Study sets matching "general chemistry foundations college"

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15 terms
Chapter 5 Foundations Of College Chemistry
Daltons Atomic Theory
Natural Law
Law of Definite composition
Law of Multiple Proportions
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
Summarized general observations regarding nature into a state…
a compound always contains two or more elements combined in a…
atoms with two or more elements can combine in multiple propo…
Daltons Atomic Theory
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
Natural Law
Summarized general observations regarding nature into a state…
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 7
Avogadro's number
Mole
Molar mass
Percent composition of a compound
6.022×10e23; the number of formula units in 1 mole
The amount of a substance containing the same number of formu…
The mass of Avogadro's number of atoms or molecules. The sum…
The mass percent represented by each element in a compound
Avogadro's number
6.022×10e23; the number of formula units in 1 mole
Mole
The amount of a substance containing the same number of formu…
50 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Chapter 4
physical property & examples
chemical properties & examples
physical changes
chemical changes
characteristics can be observed or measured without changing…
the ability of a substance to form new substances either by r…
Takes place with no change in molecular composition... (What you…
a change producing products that differ in composition from t…
physical property & examples
characteristics can be observed or measured without changing…
chemical properties & examples
the ability of a substance to form new substances either by r…
21 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry / Chapter 3
MOLECULE
CATION
SYMBOLS
HALOGENS
The smallest uncharged individual unit of a compound formed b…
A positively charged ion.
In chemistry, an abbreviation for the name of an element
Group 7A of the periodic table; consists of the elements fluo…
MOLECULE
The smallest uncharged individual unit of a compound formed b…
CATION
A positively charged ion.
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 9
Stoichiometry
Limiting reactant
Theoretical yield
Actual yield
The area of chemistry that deals with the quantitative relati…
A reactant that limits the amount of product formed because i…
The maximum amount of product that can be produced according…
The amount of product actually produced in a chemical reactio…
Stoichiometry
The area of chemistry that deals with the quantitative relati…
Limiting reactant
A reactant that limits the amount of product formed because i…
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 14
Solution
Solute
Solvent
Solubility
A system in which one of more substances are homogeneously mi…
The substance being dissolved in a solution; the least abunda…
The dissolving agent or the most abundant component in a solu…
An amount of solute that will dissolve in a specific amount o…
Solution
A system in which one of more substances are homogeneously mi…
Solute
The substance being dissolved in a solution; the least abunda…
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 2
Measurement
Scientific notation
Significant figures
Rounding off numbers
A quantitative observation
A convenient way of expressing large and small numbers using…
The number of digits that are known plus one estimated digit…
The process by which the value of the last digit retained is…
Measurement
A quantitative observation
Scientific notation
A convenient way of expressing large and small numbers using…
38 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Chapter 4
physical properties
chemical properties
physical changes
chemical changes
inherent in the substance and can be determined without alter…
the ability of a substance to interact with other substances…
change in the physical properties or a change in the state of…
different substances are formed that have different propertie…
physical properties
inherent in the substance and can be determined without alter…
chemical properties
the ability of a substance to interact with other substances…
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 12
Kinetic-molecular theory (KMT)
Ideal gas
Diffusion
Effusion
A group of assumptions used to explain the behavior and prope…
A gas that behaves precisely according to the kinetic molecul…
The property by which gases and liquids mix spontaneously bec…
The process by which gas molecules pass through a tiny orific…
Kinetic-molecular theory (KMT)
A group of assumptions used to explain the behavior and prope…
Ideal gas
A gas that behaves precisely according to the kinetic molecul…
Foundations of College Chemistry chapter 5
atoms
Daltons Atomic Theory
Law of Definite composition
Law of Multiple Proportions
the smallest piece of an element that retains the properties…
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
a compound always contains two or more elements combined in a…
atoms with two or more elements can combine in multiple propo…
