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Study sets matching "general chemistry foundations college"

15 terms
Chapter 5 Foundations Of College Chemistry
Daltons Atomic Theory
Natural Law
Law of Definite composition
Law of Multiple Proportions
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
Summarized general observations regarding nature into a state…
a compound always contains two or more elements combined in a…
atoms with two or more elements can combine in multiple propo…
Daltons Atomic Theory
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
Natural Law
Summarized general observations regarding nature into a state…
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 7
Avogadro's number
Mole
Molar mass
Percent composition of a compound
6.022×10e23; the number of formula units in 1 mole
The amount of a substance containing the same number of formu…
The mass of Avogadro's number of atoms or molecules. The sum…
The mass percent represented by each element in a compound
Avogadro's number
6.022×10e23; the number of formula units in 1 mole
Mole
The amount of a substance containing the same number of formu…
113 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 6
Inorganic compounds
Polyatomic molecules naturally occurring
Anion naming
Ionic compounds
Compounds that do not contain Carbon
H₂, O₂ N₂ C₂, F₂, Br₂, I₂, S₈, P₄, Se₈
Keep the stem of the name and change the ending to ide ... Ex. F…
The sum of their charges will equal to 0 ... Ex. Sodium bromide…
Inorganic compounds
Compounds that do not contain Carbon
Polyatomic molecules naturally occurring
H₂, O₂ N₂ C₂, F₂, Br₂, I₂, S₈, P₄, Se₈
50 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Chapter 4
physical property & examples
chemical properties & examples
physical changes
chemical changes
characteristics can be observed or measured without changing…
the ability of a substance to form new substances either by r…
Takes place with no change in molecular composition... (What you…
a change producing products that differ in composition from t…
physical property & examples
characteristics can be observed or measured without changing…
chemical properties & examples
the ability of a substance to form new substances either by r…
53 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Ions and Prefixes
copper (I) / cuprous
copper (II) / cupric
mercury (I) / mercurous
mercure (II) / mercuric
Cu +
Cu 2+
Hg +
Hg 2+
copper (I) / cuprous
Cu +
copper (II) / cupric
Cu 2+
21 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry / Chapter 3
MOLECULE
CATION
SYMBOLS
HALOGENS
The smallest uncharged individual unit of a compound formed b…
A positively charged ion.
In chemistry, an abbreviation for the name of an element
Group 7A of the periodic table; consists of the elements fluo…
MOLECULE
The smallest uncharged individual unit of a compound formed b…
CATION
A positively charged ion.
21 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 12
Kinetic-molecular theory (KMT)
Ideal gas
Diffusion
Effusion
A group of assumptions used to explain the behavior and prope…
A gas that behaves precisely according to the kinetic molecul…
The property by which gases and liquids mix spontaneously bec…
The process by which gas molecules pass through a tiny orific…
Kinetic-molecular theory (KMT)
A group of assumptions used to explain the behavior and prope…
Ideal gas
A gas that behaves precisely according to the kinetic molecul…
41 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapter 18
half-reaction
electrical cell
battery
galvanic cell
a reaction representing the oxidation half or the reduction h…
a device in which chemical reactions interact with electrical…
several electric cells connected in a series
an electric cell using exothermic chemical reactions to produ…
half-reaction
a reaction representing the oxidation half or the reduction h…
electrical cell
a device in which chemical reactions interact with electrical…
49 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Test 6
quantum mechanics
emit
emission
quantum
modern theory of atomic structure which describes the organiz…
to give off, as when an atom emits energy
that which is given off; eg. the energy given off by an atom
the specific amount of energy absorbed or emitted by an atom;…
quantum mechanics
modern theory of atomic structure which describes the organiz…
emit
to give off, as when an atom emits energy
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 9
Stoichiometry
Limiting reactant
Theoretical yield
Actual yield
The area of chemistry that deals with the quantitative relati…
A reactant that limits the amount of product formed because i…
The maximum amount of product that can be produced according…
The amount of product actually produced in a chemical reactio…
Stoichiometry
The area of chemistry that deals with the quantitative relati…
Limiting reactant
A reactant that limits the amount of product formed because i…
14 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 14
Solution
Solute
Solvent
Solubility
A system in which one of more substances are homogeneously mi…
The substance being dissolved in a solution; the least abunda…
The dissolving agent or the most abundant component in a solu…
An amount of solute that will dissolve in a specific amount o…
Solution
A system in which one of more substances are homogeneously mi…
Solute
The substance being dissolved in a solution; the least abunda…
13 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapter 16
titration
indicator
standard solution
net ionic equations
a procedure for determining the amount of acid, basae or othe…
a substance that changes color when a reaction is complete
any solution whose concentration is known
reactions which show only the ions that actually react
titration
a procedure for determining the amount of acid, basae or othe…
indicator
a substance that changes color when a reaction is complete
15 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 2
Measurement
Scientific notation
Significant figures
Rounding off numbers
A quantitative observation
A convenient way of expressing large and small numbers using…
The number of digits that are known plus one estimated digit…
The process by which the value of the last digit retained is…
