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Study sets matching "genetics chapter 4"

21 terms
Genetics: Chapter 4
interphase
cytokinesis
cell cycle check points
condensins
A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during whic…
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Is a critical point in the cell cycle that is regulated. At e…
proteins that coat the DNA and condense them at the end of G2…
interphase
A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during whic…
cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
18 terms
Vocabulary Chapter 4 Genetics
Dominant
Recessive
Monohybrid Cross
Law of Segregation
A trait that masks another
A trait that is masked
A cross between parents with different alleles and following…
Genes separate in the gametes
Dominant
A trait that masks another
Recessive
A trait that is masked
30 terms
Concepts of Genetics Chapter 4
gene interaction
X-linkage
allele
loss-of-function mutation
production of novel phenotypes by the interaction of alleles…
the pattern of inheritance resulting from genes located on th…
one of the possible alternate forms of a gene, often distingu…
mutations that produce alleles that encode proteins with redu…
gene interaction
production of novel phenotypes by the interaction of alleles…
X-linkage
the pattern of inheritance resulting from genes located on th…
33 terms
Essentials of Genetics Chapter 4{Modifications of Mendelian Genetics}
Mendel's Ratios
Alleles
Mutation
4 Different Types of Mutations
Alleles segregate (3:1)... Sort independently (9:3:3:1)... BUT modi…
Alternative forms of the same gene.... The allele that occurs mo…
Source of alleles.... A mutant allele contains modified genetic…
Loss-of-function mutation... Null allele ... Gain-of-function mutat…
Mendel's Ratios
Alleles segregate (3:1)... Sort independently (9:3:3:1)... BUT modi…
Alleles
Alternative forms of the same gene.... The allele that occurs mo…
10 terms
Genetics chapter 4
If recombination frequency between two…
On a chromosomal map, 2 map units are…
The maximum recombination frequency be…
A coefficient of coincidence of 0.5 me…
3
2% of recombination
0.5
The frequency of double crossovers is 0.5 of the number expec…
If recombination frequency between two…
3
On a chromosomal map, 2 map units are…
2% of recombination
34 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
complete dominance
Haplosufficiency
Haploinsufficiency
Phenotype is determined by the
Alleles interact to produce dominant relationships
the mutant allele is recessive to the WT allele, e.g. Phenylk…
the mutant allele is dominant to the WT... TT= 20 units... Tt= 15... t…
alleles protein product
complete dominance
Alleles interact to produce dominant relationships
Haplosufficiency
the mutant allele is recessive to the WT allele, e.g. Phenylk…
Genetics Chapter 4
Sex Determination
Hermaphroditism
Monoecious Organsim
Dioecious Organism
Specification of sex (male or female). Sex-determining mechan…
Condition i which an individual organism possesses both male…
Individual organism that has both male and female reproductiv…
Belongs to a species whose members have other male or female…
Sex Determination
Specification of sex (male or female). Sex-determining mechan…
Hermaphroditism
Condition i which an individual organism possesses both male…
21 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Consanguineous
true breeding
monohybrid cross-
genotype
Mating with relatives
Plants which consistently have offspring with same trait as p…
cross of 2 individual that are hybrid(heterozygous) for a sin…
organism alleles - what your genes are
Consanguineous
Mating with relatives
true breeding
Plants which consistently have offspring with same trait as p…
24 terms
Chapter 4 Genetics
anticipation
Bombay genotype
Cis-Trans Test
Codominance
phenomenon in which the severity of symptoms in genetic disor…
variant of the ABO antigen system in which affected individua…
a genetic test to determine whether two mutations are located…
condition in which the phenotypic effects of a gene's alleles…
anticipation
phenomenon in which the severity of symptoms in genetic disor…
Bombay genotype
variant of the ABO antigen system in which affected individua…
12 terms
Chapter 4 Modern Genetics
Multiple Alleles
Sex Chromosomes
Sex-linked genes
Carrier
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
X and Y chromosomes. XX for female. XY for male.
genes found on the X and Y chromosomes
A person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does n…
Multiple Alleles
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
Sex Chromosomes
X and Y chromosomes. XX for female. XY for male.
