Study sets matching "general chemistry chapter 11"

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Study sets matching "general chemistry chapter 11"

12 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 11
Oxidation
Reduction
Assigning Oxidation Number
Half-Reaction Method
Loss of e- (agent: many O's)
Gain of e- (agent: metal ions or H-)
1. Balance atoms of each half-rxn, start with all elements be…
Oxidation
Loss of e- (agent: many O's)
Reduction
Gain of e- (agent: metal ions or H-)
10 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 11
Intermolecular Forces
Ion-Dipole Forces
Dipole-Dipole Forces
London Dispersion Forces
The short-range attractive forces operating between the parti…
The force that exists between an ion and a neutral polar mole…
The force that exists because of the interactions of dipoles…
Intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between indu…
Intermolecular Forces
The short-range attractive forces operating between the parti…
Ion-Dipole Forces
The force that exists between an ion and a neutral polar mole…
General Chemistry Chapter 11
valence bond theory
hybridization
hybrid orbital
sp hybridization
a covalent bond forms when orbitals of two atoms overlap and…
a postulated process of orbital mixing to obtain hybrid orbit…
an atomic orbital postulated to form during bonding by the ma…
mixing one s and two p orbitals of central atoms; is linear;…
valence bond theory
a covalent bond forms when orbitals of two atoms overlap and…
hybridization
a postulated process of orbital mixing to obtain hybrid orbit…
10 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 11
Intermolecular Forces
Ion-Dipole Forces
Dipole-Dipole Forces
London Dispersion Forces
The short-range attractive forces operating between the parti…
The force that exists between an ion and a neutral polar mole…
The force that exists because of the interactions of dipoles…
Intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between indu…
Intermolecular Forces
The short-range attractive forces operating between the parti…
Ion-Dipole Forces
The force that exists between an ion and a neutral polar mole…
15 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 11
Leigh's disease
reducing agent
table of oxidizing and reducing agents
oxidation numbers
an extremely rare mitochondrial disorder... a number of key mito…
causes the other atom to be reduced and is itself oxidized
pg 372
assigned to atoms in order to keep track of the redistributio…
Leigh's disease
an extremely rare mitochondrial disorder... a number of key mito…
reducing agent
causes the other atom to be reduced and is itself oxidized
13 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 11
M=mmoles/mL
solution of known concentration
graduated glass tube for delivering kn…
substance that causes color change ind…
Molarity equation:
Titrant:
Buret:
Indicator:
M=mmoles/mL
Molarity equation:
solution of known concentration
Titrant:
General Chemistry Chapter 11
Strong Acids
Common Strong Bases
Conjguate base of a weak acid is a
pH
HI... HCl... HBr... HClO4-perchloric... H2SO4... HNO3- nitric
Group 1 hydroxides... Group 1 Oxides: Ba(OH)2,Sr(OH)2, Ca(OH)2... M…
weak base
-log{h]
Strong Acids
HI... HCl... HBr... HClO4-perchloric... H2SO4... HNO3- nitric
Common Strong Bases
Group 1 hydroxides... Group 1 Oxides: Ba(OH)2,Sr(OH)2, Ca(OH)2... M…
General Chemistry Chapter 11
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidizing Agent
Reducing Agent
Half-Reaction Method
Reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one che…
Itself becomes reduced but oxidizes another molecule ... General…
Itself oxidizes and reduces another atom ... Generally contain m…
1. Separate two half-reactions... 2. Balance non H and O atoms... 3…
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one che…
Oxidizing Agent
Itself becomes reduced but oxidizes another molecule ... General…
16 terms
MCAT General Chemistry: Chapter 11
Oxidation-Reduction Reaction
Oxidation
Reduction
Redox Reaction
Involves the transfer of electrons from one chemical species…
Loss of electrons
Gain of electrons
Simultaneous oxidation and reduction, resulting in electron t…
Oxidation-Reduction Reaction
Involves the transfer of electrons from one chemical species…
Oxidation
Loss of electrons
General Chemistry Chapter 11: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidizing agents
Reducing agents
Oxidation number
Difference between formal charge and o…
Things with more than one oxygen (besides NaClO), halogens, P…
Things with a lot of hydrogen, CO, C, Sn2+, Zn(Hg), Lindlar's…
If it doesn't have a charge, sum of oxidation numbers must be…
Formal charge will split electrons equally. Oxidation number…
Oxidizing agents
Things with more than one oxygen (besides NaClO), halogens, P…
Reducing agents
Things with a lot of hydrogen, CO, C, Sn2+, Zn(Hg), Lindlar's…
23 terms
General chemistry chapter 11 review
Oxidation is the loss of electrons, re…
A molecule or atom that facilitates th…
A molecule or atom that facilitates th…
Oxygen or other similar electronegativ…
OIL RIG
Oxidizing agent
Reducing agent
Component of almost all common oxidizing agents
Oxidation is the loss of electrons, re…
OIL RIG
A molecule or atom that facilitates th…
Oxidizing agent
22 terms
General Chemistry II - Chapter 11
Amorphous
Crystalline
Permanent Dipole
Miscibility
a solid in which atoms or molecules do NOT have any long rang…
a solid in which atoms or molecules are arranged in patterns…
- a permanent separation of charge ... - a molecule with a perma…
the ability to mix without separating into two phases
Amorphous
a solid in which atoms or molecules do NOT have any long rang…
Crystalline
a solid in which atoms or molecules are arranged in patterns…
5 terms
MCAT GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 11
REDOX
An oxidizing agent
A reducing agent facilitates
Common oxidizing agents almost all con…
...