atoms
the smallest piece of an element that retains the properties…
Daltons Atomic Theory
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
113 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 6
Inorganic compounds
Polyatomic molecules naturally occurring
Anion naming
Ionic compounds
Compounds that do not contain Carbon
H₂, O₂ N₂ C₂, F₂, Br₂, I₂, S₈, P₄, Se₈
Keep the stem of the name and change the ending to ide ... Ex. F…
The sum of their charges will equal to 0 ... Ex. Sodium bromide…
Inorganic compounds
Compounds that do not contain Carbon
Polyatomic molecules naturally occurring
H₂, O₂ N₂ C₂, F₂, Br₂, I₂, S₈, P₄, Se₈
32 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Test 2 (chapter 4)
physical properties
chemical properties
physical changes
chemical changes
characteristics of a substance that can be determined without…
the ability of a substance to form new substances by reaction…
changes in physical properties with no change in composition
formation of new substances with different properties and com…
physical properties
characteristics of a substance that can be determined without…
chemical properties
the ability of a substance to form new substances by reaction…
53 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Ions and Prefixes
copper (I) / cuprous
copper (II) / cupric
mercury (I) / mercurous
mercure (II) / mercuric
Cu +
Cu 2+
Hg +
Hg 2+
copper (I) / cuprous
Cu +
copper (II) / cupric
Cu 2+
16 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry / Chapter 1
SOLID
THEORY
HYPOTHESIS
SYSTEM
A state of matter having a definite shape and a definite volu…
An explanation of the general principles of certain phenomena…
A tentative explanation of certain facts to provide a basis f…
A body of matter under consideration.
SOLID
A state of matter having a definite shape and a definite volu…
THEORY
An explanation of the general principles of certain phenomena…
21 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry / Chapter 3
MOLECULE
CATION
SYMBOLS
HALOGENS
The smallest uncharged individual unit of a compound formed b…
A positively charged ion.
In chemistry, an abbreviation for the name of an element
Group 7A of the periodic table; consists of the elements fluo…
MOLECULE
The smallest uncharged individual unit of a compound formed b…
CATION
A positively charged ion.
43 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapter 13
liquid
evaporation
sublimation
volatile
a substance with definite volume but no shape
escape of liquid molecules from a liquid into the air space a…
a change of a solid directly to a gas; e.g. dry ice (CO2)
describes a liquid which evaporates easily at room conditions…
liquid
a substance with definite volume but no shape
evaporation
escape of liquid molecules from a liquid into the air space a…
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapter 19 LE
organic chemistry
organic chemistry (old definition)
hydrocarbons
alkanes
the chemistry of compounds of carbon
the chemistry of compounds in living (or once living) things
comounds containing only hydrogen and carbon
hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms
organic chemistry
the chemistry of compounds of carbon
organic chemistry (old definition)
the chemistry of compounds in living (or once living) things
36 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 11
Metal
Nonmetals
Metalloids
Hydrogen
Left hand side of the stairs. lustrous, malleable, and good c…
on the right hand side of the stairs... Nonlustous, brittle, and…
B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po ... on the stairs and have both ch…
Acts like a nonmetal in most cases but when in and acid it wi…
Metal
Left hand side of the stairs. lustrous, malleable, and good c…
Nonmetals
on the right hand side of the stairs... Nonlustous, brittle, and…
22 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry chapter 5
atoms
Daltons Atomic Theory
Law of Definite composition
Law of Multiple Proportions
the smallest piece of an element that retains the properties…
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
a compound always contains two or more elements combined in a…
atoms with two or more elements can combine in multiple propo…
atoms
the smallest piece of an element that retains the properties…
Daltons Atomic Theory
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
College General Chemistry chapter1
Conversion Factor
dimensional analysis
mass
length
ratios used to express a measured quantity in different units
conversion factors in calculations
kilogram
meter
Conversion Factor
ratios used to express a measured quantity in different units
dimensional analysis
conversion factors in calculations
29 terms
College General Chemistry Chapter 2
Ions
Cation
Anion
Isotopes
Atoms that have lost or gained one or more electrons.
An atom that has lost one or more electrons and has a positiv…
An atom that has gained one or more electrons and has a negat…
Atoms of the same element containing different numbers of neu…
Ions
Atoms that have lost or gained one or more electrons.