98 terms
Genetics: Chapter 4 & 5a
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
maternal, paternal
diploid
identical
microscopist in 1687, revealed that semen contain spermatozoa…
Most body (somatic) cells are diploid (2n), having one ______…
Zygotes are __________, carrying two of each chromosome.
Sister chromatids are ______________ copies of a replicated c…
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
microscopist in 1687, revealed that semen contain spermatozoa…
maternal, paternal
Most body (somatic) cells are diploid (2n), having one ______…
21 terms
Chapter 4 - Genetics Vocabulary
heredity
trait
genetics
fertilization
the passing of physical characteristics from parents to offsp…
each specific characteristic
the study of heredity
when an egg and sperm cell join together
heredity
the passing of physical characteristics from parents to offsp…
trait
each specific characteristic
16 terms
Chapter 4 Genetics
How many different phenotypes are poss…
A pure-breeding plant with red flowers…
T/F: The color dilution gene in horses…
T/F: In a cross between two strains th…
6
codominance
True
True
How many different phenotypes are poss…
6
A pure-breeding plant with red flowers…
codominance
14 terms
Modern Genetics-Chapter 4
multiple alleles
sex chromosomes
sex-linked gene
carrier
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
carry genes that determine whether the person is a male or a…
alleles passed from parent to offspring on a sex chromosome
a person who has one recessive allele for a trait and one dom…
multiple alleles
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
sex chromosomes
carry genes that determine whether the person is a male or a…
88 terms
genetics chapter 4
the mechanism by which some members of…
in ___ reproduction the formation of o…
meiosis ___ the chromosome number
meiosis produces ___ gametes
sex determination
sexual
reduces
haploid
the mechanism by which some members of…
sex determination
in ___ reproduction the formation of o…
sexual
Genetics Chapter 4
sexual reproduction
meiosis
fertilization
sex
the formation of offspring that are genetically distinct from…
produces haploid gametes; causes the genetic variation seen i…
produces diploid zygotes
sexual phenotype
sexual reproduction
the formation of offspring that are genetically distinct from…
meiosis
produces haploid gametes; causes the genetic variation seen i…
25 terms
PCB 3063 Genetics Chapter 4
What modifications can cause the class…
Wild Type
What is the source of new alleles?
What are the 5 types of mutant alleles?
• Alleles that do not adhere to simple dominance/recessive mo…
Usually the dominant form of an allele that is most often the…
Mutation
• Loss of Function allele -some function ... • Null Allele -no f…
What modifications can cause the class…
• Alleles that do not adhere to simple dominance/recessive mo…
Wild Type
Usually the dominant form of an allele that is most often the…
41 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
1. Which of the following statements i…
2. Polydactyly is a condition in which…
3. The outcome of an individual's trai…
4. A person with type AB blood has a c…
D) All of the above are true.
A) incomplete penetrance.
C) Genes and the environment.
A) A and B
1. Which of the following statements i…
D) All of the above are true.
2. Polydactyly is a condition in which…
A) incomplete penetrance.
14 terms
Heredity and Genetics chapter 4
trait
heredity
genotype
phenotype
a characteristic that is inherited (pg 38)
the passing of traits from parent to offspring
the set of genes that make up an organism
the observable characteristics of an organism's genotype (pg…
trait
a characteristic that is inherited (pg 38)
heredity
the passing of traits from parent to offspring
23 terms
Chapter 4 Genetics
Gregor Mendel
heredity
trait
genetics
father of genetics
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offsprin…
The scientific study of heredity
Gregor Mendel
father of genetics
heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
47 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Alleles
wild type Allele
Mutation must
a loss of function mutation leads to a
alternative forms of the same gene
gene that occurs most frequently in a population
1. cause a change in phenotype... 2. the phenotype results from…
null-allele (complete loss)
Alleles
alternative forms of the same gene
wild type Allele
gene that occurs most frequently in a population
27 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Codominance
multiple alleles
lethal alleles
Epistasis
The heterozygous offspring has traits of both parents
a situation where there are more than two alternative forms o…
a gene combination that often results in miscarriages or stil…
a condition in which one gene masks the expression of a secon…
Codominance
The heterozygous offspring has traits of both parents
multiple alleles
a situation where there are more than two alternative forms o…
9 terms
Chapter 4 Modern Genetics
Multiple Alleles
Sex Chromosomes
Sex-linked genes
Carrier
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
X and Y chromosomes. XX for female. XY for male.