facilitates the oxidation of another compound and is reduced…
the reduction of a compound and is oxidized in the process
oxygen or similarly electronegative atoms
REDOX
...
An oxidizing agent
facilitates the oxidation of another compound and is reduced…
General Chemistry Chapter 11
oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions
oxidation
reduction
oxidizing agent
reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one che…
loss of electrons
gain of electrons
causes another atom in a redox reaction to undergo oxidation…
oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions
reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one che…
oxidation
loss of electrons
MCAT General Chemistry: Chapter 11
Oxidation-Reduction Reaction
Oxidation
Reduction
Redox Reaction
Involves the transfer of electrons from one chemical species…
Loss of electrons
Gain of electrons
Simultaneous oxidation and reduction, resulting in electron t…
Oxidation-Reduction Reaction
Involves the transfer of electrons from one chemical species…
Oxidation
Loss of electrons
67 terms
General Chemistry 2: chapter 11
11.1 Intermolecular forces
11.2 In the condensed states these par…
Particles in the liquid state
Particles in the solid state
attractive forces that exist between molecules and atoms
liquid and solid
roll and tumble over each other
vibrate back and forth
11.1 Intermolecular forces
attractive forces that exist between molecules and atoms
11.2 In the condensed states these par…
liquid and solid
General Chemistry Chapter 11 (Redox)
11.1 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Redox reaction
Oxidizing agent
Reducing agent
...
Simultaneous oxidation (loss of electrons) and reduction (gai…
Causes oxidation, therefore TAKES electrons and gets reduced
Causes reduction, therefore GIVES electrons and gets oxidized
11.1 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
...
Redox reaction
Simultaneous oxidation (loss of electrons) and reduction (gai…
31 terms
General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Chapter 11
organic compound
organic compounds may also contain?
Organic compounds typically
Inorganic Compound
is a compound made from carbon and hydrogen atoms
nonmetals such at O, S, N, P, H
have covalent bonds... have low melting and boiling points... are…
have high melting and boiling points.... usually soluble in wate…
organic compound
is a compound made from carbon and hydrogen atoms
organic compounds may also contain?
nonmetals such at O, S, N, P, H
16 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 11 - Oxidation-Reduction reactions
zero
the charge of the ion. For example, th…
+1
+2.
