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Study sets matching "genes chapter 15"

62 terms
Chapter 15 (Genes)
alkaptonuria
A. Garrod
mutations in fungal genomes
Beadle and Tatum experiment
black urine disease
1902... recessive alleles... patients lack an enzyme... *connected ge…
Beadle and Tatum 1941... -purposely created mutations in chromos…
studied Neurospora crassa... used x-ray radiation to damage DNA
alkaptonuria
black urine disease
A. Garrod
1902... recessive alleles... patients lack an enzyme... *connected ge…
Chapter 15: Genes
central dogma of molecular biology
one gene/one enzyme
RNA
transcription
information passes in one direction from the gene to an RNA c…
each gene specifies the structure of 1 enzyme (each peptide o…
bridge between genes and proteins.
synthesis of mRNA under the direction of DNA.
central dogma of molecular biology
information passes in one direction from the gene to an RNA c…
one gene/one enzyme
each gene specifies the structure of 1 enzyme (each peptide o…
22 terms
Chapter 15 Genes
Beadle and Tatum
One gene/one polypeptide hypothesis
central dogma of molecular biology
transcription
Created nutritional mutations
enzymes that contain polypeptide sub-units
Created by Crick: DNA-RNA-protein
DNA-RNA
Beadle and Tatum
Created nutritional mutations
One gene/one polypeptide hypothesis
enzymes that contain polypeptide sub-units
63 terms
Chapter 15: Genes and How The Work
Which British physician noted that cer…
Garrod, a British physician, found tha…
In 1941, a series of experiments by th…
In their experiments in Stanford, Bead…
Archibald Garrod
Mendelian traits. That they had resulted from changes in the…
Beadle and Tatum.
they deliberately set out to create mutations in chromosomes.
Which British physician noted that cer…
Archibald Garrod
Garrod, a British physician, found tha…
Mendelian traits. That they had resulted from changes in the…
14 terms
Chapter 15 review - Genes
The experiments with nutritional mutan…
What is the central dogma of molecular…
In the genetic code, one codon
eukaryotic transcription differs from…
Genes specify enzymes
information passes from DNA to RNA to protein
specifies a single amino acid and consists of 3 bases
eukaryotes have 3 RNA polymerases
The experiments with nutritional mutan…
Genes specify enzymes
What is the central dogma of molecular…
information passes from DNA to RNA to protein
21 terms
Chapter 15: How Genes Work
gene expression
null alleles
one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis
metabolic pathway
the process of converting archived information into molecules…
alleles that do not function
each gene contains the information needed to make an enzyme
an ordered series of chemical reactions that build up or brea…
gene expression
the process of converting archived information into molecules…
null alleles
alleles that do not function
41 terms
Chapter 15 - Genes
Archibald Garrod's conclusion about in…
Beadle and Tatum conclusion about gene…
Central dogma of molecular biology
How do retroviruses violate the centra…
Patients with alkaptonuria (black urine) lack the enzyme nece…
Information encoded within DNA acts to specify particular enz…
DNA --> RNA --> protein
Retroviruses can convert RNA into DNA copy (using the enzyme…
Archibald Garrod's conclusion about in…
Patients with alkaptonuria (black urine) lack the enzyme nece…
Beadle and Tatum conclusion about gene…
Information encoded within DNA acts to specify particular enz…
21 terms
Chapter 15 Genes
what is the first form of genetic engi…
what is selective breeding?
what is hybridization?
what is Inbreeding?
selective breeding
method of breeding that allows only those organisms with DESI…
cross-breeding two organisms with dissimilar characteristics…
using similar individuals to carry similar traits... ex:dog bree…
what is the first form of genetic engi…
selective breeding
what is selective breeding?