genes found on the X and Y chromosomes
A person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does n…
Multiple Alleles
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
Sex Chromosomes
X and Y chromosomes. XX for female. XY for male.
40 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
loss-of-function mutation
null allele
gain-of-function mutation
neutral mutation
you have reduced the amount or productivity of a gene
anything that decreases it completely
has gained a new function or gained a new function that is im…
we have a change so we can distinguish one allele from the ot…
loss-of-function mutation
you have reduced the amount or productivity of a gene
null allele
anything that decreases it completely
28 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Chi Squared test
Null Hypothesis
What does it mean to reject/accept the…
What is the chi squared test equation?
Used to determine the probability of obtaining those results…
'there is no real difference between the measured values and…
To reject the null means that there is a significant differen…
X^2 = (O-E)^2/E ... Observed and Expected
Chi Squared test
Used to determine the probability of obtaining those results…
Null Hypothesis
'there is no real difference between the measured values and…
21 terms
Genetics - chapter 4
heredity
trait
genetics
fertilization
The passing of physical characteristics from parents to offsp…
Each different form of a characteristic, such as a stem heigh…
The scientific study of heredity - pg 110
A process where a new organism begins to form when egg and sp…
heredity
The passing of physical characteristics from parents to offsp…
trait
Each different form of a characteristic, such as a stem heigh…
21 terms
Chapter 4 - Genetics
heredity
trait
genetics
fertilization
The passing of traits from parents to offspring.
A specific characteristic that an organism can pass to its of…
The scientific study of heredity.
The process in sexual reproduction in which an egg cell and a…
heredity
The passing of traits from parents to offspring.
trait
A specific characteristic that an organism can pass to its of…
40 terms
Genetics: Chapter 4 Vocab
cM
Chromosome Map
Loci
Physical Maps
Centimorgan. The "distance" between two linked gene pairs whe…
A representation of all chromosomes in the genome as lines, m…
The specific place on a chromosome where a gene is located.
These maps show the genes as segments arranged along the long…
cM
Centimorgan. The "distance" between two linked gene pairs whe…
Chromosome Map
A representation of all chromosomes in the genome as lines, m…
20 terms
Chapter 4 -- Genetics: The Science of Heredity
Heredity
Trait
Genetics
Fertilization
The process of passing characteristics from generation to gen…
The characteristics of each organism
The scientific study of heredity
The joining of sperm and egg cells
Heredity
The process of passing characteristics from generation to gen…
Trait
The characteristics of each organism
Chapter 4 - Genetics
autosome
centromere
centrosome
chromosome
chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes; 22 pairs in humans
structure that holds sister chromatids together
structure that produces spindle fibres; move to opposite pole…
condensed form of DNA during mitosis
autosome
chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes; 22 pairs in humans
centromere
structure that holds sister chromatids together
91 terms
Genetics- Chapter 4
pedigrees
-dominant or recessive pattern inherit…
standard
history
the use of _______ is an important method for analyzing the i…
Analysis of pedigrees allows us to determine:
pedigrees uses a ________ form and symbols
uses family _____ to show how a trait is inherited and estima…
pedigrees
the use of _______ is an important method for analyzing the i…
-dominant or recessive pattern inherit…
Analysis of pedigrees allows us to determine:
6 terms
Genetics - Chapter 4
Name the substages of Prophase I of Me…
Synaptonemal complex.
Expected ratio when union of gametes i…
Example of x-linked trait in humans.