The oxidation number of a free element is zero. For example,…
The oxidation number for a monatomic ion is equal to __________
The oxidation number of each Group IA element in a compound i…
The oxidation number of each Group IIA element in a compound…
zero
The oxidation number of a free element is zero. For example,…
the charge of the ion. For example, th…
The oxidation number for a monatomic ion is equal to __________
General Chemistry~ Chapter 11~ Polymers~ Vocabulary
Organic chemistry
hydrocarbon
Alkane
Alkene
the study of carbon based compounds
an organic molecule that contains hydrogen and carbon atoms
a saturated hydrocarbon that has only carbon to carbon single…
an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains one or more double b…
Organic chemistry
the study of carbon based compounds
hydrocarbon
an organic molecule that contains hydrogen and carbon atoms
General Chemistry (DAT): Chapter 11: Chemical Equilibria
Equlibrium Constant
Properties of Equlibirum Constant
Le Chatliers Principle
Changing Concentration
The value of the forward reaction constant divided by the rev…
No liquids or solids in the equilibrium constant expression... T…
If an external stress is applied to the system the system wil…
Increasing concentration on one side of the equation favors t…
Equlibrium Constant
The value of the forward reaction constant divided by the rev…
Properties of Equlibirum Constant
No liquids or solids in the equilibrium constant expression... T…
General Chemistry 2: Chapter 11 and 13
Intermolecular Forces and the... Physical…
Properties of Common Phases of Matter…
Liquid
Solid
Gas, Liquid, Solid
Particle Motion: continuous & random... Order: disordered... Partic…
Particle Motion: continuous & random... Order: disordered groups…
Particle Motion: continuous & random... Order: ordered, repeatin…
Intermolecular Forces and the... Physical…
Gas, Liquid, Solid
Properties of Common Phases of Matter…
Particle Motion: continuous & random... Order: disordered... Partic…
12 terms
Chemistry Chapter 11 Vocabulary
Chemical Equation
Skeleton Equation
Catalyst
Coefficients
A representation of a chemical reaction
A chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amoun…
A substance that speeds up the reaction but is not used in th…
Small whole numbers that are placed in front of the formulas…
Chemical Equation
A representation of a chemical reaction
Skeleton Equation
A chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amoun…
18 terms
MCAT General Chemistry Chapter 11- Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions
Oxidation
Reduction
Oxidizing agent
reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one che…
loss of electrons
gain of electrons
causes another atom in a redox reaction to undergo oxidation…
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions
reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one che…
Oxidation
loss of electrons
MCAT General Chemistry Chapter 11- Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions
Oxidation
Reduction
Oxidizing agent
reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one che…
loss of electrons
gain of electrons
causes another atom in a redox reaction to undergo oxidation…
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions
reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one che…
Oxidation
loss of electrons
General Chemistry: Chapter 11: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
-PO4 should be recognized as a -3 ion…
1) break up into MnO4 --> Mn2+ and I-…
Since SO4 is unchanged (-2 in both cas…
there actually is NO NIE! Why?... - Brea…
BPO4 what are the oxidation numbers? And for H2, F2 etc? But…
Creating half reactions for redox.... Mn04- + I- --> I2 + Mn2+
Define the spectator ion and write the net ionic equation:... Z…
What is the net ionic equation for:... NaNO3 (aq) + HCl (aq) -->…
-PO4 should be recognized as a -3 ion…
BPO4 what are the oxidation numbers? And for H2, F2 etc? But…
1) break up into MnO4 --> Mn2+ and I-…
Creating half reactions for redox.... Mn04- + I- --> I2 + Mn2+
31 terms
An introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Chapter 11- Timberlake
organic compound
organic compounds may also contain?
Organic compounds typically
Inorganic Compound
is a compound made from carbon and hydrogen atoms
nonmetals such at O, S, N, P, H
have covalent bonds... have low melting and boiling points... are…
have high melting and boiling points.... usually soluble in wate…
organic compound
is a compound made from carbon and hydrogen atoms
organic compounds may also contain?