method of breeding that allows only those organisms with DESI…
26 terms
Chapter 15: Controls Over Genes
malignant
benign
pre-transcription control
transcriptional controls
growing and moving cancers
cancers that are not traveling the body
factors, like methylation, histone wrapping patterns, and ace…
factors that can speed up or slow down the process of transcr…
malignant
growing and moving cancers
benign
cancers that are not traveling the body
107 terms
Chapter 15 - Genes
15.1 - The Nature of Genes... Garrod conc…
minimal medium
nutritional mutants
one-gene/one-polypeptide hypothesis
Certain diseases can be caused by an issue with a specific en…
lab experiment with minimal requirements for growth... very simp…
in this circumstance spores were exposed to X-rays, it was as…
hypothesis that single genes encode for specific enzymes... muta…
15.1 - The Nature of Genes... Garrod conc…
Certain diseases can be caused by an issue with a specific en…
minimal medium
lab experiment with minimal requirements for growth... very simp…
9 terms
Robbins Chapter 15 genes
Germline LOF mutations in TERT & TERC…
increased secretion of MUC5B
HLA haplotype variations (HLA-A1 & B8)
ATP-binding cassette protein member 3…
IPF
IPF
Sarcoidosis
Auto Recessive
Germline LOF mutations in TERT & TERC…
IPF
increased secretion of MUC5B
IPF
55 terms
Chapter 15: Genes & Proteins
Gene
RNA Polymerase
Transcription
Translation
Segment of DNA that codes a protein
Enzyme that produces primary transcript RNA
The first step of gene expression in which a particular segme…
Process in which ribosomes in a cell's cytoplasm create prote…
Gene
Segment of DNA that codes a protein
RNA Polymerase
Enzyme that produces primary transcript RNA
31 terms
Chapter 15: Genes and Proteins
The Central Dogma
codons
reading frame
nonsense (stop) codons
states that genes specify the sequence of mRNAs, which in tur…
nucleotide triplets that specify each amino acid
sequence of triplet codons in mRNA that specify a particular…
one of the three mRNA codons that specifies termination of tr…
The Central Dogma
states that genes specify the sequence of mRNAs, which in tur…
codons
nucleotide triplets that specify each amino acid
16 terms
Cells and Genes Chapter 15
Linkage
Centimorgan (cM)
Positional cloning
Genomics
A condition in which two or more genes do not show independen…
A unit of distance between genes on chromosomes. One centimor…
A recombinant DNA-based method of mapping and cloning genes w…
The study of the organization, function, and evolution of gen…
Linkage
A condition in which two or more genes do not show independen…
Centimorgan (cM)
A unit of distance between genes on chromosomes. One centimor…
50 terms
Chapter 15: Genes and Proteins
Central Dogma
Codon
Colinear
Degeneracy
States that genes specify the sequence of mRNAs, which in tur…
Three consecutive nucleotides in mRNA that specify the insert…
In terms of RNA and protein, three "units" of RNA (nucleotide…
(of the genetic code) describes that a given amino acid can b…
Central Dogma
States that genes specify the sequence of mRNAs, which in tur…
Codon
Three consecutive nucleotides in mRNA that specify the insert…
20 terms
Chapter 15: Genes and Proteins
anticodon
CAAT box
central dogma
codon
three-nucleotide sequence in a tRNA molecule that corresponds…
(GGCCAATCT) essential eukaryotic promoter sequence involved i…
states that genes specify the sequence of mRNAs, which in tur…
three consecutive nucleotides in mRNA that specify the insert…
anticodon
three-nucleotide sequence in a tRNA molecule that corresponds…
CAAT box
(GGCCAATCT) essential eukaryotic promoter sequence involved i…
29 terms
Chapter 15: Genes and Proteins
Central Dogma
codon
colinear
degeneracy
states that genes specify the sequence of mRNAs, which in tur…
3 consecutive nucleotides in mRNA that specify the insertion…
in terms of RNA and protein, 3 "units" of RNA (nucleotides) s…
(of the genetic code) describes that a given amino acid can b…
Central Dogma
states that genes specify the sequence of mRNAs, which in tur…
codon
3 consecutive nucleotides in mRNA that specify the insertion…
Chapter 15: Genes and Proteins
7-methylguanosine cap
aminoacyl trna synthetase
anticodon
CAAT box
modification added to the 5' end of pre-mRNAs to protect mRNA…
