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Study sets matching "general psychology chapter 8"

37 terms
General Psychology - Chapter 8
memory
recall
recognition
relearning
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and…
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve informa…
A measure of memory in which the person need only identify it…
A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved wh…
memory
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and…
recall
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve informa…
22 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
intelligence
general intelligence
Gardner
Sternberg
Mental quality that consists of the ability to learn from exp…
Factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies spec…
Last name of the psychologist who introduced the notion of mu…
Last name of the psychologist who developed the Triarchic the…
intelligence
Mental quality that consists of the ability to learn from exp…
general intelligence
Factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies spec…
48 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
1. Motivated behavior is ____.... A. ener…
2. Which of the following statements a…
3. A(n) ____ is an aroused state that…
4. A(n)____ is a deprivation that ener…
B
D
B
C
1. Motivated behavior is ____.... A. ener…
B
2. Which of the following statements a…
D
40 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Building Blocks of Cognition, which th…
Concepts and Imagery
Mental Set, Functional Fixedness, Conf…
Tendency to respond to a new problem i…
Mental Representations
Two types of Mental Representations
Obstacles to Problem Solving
Mental Set
Building Blocks of Cognition, which th…
Mental Representations
Concepts and Imagery
Two types of Mental Representations
29 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Norms
Role
Culture
Milgram's Obedience Study
Rules that regulate social life, including explicit laws and…
A given social position that is governed by a set of norms fo…
A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of people…
Teachers inflicted extreme shock on another person because of…
Norms
Rules that regulate social life, including explicit laws and…
Role
A given social position that is governed by a set of norms fo…
25 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Analytical Intelligence
Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence
Chronological Age
Creative Intelligence
Problem-solving and reasoning abilities used to solve everyda…
Ability to control and organize bodily movements, such as in…
Actual biological age of a test-taker
The ability to use information in new ways, to invent, and to…
Analytical Intelligence
Problem-solving and reasoning abilities used to solve everyda…
Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence
Ability to control and organize bodily movements, such as in…
29 terms
General Psychology: Chapter 8
Pre-natal development
Germinal
Embryotic
Fetal
development of a child in the womb that has three stages
first stage of pre-natal development; lasts the first 2 weeks
second stage of pre-natal development; lasts 6 weeks after th…
third stage of pre-natal development; lasts all the time afte…
Pre-natal development
development of a child in the womb that has three stages
Germinal
first stage of pre-natal development; lasts the first 2 weeks
46 terms
General Psychology - Chapter 8
Cognition
Artificial Intelligence
Thinking
Concepts
...
...
...
...
Cognition
...
Artificial Intelligence
...
General Psychology Chapter 8
Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Dev…
Erikson's Theory Stages: (Trust vs. Mi…
Erikson's Theory Stages: (Autonomy vs.…
Erikson's Theory Stages: (Initiative v…
Viewed the developmental changes occurring throughout life as…
0 - 1.5 Years
1.5 - 3 Years
3 - 5 Years
Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Dev…
Viewed the developmental changes occurring throughout life as…
Erikson's Theory Stages: (Trust vs. Mi…
0 - 1.5 Years
47 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
cognition
artificial intelligence (AI)
thinking
concept
The way in which information is processed and manipulated in…
A scientific field that focuses on creating machines capable…
The mental process of manipulating information mentally by fo…
A mental category that is used to group objects, events, and…
cognition
The way in which information is processed and manipulated in…
artificial intelligence (AI)
A scientific field that focuses on creating machines capable…
56 terms
General Psychology chapter 8
personality
black bile, yellow bile, blood, phlegm
Franz Gall's phrenology theory
conscious mind
A person's internally based characteristic ways of acting and…
4 bodily fluids that determined personality type in ancient G…
theory which states that personality is determined by the con…
Freud's term for what we are presently aware of
personality
A person's internally based characteristic ways of acting and…
black bile, yellow bile, blood, phlegm
4 bodily fluids that determined personality type in ancient G…
16 terms
General Psychology: Chapter 8
Problem Sovling
Fixation
Functional Fixedness
Reasoning
-find the problem... -develop strategies (subgoals, algorithms,…
involoves using a prior strategy and failing to look at a pro…
individuals fail to solve a problem because they are fixed on…
mental activity of transforming information to reach a concul…
Problem Sovling
-find the problem... -develop strategies (subgoals, algorithms,…
Fixation
involoves using a prior strategy and failing to look at a pro…
21 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Cognation
attention process
attentional blink
pre-attentive/ attentive process
refers to thinking, acquiring and managing knowledge