nonmetals such at O, S, N, P, H
33 terms
Dornshuld's General Chemistry Chapter 11: Gases
This theory explains how the molecular…
The average ________ ________ of gas m…
The speed of a molecule with the avera…
What is the root mean square speed for…
kinetic molecular theory of gases
kinetic energy, absolute temperature
root mean square speed
Urms = √(3RT)/M (Where R = ideal gas constant, T = temperatur…
This theory explains how the molecular…
kinetic molecular theory of gases
The average ________ ________ of gas m…
kinetic energy, absolute temperature
MCAT General Chemistry Chapter 11 - Redox Reactions & Electrochemistry
OIL RIG
Oxidizing Agent
Reducing Agent
Where are the electrons in redox react…
oxidation is loss... reduction is gain
Oxidizing agent gains electrons (gets reduced) so another spe…
Reducing agent loses electrons (gets oxidized) so another spe…
oxidation half reactions ---> e⁻s in the products (anode)... red…
OIL RIG
oxidation is loss... reduction is gain
Oxidizing Agent
Oxidizing agent gains electrons (gets reduced) so another spe…
29 terms
MCAT General Chemistry Chapter 11 - Redox Reactions & Electrochemistry
OIL RIG
Oxidizing Agent
Reducing Agent
Where are the electrons in redox react…
oxidation is loss... reduction is gain
Oxidizing agent gains electrons (gets reduced) so another spe…
Reducing agent loses electrons (gets oxidized) so another spe…
oxidation half reactions ---> e⁻s in the products (anode)... red…
OIL RIG
oxidation is loss... reduction is gain
Oxidizing Agent
Oxidizing agent gains electrons (gets reduced) so another spe…
18 terms
MCAT General Chemistry Chapter 11- Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions
Oxidation
Reduction
Oxidizing agent
reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one che…
loss of electrons
gain of electrons
causes another atom in a redox reaction to undergo oxidation…
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions
reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one che…
Oxidation
loss of electrons
15 terms
Chapter 11 chemistry
Units of pressure conversions
Units of volume conversions
Units of temperature conversion
Units of mass conversion:
1 atm: 760 mmHg: 760 torr: 101.3 kPa
Only use Liters... 1000 mL: 1 L
0° C: 273 K... (Add 273 to C)
Grams- Mols... /by molar mass of compound
Units of pressure conversions
1 atm: 760 mmHg: 760 torr: 101.3 kPa
Units of volume conversions
Only use Liters... 1000 mL: 1 L
MCAT General Chemistry Chapter 11: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Whats the difference between complete…
Why are double displacement reactions…
What is the net ionic equation when al…
What is disproportionation (dismutatio…
The net ionic equation doesn't contain spectator ions (remain…
Because all the always usually retain their oxidation state.
Their is no net ionic equation because both sides of the reac…
A specific type of redox reaction in which an element undergo…
Whats the difference between complete…
The net ionic equation doesn't contain spectator ions (remain…
Why are double displacement reactions…
Because all the always usually retain their oxidation state.
31 terms
An introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Chapter 11- Timberlake
organic compound
organic compounds may also contain?
Organic compounds typically
Inorganic Compound
is a compound made from carbon and hydrogen atoms
nonmetals such at O, S, N, P, H
have covalent bonds... have low melting and boiling points... are…
have high melting and boiling points.... usually soluble in wate…
organic compound
is a compound made from carbon and hydrogen atoms
organic compounds may also contain?
nonmetals such at O, S, N, P, H
11 terms
Chemistry chapter 11
coordinate-covalent bond
strength
concentration
strong
which is a covalent bond in which one atom furnishes both of…
refers to the amount of ionization or breaking apart that a p…
the amount of acid or base that you initially have
it ionizes completely
coordinate-covalent bond
which is a covalent bond in which one atom furnishes both of…
strength
refers to the amount of ionization or breaking apart that a p…
7 terms
Chapter 11 Chemistry
Stoichiometry
Mole ratio
Limiting reactant
Excess reactants
the study of quantitative relationships between the amounts o…
The ratio between the numbers of any two of the substances in…
limits the extent of the reaction and, thereby, determines th…
Reactants leftover when a reaction stops
Stoichiometry
the study of quantitative relationships between the amounts o…
Mole ratio
The ratio between the numbers of any two of the substances in…
General Biology Chapter 11
Early Prophase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Mitosis begins. Transcription stops, and the DNA begins to ap…
The duplicated chromosomes become visible as they condense. O…
All of the chromosomes are aligned midway between the spindle…
Spindle microtubles seperate the sister chromatids and move t…
Early Prophase
Mitosis begins. Transcription stops, and the DNA begins to ap…
Prophase
The duplicated chromosomes become visible as they condense. O…
Chemistry Chapter 11 Stoichiometry
stoichiometry
mole ratio
limiting reactant
excess reactant
the study of quantitative relationships between the amounts o…
in a balanced equation, the ratio between the number of moles…
a reactant that is totally consumed during a chemical reactio…
a reactant that remains after a chemical reaction stops
stoichiometry
the study of quantitative relationships between the amounts o…
mole ratio
in a balanced equation, the ratio between the number of moles…
18 terms
MCAT General Chemistry Chapter 11- Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions
Oxidation
Reduction
Oxidizing agent
reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one che…
loss of electrons
gain of electrons
causes another atom in a redox reaction to undergo oxidation…
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions
reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one che…
Oxidation
loss of electrons
Chapter 11 general
Arteries
veins
capillaries
pathway of blood through the heart
are the vessels that lead away from the heart.
have thinner walls than arteries and move deoxygenated blood…
are the smallest vessels. They form the point of exchange for…
Arteries
are the vessels that lead away from the heart.
