…
Element
chemical processes (metabolism)
biological organization
Element
carbon... oxygen... hydrogen... calcium... nitrogen ... sodium... magnesium, ect
Many biological processes are ________…
chemical processes (metabolism)
Start with Lowest (smallest) level of…
biological organization
38 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
John Dalton's Atomic Theory
in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroy…
a law stating that matter is neither created more deserted in…
when two elements (call them A and B) form two different comp…
1. each element is composed of tiny, indestructible particles…
Law of Conservation of Mass
in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroy…
Law of Definite Proportions
a law stating that matter is neither created more deserted in…
186 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 2
H
He
Li
Be
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
H
Hydrogen
He
Helium
47 terms
General Chemistry Ch. 2
STM
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy... (Gerd Bi…
Three Laws of nature to know
The Law of conservation of Mass 1.1
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Technique that can image (a visual representation of) and eve…
1. The Law of conversation of Mass.... 2. Law of Definite Propor…
(Antoine Lavoisier) Mass is not created or destroyed during a…
STM
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy... (Gerd Bi…
Technique that can image (a visual representation of) and eve…
38 terms
General Chemistry exam 2
Bent
trigonal planar
bent
linear
tetrahedral EG with 3 lone pairs
Bent
trigonal planar
29 terms
General Chemistry Test 2
Henry Louis Le Châtelier
Fritz Haber
Peter Waage
Guldberg
Equilibrium: determined that when a reaction is shifted, the…
synthesized ammonia, producing nitrogen fertilizer... chemist wh…
proposed in 1864 the law of mass action as a general descript…
law of chemical equilibrium
Henry Louis Le Châtelier
Equilibrium: determined that when a reaction is shifted, the…
Fritz Haber
synthesized ammonia, producing nitrogen fertilizer... chemist wh…
61 terms
General Chemistry Exam 2
Avogadro's Number
Molar Mass
Mass percent composition
Mass% of element X
6.02x10^23
The mass of 1 mol of atoms of an element
the element's percentage of the total mass of the compound
= Mass of x in sample of compound... / mass of the sample of the…
Avogadro's Number
6.02x10^23
Molar Mass
The mass of 1 mol of atoms of an element
29 terms
Exam 2 General Chemistry 2
Chiral
Achiral
Enantiomers
Chirality center
a molecule that is not superimposable on its mirror image (do…
a molecule that is superimposable on its mirror image
mirror images that are not superimposable (chiral)
a carbon atom with 4 different groups
Chiral
a molecule that is not superimposable on its mirror image (do…
Achiral
a molecule that is superimposable on its mirror image
27 terms
General Chemistry 2
the __ __ __ __ __ organizes the eleme…
rows are called __ and are based on th…
columns are called __; elements in the…
the elements on the Periodic Table bel…
Periodic Table of the Elements
periods
groups
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
the __ __ __ __ __ organizes the eleme…
Periodic Table of the Elements
rows are called __ and are based on th…
periods
38 terms
General Chemistry Ch. 2
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of definite proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
Atomic Theory
In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroy…
All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source o…
When two elements (call them A and B) form two different comp…
1. Each element is composed of tiny, indestructible particles…
Law of Conservation of Mass
In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroy…
Law of definite proportions
All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source o…
40 terms
General Chemistry Vocabularies (2)
valence shell
VSEPR (valence-shell electron-pair rep…
dipole moment
polar molecules
outermost electron-occupied shell of an atom; it holds the el…
it accounts for the geometric arrangements of electron pairs…
product of the charge Q and the distance r between the charges
diatomic molecules containing atoms of different elements hav…
valence shell
outermost electron-occupied shell of an atom; it holds the el…
VSEPR (valence-shell electron-pair rep…
it accounts for the geometric arrangements of electron pairs…
26 terms
general chemistry for exam 2
what are diatomics?
SA, SB, WA, WB? CH3CH2OH
SA, SB, WA, WB? HClO4
SA, SB, WA, WB? HNO3
H2, Cl2, Br2, I2, O2, N2
can be either, depends on what it is paired with!
strong acid
strong acid
what are diatomics?
H2, Cl2, Br2, I2, O2, N2
SA, SB, WA, WB? CH3CH2OH
can be either, depends on what it is paired with!
