Study sets matching "genetics chapter 4"

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Study sets matching "genetics chapter 4"

Genetics: Chapter 4
interphase
cytokinesis
cell cycle check points
condensins
A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during whic…
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Is a critical point in the cell cycle that is regulated. At e…
proteins that coat the DNA and condense them at the end of G2…
interphase
A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during whic…
cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Vocabulary Chapter 4 Genetics
Dominant
Recessive
Monohybrid Cross
Law of Segregation
A trait that masks another
A trait that is masked
A cross between parents with different alleles and following…
Genes separate in the gametes
Dominant
A trait that masks another
Recessive
A trait that is masked
Genetics Chapter 4
Sex Determination
Hermaphroditism
Monoecious Organsim
Dioecious Organism
Specification of sex (male or female). Sex-determining mechan…
Condition i which an individual organism possesses both male…
Individual organism that has both male and female reproductiv…
Belongs to a species whose members have other male or female…
Sex Determination
Specification of sex (male or female). Sex-determining mechan…
Hermaphroditism
Condition i which an individual organism possesses both male…
Concepts of Genetics Chapter 4
gene interaction
X-linkage
allele
loss-of-function mutation
production of novel phenotypes by the interaction of alleles…
the pattern of inheritance resulting from genes located on th…
one of the possible alternate forms of a gene, often distingu…
mutations that produce alleles that encode proteins with redu…
gene interaction
production of novel phenotypes by the interaction of alleles…
X-linkage
the pattern of inheritance resulting from genes located on th…
58 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Genes that "travel" together from one…
Genes that "travel" together from one…
A probability test that measures "good…
A hypothesis that predicts no linkage…
genetic linkage
genetic linkage
chi square test
null hypothesis
Genes that "travel" together from one…
genetic linkage
Genes that "travel" together from one…
genetic linkage
33 terms
Essentials of Genetics Chapter 4{Modifications of Mendelian Genetics}
Mendel's Ratios
Alleles
Mutation
4 Different Types of Mutations
Alleles segregate (3:1)... Sort independently (9:3:3:1)... BUT modi…
Alternative forms of the same gene.... The allele that occurs mo…
Source of alleles.... A mutant allele contains modified genetic…
Loss-of-function mutation... Null allele ... Gain-of-function mutat…
Mendel's Ratios
Alleles segregate (3:1)... Sort independently (9:3:3:1)... BUT modi…
Alleles
Alternative forms of the same gene.... The allele that occurs mo…
24 terms
Chapter 4 Genetics
anticipation
Bombay genotype
Cis-Trans Test
Codominance
phenomenon in which the severity of symptoms in genetic disor…
variant of the ABO antigen system in which affected individua…
a genetic test to determine whether two mutations are located…
condition in which the phenotypic effects of a gene's alleles…
anticipation
phenomenon in which the severity of symptoms in genetic disor…
Bombay genotype
variant of the ABO antigen system in which affected individua…
98 terms
Genetics: Chapter 4 & 5a
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
maternal, paternal
diploid
identical
microscopist in 1687, revealed that semen contain spermatozoa…
Most body (somatic) cells are diploid (2n), having one ______…
Zygotes are __________, carrying two of each chromosome.
Sister chromatids are ______________ copies of a replicated c…
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
microscopist in 1687, revealed that semen contain spermatozoa…
maternal, paternal
Most body (somatic) cells are diploid (2n), having one ______…
21 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Consanguineous
true breeding
monohybrid cross-
genotype
Mating with relatives
Plants which consistently have offspring with same trait as p…
cross of 2 individual that are hybrid(heterozygous) for a sin…
organism alleles - what your genes are
Consanguineous
Mating with relatives
true breeding
Plants which consistently have offspring with same trait as p…
88 terms
genetics chapter 4
the mechanism by which some members of…
in ___ reproduction the formation of o…
meiosis ___ the chromosome number
meiosis produces ___ gametes
sex determination
sexual
reduces
haploid
the mechanism by which some members of…
sex determination
in ___ reproduction the formation of o…
sexual
41 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
1. Which of the following statements i…
2. Polydactyly is a condition in which…
3. The outcome of an individual's trai…
4. A person with type AB blood has a c…
D) All of the above are true.