veins
have thinner walls than arteries and move deoxygenated blood…
17 terms
Chapter 11 Chemistry
element
mass
volume
density
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
A measure of how much matter is in an object
Amount of space occupied by an object
Mass / Volume how closely packet a substance's atoms are
element
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
mass
A measure of how much matter is in an object
52 terms
Chapter 11 + Generals
Border States
Martial law
South's advantage in Civil War
North advantages
Slave states that did not secede (Delaware, Kentucky, Marylan…
A type of rule where military is in charge in citizens rights…
Better generals: Robert E. Lee/ fighting on familiar turf 11.1
Population, railroads, factories, navy. 11.1
Border States
Slave states that did not secede (Delaware, Kentucky, Marylan…
Martial law
A type of rule where military is in charge in citizens rights…
30 terms
Chapter 11 General Term
alveolus
anthracosis
apnea
asphyxia
pertaining to a small air sac in the lungs
lung condition caused by inhalation of coal dust and silica;…
temporary cessation of breathing
emergency condition in which there is a depletion of oxygen i…
alveolus
pertaining to a small air sac in the lungs
anthracosis
lung condition caused by inhalation of coal dust and silica;…
14 terms
Chemistry Chapter 11 Vocabulary
Chemical Equation
Skeleton Equation
Catalyst
Coefficients
A representation of a chemical reaction
A chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amoun…
A substance that speeds up the reaction but is not used in th…
Small whole numbers that are placed in front of the formulas…
Chemical Equation
A representation of a chemical reaction
Skeleton Equation
A chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amoun…
25 terms
General Biology Chapter 11
Adaption
Adaptive radiation
Allopatric speciation
Analogous structure
a heritable trait or behavior in an organism that aids in its…
a speciation when one species radiates out to form several ot…
a speciation that occurs via a geographic separation
a structure that is similar because of evolution in response…
Adaption
a heritable trait or behavior in an organism that aids in its…
Adaptive radiation
a speciation when one species radiates out to form several ot…
71 terms
General Chemistry II: Chapter 11: Intermolecular Forces Liquids and Solids
States of Matter: Gas
States of Matter: Liquid
States of Matter: Crystalline Solid
What are the FOUR Kinetic Molecular Th…
Total disorder; much empty space; particles have complete fre…
Disorder; particles or clusters of particles are free to move…
ordered arrangement; particles are essentially in fixed posit…
-As a gas is cooled its kinetic energy is lowered and the att…
States of Matter: Gas
Total disorder; much empty space; particles have complete fre…
States of Matter: Liquid
Disorder; particles or clusters of particles are free to move…
21 terms
Chemistry Chapter 11: Nuclear Chemistry
radioisotopes
radioactive decay
background radiation
ionizing radiation
isotopes of elements that have undergone radioactive decay
unstable nuclei that undergo changed in nucleon number, atomi…
naturally occurring radiation that we are exposed to constantly
dislodges electrons from living tissue and forming ions, incl…
radioisotopes
isotopes of elements that have undergone radioactive decay
radioactive decay
unstable nuclei that undergo changed in nucleon number, atomi…
General Science Chapter 11 Motion
frame of reference
What is distance
What is displacement
How Can displacement be positive
Viewpoint of the situation (reference point)
How far you travel
How far you are from the starting point and it has direction
moving away from the reference point
frame of reference
Viewpoint of the situation (reference point)
What is distance
How far you travel
23 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 10
Vapors
Pressure
Pascal
Standard Atmospheric Pressure (ATP)
Gaseous state of any substance that normally exists as a liqu…
A measure of the force exerted on a unit area. In chemistry,…
The SI unit of pressure 1 Pa = 1 N/m^2
Defined as 760 torr or, in SI units, 101.325 kPa
Vapors
Gaseous state of any substance that normally exists as a liqu…
Pressure
A measure of the force exerted on a unit area. In chemistry,…
An introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Chapter 11- Timberlake
organic compound
organic compounds may also contain?
Organic compounds typically
Inorganic Compound
is a compound made from carbon and hydrogen atoms
nonmetals such at O, S, N, P, H
have covalent bonds... have low melting and boiling points... are…
have high melting and boiling points.... usually soluble in wate…
organic compound
is a compound made from carbon and hydrogen atoms
organic compounds may also contain?
nonmetals such at O, S, N, P, H
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