enzyme that charges trna molecules by catalyzing a bond betwe…
three-nucleotide sequence in a trna molecule that corresponds…
essential eukaryotic promoter sequence involved in binding tr…
7-methylguanosine cap
modification added to the 5' end of pre-mRNAs to protect mRNA…
aminoacyl trna synthetase
enzyme that charges trna molecules by catalyzing a bond betwe…
13 terms
Chapter 15: DNA and the Gene
Fredrick Griffith
The Hershey Chase Experiment
Primary structure of DNA
Secondary Structure of DNA
Demonstrates that a molecule can be transferred from one indi…
Do viral genes consist of DNA or protein?? ... - Viral DNA/ Pro…
Base:... Adenine... Thymine... Guanine... Cytosine... Phosphate group attac…
DNA is the double helix ... - Stabilized by hydrogen bonding bet…
Fredrick Griffith
Demonstrates that a molecule can be transferred from one indi…
The Hershey Chase Experiment
Do viral genes consist of DNA or protein?? ... - Viral DNA/ Pro…
47 terms
Biology: Chapter 15- Genes and Proteins
7-methylguanosine cap
aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
anticodon
CAAT box
modification added to the 5' end of pre-mRNAs to protect mRNA…
enzyme that "charges" tRNA molecules by catalyzing a bond bet…
three-nucleotide sequence in a tRNA molecule that corresponds…
(GGCCAATCT) essential eukaryotic promoter sequence involved i…
7-methylguanosine cap
modification added to the 5' end of pre-mRNAs to protect mRNA…
aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
enzyme that "charges" tRNA molecules by catalyzing a bond bet…
60 terms
Chapter 15: The Nature of Genes
One-gene/ one-enzyme equals?
Transcription
Translation
DNA Transcription order
one-gene/ one- polypeptide
DNA--> RNA... -takes place in the nucleus ... -only template strand…
RNA--> Protein... -synthesis takes place in poylpeptide... -takes p…
1) RNA polymerase binds to the DNA strand upstream from a gen…
One-gene/ one-enzyme equals?
one-gene/ one- polypeptide
Transcription
DNA--> RNA... -takes place in the nucleus ... -only template strand…
16 terms
Chapter 15 Genes an how they work
gene
promoter
codon
anticodon
a region of DNA that contains the instructions for making one…
a specific sequence of bases about 60 nucleotides long on one…
3 adjacent nucleotides located on mRNA that specify one of th…
a sequence of three base located on a tRNA molecule that pair…
gene
a region of DNA that contains the instructions for making one…
promoter
a specific sequence of bases about 60 nucleotides long on one…
Chapter 15 Genes and how they work
The Nature of genes
DNA
Genes and Proteins
The Central Dogma: DNA -> RNA -> Protein
-Early ideas to explain how genes work came from studying hum…
-Contains genes, sequences of nucleotide bases.... -These genes…
-Proteins are made of amino acids linked together by peptide…
-First described by Francis Crick... -Information only flows fro…
The Nature of genes
-Early ideas to explain how genes work came from studying hum…
DNA
-Contains genes, sequences of nucleotide bases.... -These genes…
32 terms
Chapter 15 (Gene Mutation/Gene Repair)
Luria-Delbruck fluctuation
somatic mutation
germline mutation
point mutation (or base substitution)
Experiment displaying that bacterial resistance arises from m…
occurs in somatic cells during mitosis (can occur in somatic…
occurs in meiosis during gamete formation (can occur in somat…
interchange one base for another base
Luria-Delbruck fluctuation
Experiment displaying that bacterial resistance arises from m…
somatic mutation
occurs in somatic cells during mitosis (can occur in somatic…
18 terms
Chapter 15- Link genes, Sex Linkage and Pedigrees
Carrier
Chiasma
Continuous Variation
Crossing-over
An organism infected by a pathogen, and capable of transmitti…
Point of crossing of strands of non-sister chromatids observe…
Variation having many intermediate forms of the trait resulti…
The exchange of chromosomal material between members of a chr…
Carrier
An organism infected by a pathogen, and capable of transmitti…
Chiasma
Point of crossing of strands of non-sister chromatids observe…
38 terms
Chapter 15: Genes and How They Work
Central Dogma
Transcription
Translation
Types of RNA
Information flows from DNA to RNA to protein.