A) incomplete penetrance.
C) Genes and the environment.
A) A and B
1. Which of the following statements i…
D) All of the above are true.
2. Polydactyly is a condition in which…
A) incomplete penetrance.
47 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Alleles
wild type Allele
Mutation must
a loss of function mutation leads to a
alternative forms of the same gene
gene that occurs most frequently in a population
1. cause a change in phenotype... 2. the phenotype results from…
null-allele (complete loss)
Alleles
alternative forms of the same gene
wild type Allele
gene that occurs most frequently in a population
Chapter 4 Modern Genetics
Multiple Alleles
Sex Chromosomes
Sex-linked genes
Carrier
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
X and Y chromosomes. XX for female. XY for male.
genes found on the X and Y chromosomes
A person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does n…
Multiple Alleles
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
Sex Chromosomes
X and Y chromosomes. XX for female. XY for male.
28 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Chi Squared test
Null Hypothesis
What does it mean to reject/accept the…
What is the chi squared test equation?
Used to determine the probability of obtaining those results…
'there is no real difference between the measured values and…
To reject the null means that there is a significant differen…
X^2 = (O-E)^2/E ... Observed and Expected
Chi Squared test
Used to determine the probability of obtaining those results…
Null Hypothesis
'there is no real difference between the measured values and…
Genetics Chapter 4
loss-of-function mutation
null allele
gain-of-function mutation
neutral mutation
you have reduced the amount or productivity of a gene
anything that decreases it completely
has gained a new function or gained a new function that is im…
we have a change so we can distinguish one allele from the ot…
loss-of-function mutation
you have reduced the amount or productivity of a gene
null allele
anything that decreases it completely
23 terms
Chapter 4 Genetics
Gregor Mendel
heredity
trait
genetics
father of genetics
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offsprin…
The scientific study of heredity
Gregor Mendel
father of genetics
heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
10 terms
Genetics chapter 4
If recombination frequency between two…
On a chromosomal map, 2 map units are…
The maximum recombination frequency be…
A coefficient of coincidence of 0.5 me…
3
2% of recombination
0.5
The frequency of double crossovers is 0.5 of the number expec…
If recombination frequency between two…
3
On a chromosomal map, 2 map units are…
2% of recombination
17 terms
Genetics(Thompson) Chapter 4 Terms
Allele
Continuous variation
Dihybrid
Discontinuous characters
Any of the various forms in which a gene can exist (a1, a2, A)
Variation among phenotypes, measured on some scale, that cann…
A cross between two individuals having different alleles at t…
...
Allele
Any of the various forms in which a gene can exist (a1, a2, A)
Continuous variation
Variation among phenotypes, measured on some scale, that cann…
UM Genetics Chapter 4
Forked Line Method
How to use forked line method
Number of possible gametes with differ…
Number of possible genotypes( Standard…
Used to calculate probability of particular genotypes.... Useful…
1) calculate probability of allele A and make a line for each…
2^n This is due to the fact that we are diploid. The two corr…
3^n in a standard diploid model. This is because there can be…
Forked Line Method
Used to calculate probability of particular genotypes.... Useful…
How to use forked line method
1) calculate probability of allele A and make a line for each…
14 terms
Modern Genetics-Chapter 4
multiple alleles
sex chromosomes
sex-linked gene
carrier
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
carry genes that determine whether the person is a male or a…
alleles passed from parent to offspring on a sex chromosome
a person who has one recessive allele for a trait and one dom…
multiple alleles
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
sex chromosomes
carry genes that determine whether the person is a male or a…
Chapter 4 Extensions of Mendelian Genetics
Two postulates: Principles of gene tra…
Gene interaction
Alleles
Mutation
• Genes are present on homologous chromosomes... • Chromosomes s…
-single phenotype is affected by more than one set of genes.