Measurement
A quantitative observation
Scientific notation
A convenient way of expressing large and small numbers using…
34 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapter 19
organic chemistry
organic chemistry (old definition)
hydrocarbons
alkanes
the chemistry of compounds of carbon
the chemistry of compounds in living (or once living) things
comounds containing only hydrogen and carbon
hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms
organic chemistry
the chemistry of compounds of carbon
organic chemistry (old definition)
the chemistry of compounds in living (or once living) things
34 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapter 19
organic chemistry
organic chemistry (old definition)
hydrocarbons
alkanes
the chemistry of compounds of carbon
the chemistry of compounds in living (or once living) things
comounds containing only hydrogen and carbon
hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms
organic chemistry
the chemistry of compounds of carbon
organic chemistry (old definition)
the chemistry of compounds in living (or once living) things
38 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Chapter 4
physical properties
chemical properties
physical changes
chemical changes
inherent in the substance and can be determined without alter…
the ability of a substance to interact with other substances…
change in the physical properties or a change in the state of…
different substances are formed that have different propertie…
physical properties
inherent in the substance and can be determined without alter…
chemical properties
the ability of a substance to interact with other substances…
43 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapter 13
liquid
evaporation
sublimation
volatile
a substance with definite volume but no shape
escape of liquid molecules from a liquid into the air space a…
a change of a solid directly to a gas; e.g. dry ice (CO2)
describes a liquid which evaporates easily at room conditions…
liquid
a substance with definite volume but no shape
evaporation
escape of liquid molecules from a liquid into the air space a…
35 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapter 20
carbodhydrates
lipids
proteins
nucleic acids
sugars, starches and cellulose
fats, oils and waxes
muscle and connective tissue polymers and enzymes
information-carrying molecues; DNA and RNA
carbodhydrates
sugars, starches and cellulose
lipids
fats, oils and waxes
22 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry chapter 5
atoms
Daltons Atomic Theory
Law of Definite composition
Law of Multiple Proportions
the smallest piece of an element that retains the properties…
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
a compound always contains two or more elements combined in a…
atoms with two or more elements can combine in multiple propo…
atoms
the smallest piece of an element that retains the properties…
Daltons Atomic Theory
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
8 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Monatomic Anions
nitride
phosphide
oxide
sulfide
N 3-
P 3-
O 2-
S 2-
nitride
N 3-
phosphide
P 3-
36 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 11
Metal
Nonmetals
Metalloids
Hydrogen
Left hand side of the stairs. lustrous, malleable, and good c…
on the right hand side of the stairs... Nonlustous, brittle, and…
B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po ... on the stairs and have both ch…
Acts like a nonmetal in most cases but when in and acid it wi…
Metal
Left hand side of the stairs. lustrous, malleable, and good c…
Nonmetals
on the right hand side of the stairs... Nonlustous, brittle, and…
17 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Atomic Masses
hydrogen (H)
helium (He)
lithium (Li)
boron (B)
1
4
7
11
hydrogen (H)
1
helium (He)
4
10 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Oxo-acids
carbonic acid
acetic acid
sulfuric acid
sulfurous acid
H2C03
HC2H3O2
H2SO4
H2SO3
carbonic acid
H2C03
acetic acid
HC2H3O2
53 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Ions and Prefixes
copper (I) / cuprous
copper (II) / cupric
mercury (I) / mercurous
mercure (II) / mercuric
Cu +
Cu 2+
Hg +
Hg 2+
copper (I) / cuprous
Cu +
copper (II) / cupric
Cu 2+
18 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Polyatomic Anions
acetate
arsenate
bicarbonate / hydrogen carbonate
bisulfate / hydrogen sulfate
C2H3O2 -
AsO4 3-
HCO3 -
HSO4 -
acetate
C2H3O2 -
arsenate
AsO4 3-
43 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapter 13
liquid
evaporation
sublimation
volatile
a substance with definite volume but no shape
escape of liquid molecules from a liquid into the air space a…
a change of a solid directly to a gas; e.g. dry ice (CO2)
describes a liquid which evaporates easily at room conditions…
liquid
a substance with definite volume but no shape
evaporation
escape of liquid molecules from a liquid into the air space a…
15 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry chapter 5
Daltons Atomic Theory
Natural Law
Law of Definite composition
Law of Multiple Proportions
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
Our general observations regarding nature
a compound always contains two or more elements combined in a…
atoms with two or more elements can combine in multiple propo…
Daltons Atomic Theory
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
Natural Law
Our general observations regarding nature
15 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 10
Wavelength
Frequency
Speed
Photons
Lamda, the distance between consecutive peaks or troughs
nu, how many times a wave passes through a particular point
v, tells how fast a wave moves through spaces
A tiny packet of energy that streams with other of its kind t…
Wavelength
Lamda, the distance between consecutive peaks or troughs
Frequency
nu, how many times a wave passes through a particular point
16 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry / Chapter 1
SOLID
THEORY
HYPOTHESIS
SYSTEM
A state of matter having a definite shape and a definite volu…
An explanation of the general principles of certain phenomena…
A tentative explanation of certain facts to provide a basis f…
A body of matter under consideration.