Cation
An atom that has lost one or more electrons and has a positiv…
40 terms
College General Chemistry Chapter 1
Science
Law
Theory (Model)
Chemistry
A system of acquiring knowledge by using observation and expe…
A statement of a relation that is always the same under the g…
An explanation for why something happens (or happened).
The science concerned with the properties,composition,structu…
Science
A system of acquiring knowledge by using observation and expe…
Law
A statement of a relation that is always the same under the g…
College General Chemistry chapter2
Elements
Pure substance
molecule
diatomic molecule
the simplest type of matter with unique physical and chemical…
matter with a fixed composition
an independent structural unit consisting of two or more atoms
consists of 2 atoms chemically bonded
Elements
the simplest type of matter with unique physical and chemical…
Pure substance
matter with a fixed composition
College General Chemistry: Exam #4
Gas to liquid
Gas to solid
Liquid to gas
Liquid to solid
Condensation
Deposition
Vaporization
Crystallization
Gas to liquid
Condensation
Gas to solid
Deposition
15 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry chapter 5
Daltons Atomic Theory
Natural Law
Law of Definite composition
Law of Multiple Proportions
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
Our general observations regarding nature
a compound always contains two or more elements combined in a…
atoms with two or more elements can combine in multiple propo…
Daltons Atomic Theory
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
Natural Law
Our general observations regarding nature
37 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 10
Wavelength
Frequency
Speed
Photons
Lamda, the distance between consecutive peaks or troughs
nu, how many times a wave passes through a particular point
v, tells how fast a wave moves through spaces
A tiny packet of energy that streams with other of its kind t…
Wavelength
Lamda, the distance between consecutive peaks or troughs
Frequency
nu, how many times a wave passes through a particular point
58 terms
General College Chemistry - Ch 1&2
atoms
theory
law
pure substance
submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental buil…
speculation, can never be conclusively proven, new experiment…
a scientifically proven truth
only 1 component that does not differ
atoms
submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental buil…
theory
speculation, can never be conclusively proven, new experiment…
47 terms
College General Chemistry Chapter 1
Science
Law
Theory (Model)
Chemistry
A system of acquiring knowledge by using observation and expe…
A statement of a relation that is always the same under the g…
An explanation for why something happens (or happened).
The science concerned with the properties,composition,structu…
Science
A system of acquiring knowledge by using observation and expe…
Law
A statement of a relation that is always the same under the g…
General Chemistry 1412 (Blinn College) Final Review
ΔG
T_changeover
ΔS^o
ΔS
ΔH - TΔS
ΔH/ΔS
∑S_m^o (products) - ∑_Sm^o (reactants)
nR ln (V2)/(V1)
ΔG
ΔH - TΔS
T_changeover
ΔH/ΔS
32 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapters 14-15
solvent
solute
solution
miscible
the dissolving agent; in a solution with two or more miscible…
the dissolved substance(s); may be solid, liquid or gas
a homogeneous mixture
liquids that are soluble in each other
solvent
the dissolving agent; in a solution with two or more miscible…
solute
the dissolved substance(s); may be solid, liquid or gas
Common polyatomic ions: College General Chemistry 1410
NH4+
H3O+
CH3COO- (or C2H3O2-)
CN-
Ammonium (cation)
Hydronium (cation)
Acetate (anion)
Cyanide (anion)
NH4+
Ammonium (cation)
H3O+
Hydronium (cation)
58 terms
General College Chemistry - Ch 1&2
atoms
theory
law
pure substance
submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental buil…
speculation, can never be conclusively proven, new experiment…
a scientifically proven truth
only 1 component that does not differ
atoms
submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental buil…
theory
speculation, can never be conclusively proven, new experiment…
45 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapters 14-15
solvent
solute
solution
miscible
the dissolving agent; in a solution with two or more miscible…
the dissolved substance(s); may be solid, liquid or gas
a homogeneous mixture
liquids that are soluble in each other
solvent
the dissolving agent; in a solution with two or more miscible…
solute