-Alternative forms of a gene
-Ultimate source of alleles... -New phenotypes result from chang…
Two postulates: Principles of gene tra…
• Genes are present on homologous chromosomes... • Chromosomes s…
Gene interaction
-single phenotype is affected by more than one set of genes.
53 terms
Genetics chapter 4-6
Mendelian Inheritance
simple Mendelian inheritance
wild-type alleles
genetic polymorphism
the common pattern of inheritance observed by Mendel
the observed ratio in the offspring readily obey Mendel's laws
prevalent alleles in a natural population
more than one wild-type allele in the population
Mendelian Inheritance
the common pattern of inheritance observed by Mendel
simple Mendelian inheritance
the observed ratio in the offspring readily obey Mendel's laws
Genetics chapter 4
sex
sex determination
hermaphroditism
monoecious organism
Male or female
Specification of sex (male or female). Sex determining mechan…
Condition in which an individual organism possesses both male…
Individual organism that has both male and female reproductiv…
sex
Male or female
sex determination
Specification of sex (male or female). Sex determining mechan…
26 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
studied
Mendel
law of segregation
monohybrid cross
studied mice and pea plants because they were... -readily availa…
-verified true breeding plants ... -understood physics/math and…
every individuals carries 2 copies of a particular trait--1 c…
-looking at one trait at a time ... -true breeding plants ... -tall…
studied
studied mice and pea plants because they were... -readily availa…
Mendel
-verified true breeding plants ... -understood physics/math and…
34 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
complete dominance
Haplosufficiency
Haploinsufficiency
Phenotype is determined by the
Alleles interact to produce dominant relationships
the mutant allele is recessive to the WT allele, e.g. Phenylk…
the mutant allele is dominant to the WT... TT= 20 units... Tt= 15... t…
alleles protein product
complete dominance
Alleles interact to produce dominant relationships
Haplosufficiency
the mutant allele is recessive to the WT allele, e.g. Phenylk…
Genetics- Chapter 4
incomplete dominacne
semidominant
codominant alleles
multiple alleles
expression of two alleles in an individual are identical to e…
a term applied to alleles in which the phenotype of a heteroz…
alleles the produce independent effects when heterozygotes ... E…
a condition in which a particular genes occurs in three or mo…
incomplete dominacne
expression of two alleles in an individual are identical to e…
semidominant
a term applied to alleles in which the phenotype of a heteroz…
Chapter 4-genetics
Sex chromosome
Homogametic sex
Heterogametic sex
XX, XO
Provides a basis for sex determination
XX, ZZ
XO, XY, ZW
Sex chromosomes for insects
Sex chromosome
Provides a basis for sex determination
Homogametic sex
XX, ZZ
37 terms
Genetics- Chapter 4 Vocab
Allelic series
Auxotroph (auxotrophic)
Codominance
Complementary gene interaction (9:7 ra…
A group of alleles of a gene that display a hierarchy of domi…
A microtube with one or more mutations that prevents its grow…
The equal and detectable expression of both alleles in a hete…
A characteristic ratio of phenotypes produced by the interact…
Allelic series
A group of alleles of a gene that display a hierarchy of domi…
Auxotroph (auxotrophic)
A microtube with one or more mutations that prevents its grow…
19 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Gain of function
Dominant-negative
Haploidinsufficiency
Incomplete penetrance
mutant gene gains new function
protein encoded by the mutant gene acts antagonistically to t…
mutant is loss-of-function. Heterozygote does not make enough…
dominant allele does not influence the outcome of a trait in…
Gain of function
mutant gene gains new function
Dominant-negative
protein encoded by the mutant gene acts antagonistically to t…
16 terms
Chapter 4 Vocab Genetics
Alleles
Genotype
Phenotype
Dominant
An alternate (variant) form of a gene
The alleles combinations in an individual that cause particul…
The expression of a gene in traits or symptoms
A gene variant expressed when present in one copy
Alleles
An alternate (variant) form of a gene
Genotype
The alleles combinations in an individual that cause particul…
14 terms
Heredity and Genetics chapter 4