1) Leptotene... 2) Zygotene... 3) Pachytene... 4) Diplotene... 5) Diakine…
Protein structure that helps hold the aligned homologous chro…
1;1 because males produce equal number of X-baring and Y-bear…
Hemophilia.
Name the substages of Prophase I of Me…
1) Leptotene... 2) Zygotene... 3) Pachytene... 4) Diplotene... 5) Diakine…
Synaptonemal complex.
Protein structure that helps hold the aligned homologous chro…
26 terms
Chapter 4: Genetics
genetically identical
Pedigree: Know... Circles are females and…
karyotype
Cystic Fibrosis
What does cloning result in two organisms being?
picure of the chromosomes in a cell
Which disorder causes the body to produce thick mucus in the…
genetically identical
What does cloning result in two organisms being?
Pedigree: Know... Circles are females and…
36 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Phenotype is determined by
Haplo-sufficient
Haplo-insufficient
Loss-of-function
the allele protein production
the mutant allele is recessive to the WT allele... ex. Phenylket…
the mutant allele is dominant to the WT
a significant decrease of a functional gene product ... null/amo…
Phenotype is determined by
the allele protein production
Haplo-sufficient
the mutant allele is recessive to the WT allele... ex. Phenylket…
13 terms
Genetics Vocabulary (Chapter 4)
Homozygous
Allele
Phenotype
Genotype
A genotype with two alleles that are both the same, either ca…
A piece, part, or half of a gene.
What you see when you combine genes.... Example- PpYy= Purple f…
The letters found in a Punnett Square that are combined from…
Homozygous
A genotype with two alleles that are both the same, either ca…
Allele
A piece, part, or half of a gene.
Chapter 4 Vocabulary (Genetics)
heredity
Trait
Genetics
Fertilization
The passing of traits from parents to offspring
A characteristic passed on to an offspring by an organism thr…
The scientific study of heredity
The joining of a sperm and egg through sexual reproduction
heredity
The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Trait
A characteristic passed on to an offspring by an organism thr…
17 terms
Genetics(Thompson) Chapter 4 Terms
Allele
Continuous variation
Dihybrid
Discontinuous characters
Any of the various forms in which a gene can exist (a1, a2, A)
Variation among phenotypes, measured on some scale, that cann…
A cross between two individuals having different alleles at t…
...
Allele
Any of the various forms in which a gene can exist (a1, a2, A)
Continuous variation
Variation among phenotypes, measured on some scale, that cann…
25 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Probability
Gene
Heredity
Phenotype
A number that describes how likely it is that an event will o…
The factors that control a trait
The passing of physical characteristics from parents to offsp…
Physical appearance, visible traits
Probability
A number that describes how likely it is that an event will o…
Gene
The factors that control a trait
21 terms
Genetics Chapter 4 vocabulary
Autosomal Dominate
Autosomal recessive
Autosome
Sex Chromosomes
Mode of inheritance in which one autosomal allele causes a ph…
The mode of inheritance in which two autosomal alleles are re…
All the chromosomes besides the two sex chromosomes.
Chromosomes that determine sex.
Autosomal Dominate
Mode of inheritance in which one autosomal allele causes a ph…
Autosomal recessive
The mode of inheritance in which two autosomal alleles are re…
89 terms
Chapter 4: Genetics
Eukaryote Chromosomes Made of
Number of Human chromosomes
Gene
Allele
DNA & Proteins... -Bundles of long strands of DNA... -DNA is associ…
46 Chromosomes / 23 Pairs
Heritable factors that controls a specific characteristic.... -F…
1 specific form of a gene, differeing from other alleles by 1…
Eukaryote Chromosomes Made of
DNA & Proteins... -Bundles of long strands of DNA... -DNA is associ…
Number of Human chromosomes
46 Chromosomes / 23 Pairs
35 terms
Chapter 4 Extensions of Mendelian Genetics
Two postulates: Principles of gene tra…
Gene interaction
Alleles
Mutation
• Genes are present on homologous chromosomes... • Chromosomes s…
-single phenotype is affected by more than one set of genes.