DNA to RNA
RNA to protein
Messenger RNA (mRNA), Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), Transfer RNA (tRN…
Central Dogma
Information flows from DNA to RNA to protein.
Transcription
DNA to RNA
15 terms
Chapter 15: Gene Technology and Human Applications
Genomics
Microarray
DNA fingerprint
Genetic engineering
The study of entire genomes.
A device that can test for the presence of gene activity.
A unique pattern of DNA banding.
The process of changing the genetic material of an organism.
Genomics
The study of entire genomes.
Microarray
A device that can test for the presence of gene activity.
20 terms
chapter 15: linked genes, sex linkage and pedigrees
carrier
chiasma
continuous variation
crossing over
A person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does n…
A place where two homologous chromatids are attached to each…
Individuals in a population vary within a range - there are n…
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of…
carrier
A person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does n…
chiasma
A place where two homologous chromatids are attached to each…
118 terms
Chapter 15: Genes and How They Work
How many chromosomes do humans have?
What determines your traits?
What determines protein sequence?
How man genes in the human genome?
-46 total... -23 pairs... -get 23 from mom and 23 from dad
DNA in the nucleus of cells
DNA sequence
About 20,000
How many chromosomes do humans have?
-46 total... -23 pairs... -get 23 from mom and 23 from dad
What determines your traits?
DNA in the nucleus of cells
42 terms
Chapter 15: Genes and Proteins
7-methylguanosine cap
aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
anticodon
CAAT box
modification added to the 5' end of pre-mRNAs to protect mRNA…
enzyme that "charges" tRNA molecules by catalyzing a bond bet…
three-nucleotide sequence in a tRNA molecule that corresponds…
(GGCCAATCT) essential eukaryotic promoter sequence involved i…
7-methylguanosine cap
modification added to the 5' end of pre-mRNAs to protect mRNA…
aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
enzyme that "charges" tRNA molecules by catalyzing a bond bet…
32 terms
Chapter 15: Gene Mutation
What are genetic mutations?
can genetic mutations be passed from o…
what are the two major categories of m…
somatic mutations
A change in the DNA sequence
yes
1. somatic ... 2. germ line
occur in somatic (body) cells ... - passed to daughter cells in…
What are genetic mutations?