the dissolved substance(s); may be solid, liquid or gas
33 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Test 1 (chapters 1-3)
science
chemistry
scientific method
significant figure
observation and study of physical creation
study of matter
procedure for disproving false (physical) ideas
digit in a number that conveys real information about the mea…
science
observation and study of physical creation
chemistry
study of matter
109 terms
CH.1 & CH.2 - College General Chemistry - terms and misc
What is Chemistry
Macroscopic
Microscopic
Organic Chemistry
The study of Matter and the changes it undergoes. Called the…
Related to chemistry - Observation/experience of the world/ph…
Related to chemistry - Cannot be experienced without the aid…
A chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of t…
What is Chemistry
The study of Matter and the changes it undergoes. Called the…
Macroscopic
Related to chemistry - Observation/experience of the world/ph…
15 terms
Chapter 4 vocab Foundations of College Chemistry 14th edition, Hein & Arena
Calorie (cal)
Chemical change
Chemical equations
Chemical properties
A commonly used unit of heat energy; 1 calorie is a quantity…
A change producing product that differ in composition from th…
A shorthand expression showing the reactants and the products…
Properties of a solution that depend on the number of solute…
Calorie (cal)
A commonly used unit of heat energy; 1 calorie is a quantity…
Chemical change
A change producing product that differ in composition from th…
10 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Test 5 (chapters 7-9)
exothermic reaction
activation energy
endothermic reaction
stoichiometry
a reaction that releases heat; feels hot and makes the surrou…
heat or energy needed to begin an exothermic reaction; does n…
a reaction that absorbs heat; feels cool and makes the surrou…
the analysis of the relative amounts of reactant(s) and produ…
exothermic reaction
a reaction that releases heat; feels hot and makes the surrou…
activation energy
heat or energy needed to begin an exothermic reaction; does n…
33 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Test 1 (chapters 1-3)
science
chemistry
scientific method
significant figure
observation and study of physical creation
study of matter
procedure for disproving false (physical) ideas
digit in a number that conveys real information about the mea…
science
observation and study of physical creation
chemistry
study of matter
109 terms
CH.1 & CH.2 - College General Chemistry - terms and misc
What is Chemistry
Macroscopic
Microscopic
Organic Chemistry
The study of Matter and the changes it undergoes. Called the…
Related to chemistry - Observation/experience of the world/ph…
Related to chemistry - Cannot be experienced without the aid…
A chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of t…
What is Chemistry
The study of Matter and the changes it undergoes. Called the…
Macroscopic
Related to chemistry - Observation/experience of the world/ph…
75 terms
Foundation of College Chemistry (Naming Chemical Compounds)
NaCl
CaO
CaI2
AlN
sodium chloride
calcium oxide
calcium iodide
aluminum nitride
NaCl
sodium chloride
CaO
calcium oxide
19 terms
Chapter 10 vocab Foundations of College Chemistry 14th edition, Hein & Arena
Electron Configuration
Frequency
Ground state
Groups or families (of elements)
The orbital arrangement of electrons in an atom.
A measurement of the number of waves that pass a particular p…
The lowest available energy level within an atom.
Vertical groups of elements in the periodic table (1A, 2A, an…
Electron Configuration
The orbital arrangement of electrons in an atom.
Frequency
A measurement of the number of waves that pass a particular p…
13 terms
Chapter 11 vocab Foundations of College Chemistry 14th edition, Hein & Arena
Bent structure
Covalent bond
Dipole
Electronegativity
Molecular structure in which the molecule looks like a V. The…
A chemical bond formed between two atoms by sharing a pair of…
A molecule that is electrically asymmetrical, causing it to b…
The relative attraction that an atom has for a pair of shared…
Bent structure
Molecular structure in which the molecule looks like a V. The…
Covalent bond
A chemical bond formed between two atoms by sharing a pair of…
18 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Polyatomic Ions Table 6.5
NH₄⁺
C₂H₃O₂⁻
CO₃²⁻
HCO₃¹⁻
Ammonium
Acetate
Carbonate
Hydrogen Carbonate
NH₄⁺
Ammonium
C₂H₃O₂⁻
Acetate
27 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 2 Review Wiley Plus Orion
How many m are in 981 pm?