SOLID
A state of matter having a definite shape and a definite volu…
THEORY
An explanation of the general principles of certain phenomena…
22 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry chapter 5
atoms
Daltons Atomic Theory
Law of Definite composition
Law of Multiple Proportions
the smallest piece of an element that retains the properties…
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
a compound always contains two or more elements combined in a…
atoms with two or more elements can combine in multiple propo…
atoms
the smallest piece of an element that retains the properties…
Daltons Atomic Theory
1. all elements are composed of tiny indivisible atoms... 2. all…
21 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry / Chapter 3
MOLECULE
CATION
SYMBOLS
HALOGENS
The smallest uncharged individual unit of a compound formed b…
A positively charged ion.
In chemistry, an abbreviation for the name of an element
Group 7A of the periodic table; consists of the elements fluo…
MOLECULE
The smallest uncharged individual unit of a compound formed b…
CATION
A positively charged ion.
37 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry Chapter 10
Wavelength
Frequency
Speed
Photons
Lamda, the distance between consecutive peaks or troughs
nu, how many times a wave passes through a particular point
v, tells how fast a wave moves through spaces
A tiny packet of energy that streams with other of its kind t…
Wavelength
Lamda, the distance between consecutive peaks or troughs
Frequency
nu, how many times a wave passes through a particular point
34 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapter 19 LE
organic chemistry
organic chemistry (old definition)
hydrocarbons
alkanes
the chemistry of compounds of carbon
the chemistry of compounds in living (or once living) things
comounds containing only hydrogen and carbon
hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms
organic chemistry
the chemistry of compounds of carbon
organic chemistry (old definition)
the chemistry of compounds in living (or once living) things
32 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Test 2 (chapter 4)
physical properties
chemical properties
physical changes
chemical changes
characteristics of a substance that can be determined without…
the ability of a substance to form new substances by reaction…
changes in physical properties with no change in composition
formation of new substances with different properties and com…
physical properties
characteristics of a substance that can be determined without…
chemical properties
the ability of a substance to form new substances by reaction…
26 terms
College General Chemistry chapter1
Conversion Factor
dimensional analysis
mass
length
ratios used to express a measured quantity in different units
conversion factors in calculations
kilogram
meter
Conversion Factor
ratios used to express a measured quantity in different units
dimensional analysis
conversion factors in calculations
84 terms
College General Chemistry chapter2
Elements
Pure substance
molecule
diatomic molecule
the simplest type of matter with unique physical and chemical…
matter with a fixed composition
an independent structural unit consisting of two or more atoms
consists of 2 atoms chemically bonded
Elements
the simplest type of matter with unique physical and chemical…
Pure substance
matter with a fixed composition
29 terms
College General Chemistry Chapter 2
Ions
Cation
Anion
Isotopes
Atoms that have lost or gained one or more electrons.
An atom that has lost one or more electrons and has a positiv…
An atom that has gained one or more electrons and has a negat…
Atoms of the same element containing different numbers of neu…
Ions
Atoms that have lost or gained one or more electrons.
Cation
An atom that has lost one or more electrons and has a positiv…
19 terms
College General Chemistry: Exam #4
Gas to liquid
Gas to solid
Liquid to gas
Liquid to solid
Condensation
Deposition
Vaporization
Crystallization
Gas to liquid
Condensation
Gas to solid
Deposition
40 terms
College General Chemistry Chapter 1
Science
Law
Theory (Model)
Chemistry
A system of acquiring knowledge by using observation and expe…
A statement of a relation that is always the same under the g…
An explanation for why something happens (or happened).