A change in the DNA sequence
can genetic mutations be passed from o…
yes
Chapter 15 Genes, Ecology, and Evolution
population genetics
population
gene pool
phenotype
tracks the fate, across generations, of genes in populations.…
a freely interbreeding group of individuals
the sum total of genetic information present in a population…
a morphological, physiological, biochemical, or behavioral ch…
population genetics
tracks the fate, across generations, of genes in populations.…
population
a freely interbreeding group of individuals
21 terms
Chapter 15: How Genes Work
knock-out, null, loss of function alle…
one gene, one-enzyme hypothesis
genetic screen
mRNA
alleles that do not function at all
is the idea that genes act through the production of enzymes,…
is an experimental technique used to identify and select for…
a RNA molecule transcribed from the DNA of a gene, and from w…
knock-out, null, loss of function alle…
alleles that do not function at all
one gene, one-enzyme hypothesis
is the idea that genes act through the production of enzymes,…
31 terms
CHAPTER 15: STUDYING AND MANIPULATING GENES
DNA cloning-
Cloning Vector-
Restriction Enzyme-
recombinant DNA (rDNA)-
method that uses living cells to make any identical copies of…
usually uses a plasmid DNA that can except foreign DNA and re…
enzyme that cuts specific nucleotide sequences in DNA
a dna molecule that contains genetic material from more than…
DNA cloning-
method that uses living cells to make any identical copies of…
Cloning Vector-
usually uses a plasmid DNA that can except foreign DNA and re…
29 terms
Chapter 15: How Genes Work
Gene expression
Knock-out, null, loss-of-function allele
One-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis
Metabolic pathway
Overall process by which the information encoded in genes is…
A mutant allele that does not function at all, or an organism…
The hypothesis that each gene is responsible for making one (…
An ordered series of chemical reactions that build up or brea…
Gene expression
Overall process by which the information encoded in genes is…
Knock-out, null, loss-of-function allele
A mutant allele that does not function at all, or an organism…
11 terms
Chapter 15 - How Genes Work
Gene Expression
loss of function alleles
one gene, one enzyme
Metabolic Pathway
Conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into me…
...
proposed by Beadle and Tatum, the hypothesis proposing that e…
Begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a s…
Gene Expression
Conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into me…
loss of function alleles
...
21 terms
Chapter 15:How Genes Work
Archibald Garrod
alkaptonuria
Garrod proposed (alkaptonuria)
George Beadle and Edward Tatum conclud…
some diseases might be caused by a hereditary defect in the a…
excrete large quantities of homogentisic acid in their urine…
that the enzyme that normally converts homogentisic acid to m…
what genes do is to code for proteins. each gene in an organi…
Archibald Garrod
some diseases might be caused by a hereditary defect in the a…
alkaptonuria
excrete large quantities of homogentisic acid in their urine…
24 terms
Biology Chapter 15 Genes and DNA
chromosomes
Three things genetic material must do
Friedrich Miescher (1869)
nucleic acids
contain genes that direct development and continue functionin…
Able to store info for development and metabolic activities o…
swiss biochemist. collected pus from bandages (white blood ce…
dna. deoxyribonucleic acid. mainly in nucleus. rna. ribonucle…
chromosomes
contain genes that direct development and continue functionin…
Three things genetic material must do
Able to store info for development and metabolic activities o…
52 terms
Chapter 15: Genes and How They Work
fungus
one gene - one enzyme hypothesis (one…
central dogma of molecular biology
transcription
Evidence for the function of genes came from studying _______…
each enzyme of the arginine pathway was encoded by a separate…
states that information flows in one direction DNA-----> RNA…
the flow of information from DNA to RNA
fungus
Evidence for the function of genes came from studying _______…
one gene - one enzyme hypothesis (one…
each enzyme of the arginine pathway was encoded by a separate…
11 terms
Chapter 15: Controls over Genes
malignant melanoma
neoplasm
cancer
gene control
the most dangerous type of skin cancer; usually associated wi…
abnormal masses of cells that ignore controls over growth and…
malignant neoplasms
molecular mechanisms that govern when and how fast specific g…
malignant melanoma
the most dangerous type of skin cancer; usually associated wi…
neoplasm
abnormal masses of cells that ignore controls over growth and…
95 terms
ap bio chapter 15 genes
what did Garrod conclude
Beadle and Tatum's one gene = one poly…
central dogma of molecular biology
transcription
that inherited disorders can involve specific enzymes
genes specify the structure of enzymes and enzymes are made u…
DNA > RNA >Protein
DNA to RNA
what did Garrod conclude
that inherited disorders can involve specific enzymes
Beadle and Tatum's one gene = one poly…
genes specify the structure of enzymes and enzymes are made u…
39 terms
Rice Chapter 15: Genes and Proteins
central dogma
colinear
degenerate
codons
genes specify the sequence of mRNA, which in turn specify the…
three nucleotides specify one amino acid
a given amino acid could be encoded by more than one nucleoti…
nucleotide triplets
central dogma
genes specify the sequence of mRNA, which in turn specify the…
colinear
three nucleotides specify one amino acid
31 terms
Genes and Heredity Chapter 15-Vocab
Heredity
Trait
Gregor Mendel
Self Pollination
passing of phenotypic traits from parents to their offspring…
The different forms, such as red or brown hair.