15 terms
General Chemistry Ch. 2
periods
groups
metals
nonmetals
rows of the PT based on the same principal energy level
columns of the PT; those in the same column have the same val…
shiny, conductive, malleable and ductile; found on the left s…
dull, poor conductors, brittle; found on the right side of th…
periods
rows of the PT based on the same principal energy level
groups
columns of the PT; those in the same column have the same val…
24 terms
General Chemistry Ch. 2
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Constant Composition
Law of Multiple Proportions
Atom
There is no detectable change in mass in an ordinary chemical…
A compound always contains the same elements in the same prop…
Elements combine w/ a fixed ratio of small whole numbers / (A…
The smallest particle of an element that can enter into a che…
Law of Conservation of Mass
There is no detectable change in mass in an ordinary chemical…
Law of Constant Composition
A compound always contains the same elements in the same prop…
41 terms
General Chemistry Unit 2
Rate-determining step
Collision theory
Increasing reactant concentration
Increase temperature
Slowest Step in reaction mechanism
reaction rate is proportional to the number of effective coll…
will increase reaction rate, except for zero-order
inc rxn rate
Rate-determining step
Slowest Step in reaction mechanism
Collision theory
reaction rate is proportional to the number of effective coll…
19 terms
General Chemistry Ch 2
Extensive properties
Intensive properties
Matter
physical properties
properties that depend on the amount of matter present in a s…
properties that do not depend on the amount of matter present…
anything that has mass and takes up space
can be observed or measure without changing the composition o…
Extensive properties
properties that depend on the amount of matter present in a s…
Intensive properties
properties that do not depend on the amount of matter present…
17 terms
MCAT - General Chemistry 2
____ ionization energy = most electron…
Pattern of atomic radius sizes on the…
Ionic radii trend on period table:
3 types of elements on the Periodic ta…
High
>right to left decreases... >top to bottom increases in atomic r…
>metals close to metalloids have smaller radius because they…
1. Metals = lustrous, malleable, and ductile... 2. Nonmentals =…
____ ionization energy = most electron…
High
Pattern of atomic radius sizes on the…
>right to left decreases... >top to bottom increases in atomic r…
31 terms
Chemistry Test 2 General
Combustion Reaction
Metathesis/Double Displacement Reaction
Combination Reactions
Decomposition Reaction
Combination of some reactant and oxygen
Swap the anions (ex: reactions with 2 salts)
2 or more substances react to form one product
take one substance and it'll react to form two more substance
Combustion Reaction
Combination of some reactant and oxygen
Metathesis/Double Displacement Reaction
Swap the anions (ex: reactions with 2 salts)
38 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 2
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
John Dalton's Atomic Theory
in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroy…
a law stating that matter is neither created more deserted in…
when two elements (call them A and B) form two different comp…
1. each element is composed of tiny, indestructible particles…
Law of Conservation of Mass
in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroy…
Law of Definite Proportions
a law stating that matter is neither created more deserted in…
81 terms
General Chemistry 2
deltaH solution
deltaHhydration
deltaHsolute (for ionic compounds)
Solubility of a gas
deltaHsolute + deltaHsolvent + deltaHmix
deltaHsolvent + deltaH mix
-deltaHlattice
(Kh)Pgas
deltaH solution
deltaHsolute + deltaHsolvent + deltaHmix
deltaHhydration
deltaHsolvent + deltaH mix
58 terms
General Chemistry 2
deltaH solution
deltaHhydration
deltaHsolute (for ionic compounds)
Solubility of a gas
deltaHsolute + deltaHsolvent + deltaHmix
deltaHsolvent + deltaH mix
-deltaHlattice
(Kh)Pgas
deltaH solution
deltaHsolute + deltaHsolvent + deltaHmix
deltaHhydration
deltaHsolvent + deltaH mix
99 terms
General Chemistry 2
chemical characteristics
Z-S
2
8
Each element in a group have ............... that are similar
How do you call the effective nuclear charge?
How many electrons can the first shell hold?
How many electrons can the second shell hold?
chemical characteristics
Each element in a group have ............... that are similar
Z-S
How do you call the effective nuclear charge?
11 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 2 Vocabulary
Mass
Base Unit
Second
Meter
A measure that reflects the amount of matter.
A defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an…
The SI base unit for time.
The SI base unit for length.
Mass
A measure that reflects the amount of matter.
Base Unit
A defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an…
66 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 2
Atom
Nucleus
Atomic Number
Mass Number
the basic structural unit of an element.
small, dense, positively charged region in the center of the…
the number of protons in the atom.
sum of the number of protons and neutrons.
Atom
the basic structural unit of an element.
Nucleus
small, dense, positively charged region in the center of the…
11 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 2
law of definite proportions
la of multiple proportions
electron (e-)
proton (p+)
a law stating that all samples of a given compound have the s…
a law stating that when 2 elements (A and B) for 2 different…
charge= -1 mass= 0.00055 (-1.60218* 10^-19)
charge = +1 mass= approx 1 amu (+1.60218* 10^-19)
law of definite proportions
a law stating that all samples of a given compound have the s…
la of multiple proportions
a law stating that when 2 elements (A and B) for 2 different…
84 terms
General Chemistry Exam #2
Waves have 3 Primary Characteristics:…
Different wavelengths means different_…
1. Energy in the atom is related to th…
What is a continuos spectrum?
a. wavelength: distance between 2 peaks in a wave... b. frequenc…
colors ... brightnesses
Bohr Model
contains all the wavelengths of light
Waves have 3 Primary Characteristics:…
a. wavelength: distance between 2 peaks in a wave... b. frequenc…
Different wavelengths means different_…
colors ... brightnesses
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