The science concerned with the properties,composition,structu…
Science
A system of acquiring knowledge by using observation and expe…
Law
A statement of a relation that is always the same under the g…
47 terms
College General Chemistry Chapter 1
Science
Law
Theory (Model)
Chemistry
A system of acquiring knowledge by using observation and expe…
A statement of a relation that is always the same under the g…
An explanation for why something happens (or happened).
The science concerned with the properties,composition,structu…
Science
A system of acquiring knowledge by using observation and expe…
Law
A statement of a relation that is always the same under the g…
32 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Test 2 (chapter 4)
physical properties
chemical properties
physical changes
chemical changes
characteristics of a substance that can be determined without…
the ability of a substance to form new substances by reaction…
changes in physical properties with no change in composition
formation of new substances with different properties and com…
physical properties
characteristics of a substance that can be determined without…
chemical properties
the ability of a substance to form new substances by reaction…
20 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Test 4 (chapter 7)
percent composition
empirical forumla
mass basis
molecular formula
the composition by mass of the different elements in a formul…
a chemical formula giving the simplest whole-number mole rati…
a total mass assumed for doing calculations in cases where an…
a chemical formula giving the actual number of atoms of each…
percent composition
the composition by mass of the different elements in a formul…
empirical forumla
a chemical formula giving the simplest whole-number mole rati…
46 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapters 14-15
solvent
solute
solution
miscible
the dissolving agent; in a solution with two or more miscible…
the dissolved substance(s); may be solid, liquid or gas
a homogeneous mixture
liquids that are soluble in each other
solvent
the dissolving agent; in a solution with two or more miscible…
solute
the dissolved substance(s); may be solid, liquid or gas
31 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapters 16-17
reaction rate
rate expression
reactant (or product) order
reaction order
how fast a reaction occurs; how fast reactants are consumed o…
an equation based on experimental data, which predicts the ra…
exponent (x or y) of the chemical in the rate expression
sum of all exponents in the rate expression
reaction rate
how fast a reaction occurs; how fast reactants are consumed o…
rate expression
an equation based on experimental data, which predicts the ra…
55 terms
General Chemistry I - The Foundations of Chemistry (Chapter 1)
It is the study of matter and energy.…
Is the most versatile element in its b…
Is the study of compounds consisting o…
Is the study of chemistry that does no…
Chemistry
Carbon
Organic Chemistry
Inorganic Chemistry
It is the study of matter and energy.…
Chemistry
Is the most versatile element in its b…
Carbon
109 terms
CH.1 & CH.2 - College General Chemistry - terms and misc
What is Chemistry
Macroscopic
Microscopic
Organic Chemistry
The study of Matter and the changes it undergoes. Called the…
Related to chemistry - Observation/experience of the world/ph…
Related to chemistry - Cannot be experienced without the aid…
A chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of t…
What is Chemistry
The study of Matter and the changes it undergoes. Called the…
Macroscopic
Related to chemistry - Observation/experience of the world/ph…
109 terms
CH.1 & CH.2 - College General Chemistry - terms and misc
What is Chemistry
Macroscopic
Microscopic
Organic Chemistry
The study of Matter and the changes it undergoes. Called the…
Related to chemistry - Observation/experience of the world/ph…
Related to chemistry - Cannot be experienced without the aid…
A chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of t…
What is Chemistry
The study of Matter and the changes it undergoes. Called the…
Macroscopic
Related to chemistry - Observation/experience of the world/ph…
58 terms
General College Chemistry - Ch 1&2
atoms
theory
law
pure substance
submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental buil…
speculation, can never be conclusively proven, new experiment…
a scientifically proven truth
only 1 component that does not differ
atoms
submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental buil…
theory
speculation, can never be conclusively proven, new experiment…
17 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - Element Names and Symbols
H
He
Li
B
hydrogen
helium
lithium
beryllium
H
hydrogen
He
helium
45 terms
Foundations of College Chemistry - chapters 14-15
solvent
solute
solution
miscible
the dissolving agent; in a solution with two or more miscible…
the dissolved substance(s); may be solid, liquid or gas
a homogeneous mixture
liquids that are soluble in each other
solvent
the dissolving agent; in a solution with two or more miscible…
solute
the dissolved substance(s); may be solid, liquid or gas
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