a procedure that considers only one part of the stimuli prese…
rebound period in which a person cannot pay attention to a se…
method for extracting information automatically and simultane…
Cognation
refers to thinking, acquiring and managing knowledge
attention process
a procedure that considers only one part of the stimuli prese…
37 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8 Memory
Memory
Recall
Recognition
Relearning
The persistance of learning over time through storage and ret…
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve informa…
A measure of memory in which the person need only identify it…
A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved wh…
Memory
The persistance of learning over time through storage and ret…
Recall
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve informa…
20 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
What are the three steps in memory inf…
Yesterday you taught your dog to crawl…
Memory is stored in which area of the…
Changes in the strength of neural conn…
Encoding, storage, retrieval
Encode; store; retrive
D) All of the above
Consolidation
What are the three steps in memory inf…
Encoding, storage, retrieval
Yesterday you taught your dog to crawl…
Encode; store; retrive
54 terms
Chapter 8 general psychology
Which one of the following is an examp…
Vygotsky emphasized the importance of…
Most parent/tee conflicts ________.... a.…
Jenna's mother speaks in a soft, gentl…
d. Little Jenny's mother works one-on-one with her on a new t…
Piaget
d. are over issues such as hair, clothing, and taste in music
c. gender schema theory
Which one of the following is an examp…
d. Little Jenny's mother works one-on-one with her on a new t…
Vygotsky emphasized the importance of…
Piaget
27 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8 Vocab
Human development
Cross sectional vs. Longitudinal study
Cohort effect vs. Attrition
Nature vs. Nurture
Typical changes seen over time (Characteristics and abilities…
*Cross sectional:... -Study multiple groups (ages) at sane time…
*Cohort Effects: Differences bases on era, not age. ... -Don't k…
*Nature - impact of inherited (genetic) differences ... - (what…
Human development
Typical changes seen over time (Characteristics and abilities…
Cross sectional vs. Longitudinal study
*Cross sectional:... -Study multiple groups (ages) at sane time…
12 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Emotion Regulation
Reappraisal
Emotional Expression
Appraisal
The use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence o…
Changing one's emotional experience by changing the meaning o…
Any observable sign of an emotional state
An evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus
Emotion Regulation
The use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence o…
Reappraisal
Changing one's emotional experience by changing the meaning o…
26 terms
Chapter 8 General Psychology
language
Semantic, Symbolic, Generative, Struct…
cognition
phonemes
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
What are the four major properties of language?
refers broadly to mental processes or thinking
smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished…
language
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combi…
Semantic, Symbolic, Generative, Struct…
What are the four major properties of language?
55 terms
General Psychology, Chapter 8
the way in which information is proces…
a scientific field that focuses on cre…
approaches that sought to explain obse…
the process of manipulating informatio…
cognition
artificial intelligence
cognitive psychology
thinking
the way in which information is proces…
cognition
a scientific field that focuses on cre…
artificial intelligence
39 terms
General Psychology- Chapter 8
Memory
Encoding
Storage
Retrieval
The capacity to preserve and recover information
The processing that determine and control how memories are fo…
The processes that determine and control how memories are sto…
The processes that determine and control how memories are rec…
Memory
The capacity to preserve and recover information
Encoding
The processing that determine and control how memories are fo…
36 terms
General Psychology, Chapter 8
concept
categories
classical categorization
graded membership
the mental representation of an object, event or idea
clusters of interrelated concepts
theory that claims that objects or events are categorized acc…
the observation that some concepts appear to make better cate…
concept
the mental representation of an object, event or idea
categories
clusters of interrelated concepts
26 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
cognition
language
phonemes
morphemes
broad term for mental processes and thinking
symbols that convert meaning plus rules for combining those s…
smallest speech units that can be distinguished perceptually
smallest units of meaning in a language
cognition
broad term for mental processes and thinking
language
symbols that convert meaning plus rules for combining those s…
19 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Motivation
Need
Drive
Instinct
The state in which an organism experiences an inducement or i…
A state of deprivation.
A condition of arousal in an organism that is associated with…
Involving an inherited disposition to activate specific behav…
Motivation
The state in which an organism experiences an inducement or i…
Need
A state of deprivation.
18 terms
General Psychology Vocabulary- Chapter 8
Preattentive Process
Attentive Process
Change Blindness
Choice Blindness
Something that stands out immediately.
One that requires searching through the items in series.
The failure to detect changes in parts of a scene.
When people ask as if they do not know what they have chosen.