How many m are in 4.7 µm?
How many cm are in 9.72 m?
??Sucrose has a density of 1.59 g/cm3.…
9.81 x 10-10 m ... pico = 10^-12; 1 meter = 1,000,000,000,000 pi…
4.7 x 10-6 m... micro = 10^-6 ; 1 meter = 1,000,000 micrometers;…
972 cm... centi = 10^-2 ; 1 meter = 100 centimeters ; (9.72 m)(…
1.82 cm^3 ... 2.90 g x (1 mL/1.59 g) = 1.82 mL
How many m are in 981 pm?
9.81 x 10-10 m ... pico = 10^-12; 1 meter = 1,000,000,000,000 pi…
How many m are in 4.7 µm?
4.7 x 10-6 m... micro = 10^-6 ; 1 meter = 1,000,000 micrometers;…
50 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 1 Review Wiley Plus Orion
True or False? A 5-g sugar sample was…
Which of the following characterizes b…
True or False? A piece of apple is an…
True or False? Solutions can only be l…
True; Since it is not stirred, the sugar is not uniformly dis…
a, b
True; Matter is defined as anything that occupies space and h…
False; Solutions can be liquids, gases, or solids.
True or False? A 5-g sugar sample was…
True; Since it is not stirred, the sugar is not uniformly dis…
Which of the following characterizes b…
a, b
27 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 2 Review Wiley Plus Orion
How many m are in 981 pm?
How many m are in 4.7 µm?
How many cm are in 9.72 m?
??Sucrose has a density of 1.59 g/cm3.…
9.81 x 10-10 m ... pico = 10^-12; 1 meter = 1,000,000,000,000 pi…
4.7 x 10-6 m... micro = 10^-6 ; 1 meter = 1,000,000 micrometers;…
972 cm... centi = 10^-2 ; 1 meter = 100 centimeters ; (9.72 m)(…
1.82 cm^3 ... 2.90 g x (1 mL/1.59 g) = 1.82 mL
How many m are in 981 pm?
9.81 x 10-10 m ... pico = 10^-12; 1 meter = 1,000,000,000,000 pi…
How many m are in 4.7 µm?
4.7 x 10-6 m... micro = 10^-6 ; 1 meter = 1,000,000 micrometers;…
112 terms
CH.1 & CH.2 - College General Chemistry - terms and misc
What is Chemistry
Macroscopic
Microscopic
Organic Chemistry
The study of Matter and the changes it undergoes. Called the…
Related to chemistry - Observation/experience of the world/ph…
Related to chemistry - Cannot be experienced without the aid…
A chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of t…
What is Chemistry
The study of Matter and the changes it undergoes. Called the…
Macroscopic
Related to chemistry - Observation/experience of the world/ph…
12 terms
Chapter 5 vocab Foundations of College Chemistry 14th edition, Hein & Arena
Atomic mass
Atomic mass unit (amu)
Atomic number (z)
Dalton's atomic model
The average relative mass of the isotopes of an element; i.e.…
A unit of mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of carbon-12 atom.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of a given el…
The first modern atomic theory to state that elements are com…
Atomic mass
The average relative mass of the isotopes of an element; i.e.…
Atomic mass unit (amu)
A unit of mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of carbon-12 atom.
MCAT Foundational Concept V: General Chemistry
quantum mechanical model
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
Hund's rule
paramagnetic materials
electrons do not travel in defined orbits but rather localize…
it is impossible to know both an electron's position and mome…
electrons fill subshells so that each subshell gets one elect…
have unpaired electrons that align with magnetic fields... they…
quantum mechanical model
electrons do not travel in defined orbits but rather localize…
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
it is impossible to know both an electron's position and mome…
Foundations of College Chemistry Polyatomic Ions Table 6.5
NH₄⁺
C₂H₃O₂⁻
CO₃²⁻
HCO₃¹⁻
Ammonium
Acetate
Carbonate
Hydrogen Carbonate
NH₄⁺
Ammonium
C₂H₃O₂⁻
Acetate
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