-Alternative forms of a gene
-Ultimate source of alleles... -New phenotypes result from chang…
Two postulates: Principles of gene tra…
• Genes are present on homologous chromosomes... • Chromosomes s…
Gene interaction
-single phenotype is affected by more than one set of genes.
53 terms
Genetics chapter 4-6
Mendelian Inheritance
simple Mendelian inheritance
wild-type alleles
genetic polymorphism
the common pattern of inheritance observed by Mendel
the observed ratio in the offspring readily obey Mendel's laws
prevalent alleles in a natural population
more than one wild-type allele in the population
Mendelian Inheritance
the common pattern of inheritance observed by Mendel
simple Mendelian inheritance
the observed ratio in the offspring readily obey Mendel's laws
33 terms
Chapter 4-genetics
Sex chromosome
Homogametic sex
Heterogametic sex
XX, XO
Provides a basis for sex determination
XX, ZZ
XO, XY, ZW
Sex chromosomes for insects
Sex chromosome
Provides a basis for sex determination
Homogametic sex
XX, ZZ
Genetics chapter 4
sex
sex determination
hermaphroditism
monoecious organism
Male or female
Specification of sex (male or female). Sex determining mechan…
Condition in which an individual organism possesses both male…
Individual organism that has both male and female reproductiv…
sex
Male or female
sex determination
Specification of sex (male or female). Sex determining mechan…
26 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
studied
Mendel
law of segregation
monohybrid cross
studied mice and pea plants because they were... -readily availa…
-verified true breeding plants ... -understood physics/math and…
every individuals carries 2 copies of a particular trait--1 c…
-looking at one trait at a time ... -true breeding plants ... -tall…
studied
studied mice and pea plants because they were... -readily availa…
Mendel
-verified true breeding plants ... -understood physics/math and…
17 terms
Genetics- Chapter 4
incomplete dominacne
semidominant
codominant alleles
multiple alleles
expression of two alleles in an individual are identical to e…
a term applied to alleles in which the phenotype of a heteroz…
alleles the produce independent effects when heterozygotes ... E…
a condition in which a particular genes occurs in three or mo…
incomplete dominacne
expression of two alleles in an individual are identical to e…
semidominant
a term applied to alleles in which the phenotype of a heteroz…
33 terms
Essentials of Genetics Chapter 4
wild-type allele
loss of function mutation
null allele
gain of function mutations
the allele that occurs most frequently in a population. Often…
A mutation that causes the diminution or the loss of the spec…
complete loss
mutations that enhance the function of the wild-type product…
wild-type allele
the allele that occurs most frequently in a population. Often…
loss of function mutation
A mutation that causes the diminution or the loss of the spec…
8 terms
Genetics Terminology Chapter 4
sex determination
hermaphroditism
monoecious organism
dioecious organism
Specification of sex (male or female). Sex-determining mechan…
Condition in which an individual organism possesses both male…
Individual organism that has both male and female reproductiv…
Belongs to a species whose members have either male or female…
sex determination
Specification of sex (male or female). Sex-determining mechan…
hermaphroditism
Condition in which an individual organism possesses both male…
14 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Prophase
Prometaphase
Metaphase
Anaphase
1)Chromosomes condense and become visible... 2)Centrosomes move…
1)Nuclear envelope breaks down... 2)Microtubules from the centro…
Chromosomes align along the metaphase plate with inter chroma…
1)Centrometes divide... 2) Separate sister chromatids move to se…
Prophase
1)Chromosomes condense and become visible... 2)Centrosomes move…
Prometaphase
1)Nuclear envelope breaks down... 2)Microtubules from the centro…
42 terms
Genetics Chapter 4 Terms
Gene Interaction
X-linkage
Allele
Loss-of-function mutation
production of novel phenotypes by the interaction of alleles…
the pattern of inheritance resulting from genes located on th…
one of the possible alternative forms of a gene, often distin…
mutations that produce alleles that encode proteins with redu…
Gene Interaction
production of novel phenotypes by the interaction of alleles…
X-linkage
the pattern of inheritance resulting from genes located on th…
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