Was born in 1822 in Heinzendorf, Austria. He is the first to…
Has both male and female reproductive structures.
Heredity
passing of phenotypic traits from parents to their offspring…
Trait
The different forms, such as red or brown hair.
34 terms
Chapter 15- Regulation of Gene Expression
Prokaryote gene regulation
Negative Gene control
Inducible Operon
Lac operon
turning on/ off operons saves energy and resources... Operons ar…
- Inducible Operon... - Repressible Operon
- Regulatory gene produces a repressor protein that is normal…
- inducible operon... - Allolactose (present when lactose is pre…
Prokaryote gene regulation
turning on/ off operons saves energy and resources... Operons ar…
Negative Gene control
- Inducible Operon... - Repressible Operon
Chapter 15 Genes on Chromosomes
how does meiosis help to shuffle genes?
this person used mendel's punnet squar…
______ _________ are only produced by…
Linked genes on same chromosome have r…
independent assortment of parental homologues, independent se…
thomas morgan
recombinant offspring
<50%
how does meiosis help to shuffle genes?
independent assortment of parental homologues, independent se…
this person used mendel's punnet squar…
thomas morgan
41 terms
Chapter 15- Genes and How They Work
Central Dogma
Transcription
Translation
Steps of Transcription
First described by Francis Crick
- DNA-directed synthesis of RNA... - single template DNA strand…
- synthesis of polypeptides... - takes place at ribosome... - requi…
1. Initiation... 2. Elongation... 3. Termination
Central Dogma
First described by Francis Crick
Transcription
- DNA-directed synthesis of RNA... - single template DNA strand…
34 terms
Chapter 15 (DNA and the Gene)
DNA's Primary Structure... (Two major com…
DNA has diretionality
Watson and Crick proposed
Watson and Cricks 3 hypothesis for DNA…
1. A backbone made up of the sugar and phosphate groups of de…
The molecule has a 3' end and a 5' end
Two DNA strands line up in antiparallel fashion ... The antipara…
1. Semiconservative... 2. Dispersive... 3.Conservative
DNA's Primary Structure... (Two major com…
1. A backbone made up of the sugar and phosphate groups of de…
DNA has diretionality
The molecule has a 3' end and a 5' end
39 terms
Chapter 15: Control of Gene Expression
Adaptive/facultative enzymes
Inducible enzyme
Constitutive enzymes
Repressible enzyme
Produced when needed
Present only when specific chemical substrates are present (t…
Enzymes that are produced continuously, regardless of chemi…
Production/transcription is OFF when a product is present.…
Adaptive/facultative enzymes
Produced when needed
Inducible enzyme
Present only when specific chemical substrates are present (t…
15 terms
Genes and how they work chapter 15
Francis Crick and Sydney Brenner deter…
how many nucleotides are in one codon?
What is code degenerate?
Promoter region
the order of nucleotides in DNA encoded amino acid order.
3
Means that some amino acids are specified by more than one co…
tells an enzyme where to start transcription... forms binding si…
Francis Crick and Sydney Brenner deter…
the order of nucleotides in DNA encoded amino acid order.
how many nucleotides are in one codon?
3
58 terms
Chapter 15 Genes and how they work
Telomerase
eukaryotic DNA gets shorter on what st…
Telomeres Function
Shortening of telomeres is connected to
enzyme that builds telomeres
lagging strand after each replication
Protect chromosomes from loss of genetic information... identify…
aging
Telomerase
enzyme that builds telomeres
eukaryotic DNA gets shorter on what st…
lagging strand after each replication
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