Preattentive Process
Something that stands out immediately.
Attentive Process
One that requires searching through the items in series.
37 terms
General Psychology - Chapter 8
memory
recall
recognition
relearning
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and…
a measure of memeory in which the person must retrieve inform…
a measure of memeory in which the person need only identify i…
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved wh…
memory
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and…
recall
a measure of memeory in which the person must retrieve inform…
55 terms
General psychology chapter 8
Developmental psychology
Maturation
Critical period
Cross-sectional method
A field of psychology that examines physical, cognitive, soci…
Physical growth beginning with conception and ending when the…
Specific time frame in which an organism is sensitive to envi…
A research design that examines people of different ages at a…
Developmental psychology
A field of psychology that examines physical, cognitive, soci…
Maturation
Physical growth beginning with conception and ending when the…
58 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Developmental pyschology
Maturation
Physical development
Cognitive development
a field of psychology that examines physical, cognitive, and…
Physical growth beginning with conception and ending when the…
-begins the moment a sperm unites with an egg and continues u…
-Changes in memory, problem-solving abilities, decision makin…
Developmental pyschology
a field of psychology that examines physical, cognitive, and…
Maturation
Physical growth beginning with conception and ending when the…
25 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Amnesia
Chunking
Confabulation
Decay Theory
A partial or total loss of memory
Organizing information into familiar GROUPINGS
False memory
Proposes that memory fades due to the mere passage of time. M…
Amnesia
A partial or total loss of memory
Chunking
Organizing information into familiar GROUPINGS
44 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
thinking
heuristics
cognitive biases
representativeness heuristic
any mental activity or processing of information... Includes lea…
mental shourtcuts used to increase thinking efficiency
systematic error in thinking (predispositions and default exp…
judging the probability of an event based on how prevalent th…
thinking
any mental activity or processing of information... Includes lea…
heuristics
mental shourtcuts used to increase thinking efficiency
27 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Valence
Arousal
Emotion
James-Lange Theory
how positive or negative the experience is
how active or passive the experience is
a positive or negative experience that is associated with a p…
stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system whic…
Valence
how positive or negative the experience is
Arousal
how active or passive the experience is
21 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Just before going to sleep
All-Nighter
Best study techniques
Best foods
When is the best time to review the toughest material? (reduc…
BAD IDEA; Impairs reasoning and memory for 4 days
Minimize distractions; Test yourself repeatedly (Practice pay…
To eat before an important exam: Breakfast, Oatmeal, High Carbs
Just before going to sleep
When is the best time to review the toughest material? (reduc…
All-Nighter
BAD IDEA; Impairs reasoning and memory for 4 days
22 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Personality
Conscious Mind
Preconscious Mind
Unconscious Mind
A persons internally based characteristic
What people are currently aware of
What people are not currently aware of but can gain access to
People cannot become aware of
Personality
A persons internally based characteristic
Conscious Mind
What people are currently aware of
49 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Memory
Working memory
The Phenomenon of Memory
Encoding: How We Encode
The basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the Engli…
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves cons…
Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over tim…
1. Some information (route to your school) is automatically p…
Memory
The basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the Engli…
Working memory
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves cons…
38 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
Leon Festinger
Cognitive dissonance theory
Motivation
Motives
worked on the cognitive theory of motivation
suggested that there would be a discrepancy or conflict betwe…
a hypothetical state in which an organism experiences an indu…
a hypothetical state within an organism that propels the orga…
Leon Festinger
worked on the cognitive theory of motivation
Cognitive dissonance theory
suggested that there would be a discrepancy or conflict betwe…
52 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8: Human Development
Nature
Nurture
Genotype
Phenotype
Biological inheritance, especially genes
Environmental and social experiments
Genetic heritage
Observable characteristics, Contributions of both nature and…
Nature
Biological inheritance, especially genes
Nurture
Environmental and social experiments
67 terms
Intro General Psychology Chapter 8
The Cognitive Revolution
Thinking
Concepts
Prototype Model
•Cognition: how information is processed and manipulate when…
Concepts
- mental categories used to group objects, events, and charac…
instances of a concept are understood/stored as a variation o…
The Cognitive Revolution
•Cognition: how information is processed and manipulate when…
Thinking
Concepts
33 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8 - Memory
Memory
Evidence that learning persists takes…
Recall
Recognition
Persistence of learning over time through the encoding, stora…
Recall, ... Recognition, ... Relearning
Analogous to "fill-in-the-blank." You retrieve information pr…
A form of "multiple choice." You identify which stimuli match…
Memory
Persistence of learning over time through the encoding, stora…
Evidence that learning persists takes…
Recall, ... Recognition, ... Relearning
9 terms
General Psychology- Motivation (Chapter 8)
Motivation
Activation
Persistence
Intensity
Includes the biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forc…
The initiation or production of behavior
The continued efforts or the determination to achieve a goal
The amount of vigor or enthusiasm that accompanies the motiva…
Motivation
Includes the biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forc…
Activation
The initiation or production of behavior
19 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
What do developmental psychologists st…
What is Jean Piaget known for?
What is a scheme?
Assimilation
Study how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the lif…
The first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitiv…
Plan of action, based on previous experiences, to be used in…
The process by which new objects, events, experiences, or inf…
What do developmental psychologists st…
Study how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the lif…
What is Jean Piaget known for?
The first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitiv…
46 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8
2. Which of the following statements a…
4. A(n)____ is a deprivation that ener…
5. You just ran a marathon in very hot…
6. The body's tendency to maintain an…
D
C
B
C
2. Which of the following statements a…
D
4. A(n)____ is a deprivation that ener…
C
45 terms
General Psychology; Chapter 8: Human Development
What is Human Development?
Developmental Psychology
Longitudinal study
Attrition
Typical changes seen over time; (characteristics and abilitie…
Study of human development... Early interest babies and childhoo…
Study one group multiple times,... Identifies group and individu…
Drop-outs, could be biased.
What is Human Development?
Typical changes seen over time; (characteristics and abilitie…
Developmental Psychology
Study of human development... Early interest babies and childhoo…
16 terms
General Psychology- Chapter 8 Questions
What is a prototype?
What are the three stages involved wit…
What is an ill-defined problem?
What is a common problem with ill-defi…
Mental image of the BEST example of a concept.
Initial State, Goal State, Obsticles
Lacks definition in one or more ways, such as an ambiguous in…
Sometimes it can be difficult to know when the solution has b…
What is a prototype?
Mental image of the BEST example of a concept.
What are the three stages involved wit…
Initial State, Goal State, Obsticles
26 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8 Part 2
3 areas of study
we have reflexes
reflexes
* physical development/bodies... * cognitive development/ mind... *…
if humans are born helpless, then how do we survive
genetically wired responses to certain stimuli... * suck/swallow…
3 areas of study
* physical development/bodies... * cognitive development/ mind... *…
we have reflexes
if humans are born helpless, then how do we survive
28 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8 Part 1
development
universal characteristics
individual variation
cross-sectional/longitudinal designs
pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities; occu…
what is the same between us
what about me is different from you
how do we study development
development
pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities; occu…
universal characteristics
what is the same between us
154 terms
General Psychology Study Guide Chapter 8 - 10
Motivation
Instincts
Drive
Primary drives
The factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans a…
Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined…
Motivational tension or arousal that energizes behavior to fu…
Basic drives, such as hunger, thirst, sex, and sleep. Related…
Motivation
The factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans a…
Instincts
Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined…
47 terms
General Psychology Vocabulary: Chapter 8
acquisition
storage
memory trace
retrieval
initial step toward remembering in which new information is t…
retained information
record in the nervous system that actually preserves a memory…
process of searching for some item in memory and of finding it
acquisition
initial step toward remembering in which new information is t…
storage
retained information
85 terms
General Psychology Chapter 8 Human Development
Human Development
Cross-Sectional Design
Longitudinal Design
Cross-Sequential Design
Scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they…
Different participants of various ages are compared at one po…
The same participants are studied at various ages to determin…
Different participants of various ages are compared at severa…
Human Development
Scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they…
Cross-Sectional Design
Different participants of various ages are compared at one po…
5 terms
General Psychology: Chapter 8 quiz
the representativeness heuristic
arrangement
mental set
availability
After seeing your new neighbor walking very stiffly and priml…
Since one of the main goals of playing Scrabble is to use you…
The series of water-jug problems described in the text illust…
The _____ heuristic involves basing estimates of event probab…
the representativeness heuristic
After seeing your new neighbor walking very stiffly and priml…
arrangement
Since one of the main goals of playing Scrabble is to use you…
42 terms
MBU General Psychology Chapter 8
Motivation
motives
instinctive behaviors
instinct theory
Factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal directed beha…
needs or wants that drive goal directed behavior
genetically programmed, innate patterns of response that ate…
the belief that behavior is motivated by instinct
Motivation
Factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal directed beha…
motives
needs or wants that drive goal directed behavior
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