trait
heredity
genotype
phenotype
a characteristic that is inherited (pg 38)
the passing of traits from parent to offspring
the set of genes that make up an organism
the observable characteristics of an organism's genotype (pg…
trait
a characteristic that is inherited (pg 38)
heredity
the passing of traits from parent to offspring
46 terms
Genetics chapter 4
Simple Madelian
Incomplete Dominance
Incomplete Penetrance
Overdominance
Alleles that obey Mendel's laws, following a strict dominant/…
When the heterozygous has a phenotype that is intermediate be…
This pattern occurs when a dominant phenotype is not expresse…
Occurs when heterozygote has a trait that is more beneficial…
Simple Madelian
Alleles that obey Mendel's laws, following a strict dominant/…
Incomplete Dominance
When the heterozygous has a phenotype that is intermediate be…
22 terms
Genetics: Chapter 4
Mendelian inheritance... (describes... inher…
Simple Mendelian inheritance
wild-type alleles
mutant alleles
-Law of segregation... - Law of independent assortment
-A single gene with two different alleles... - Alleles display a…
Prevalent alleles in a population(function normally, are made…
alleles that have been altered by mutation... (defective, rare,…
Mendelian inheritance... (describes... inher…
-Law of segregation... - Law of independent assortment
Simple Mendelian inheritance
-A single gene with two different alleles... - Alleles display a…
Genetics Chapter 4
loss of function mutation
null allele
gain of function mutation
neutral mutation
causes loss of function of wild type function
results from mutation that causes complete loss of allele
enhances function of wild type product, usually due to increa…
causes no change in function or phenotype
loss of function mutation
causes loss of function of wild type function
null allele
results from mutation that causes complete loss of allele
Genetics Chapter 4
Sex Determination
Hermaphroditism (2 under)
Monoecious
Dioecious
the mechanism by which sex is established
in some species, both sexes are present in the same individual.
organisms that bear both male and female reproductive structu…
species in which an individual has either male or female repr…
Sex Determination
the mechanism by which sex is established
Hermaphroditism (2 under)
in some species, both sexes are present in the same individual.
33 terms
Essentials of Genetics Chapter 4
wild-type allele
loss of function mutation
null allele
gain of function mutations
the allele that occurs most frequently in a population. Often…
A mutation that causes the diminution or the loss of the spec…
complete loss
mutations that enhance the function of the wild-type product…
wild-type allele
the allele that occurs most frequently in a population. Often…
loss of function mutation
A mutation that causes the diminution or the loss of the spec…
22 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Alleles
Mutation
Wild-type allele
Loss of function mutation
alternative forms of a gene
is the source of alleles
is the one that occurs most frequently in nature
product ends up creating what the body doesn't need
Alleles
alternative forms of a gene
Mutation
is the source of alleles
Genetics Terminology Chapter 4
sex determination
hermaphroditism
monoecious organism
dioecious organism
Specification of sex (male or female). Sex-determining mechan…
Condition in which an individual organism possesses both male…
Individual organism that has both male and female reproductiv…
Belongs to a species whose members have either male or female…
sex determination
Specification of sex (male or female). Sex-determining mechan…
hermaphroditism
Condition in which an individual organism possesses both male…
32 terms
Genetics: Chapter 4 Terms
centimorgan (cM)
chromosome map
cis conformation
coefficient of coincidence (c.o.c.)
The "distance" between two linked gene pairs where 1 percent…
A representation of all chromosomes in the genome as lines, m…
In a heterozygote having two mutant sites within a gene or wi…
The ratio of the observed number of double recombinants to th…
centimorgan (cM)
The "distance" between two linked gene pairs where 1 percent…
chromosome map
A representation of all chromosomes in the genome as lines, m…
Genetics Chapter 4
Prophase
Prometaphase
Metaphase
Anaphase
1)Chromosomes condense and become visible... 2)Centrosomes move…
1)Nuclear envelope breaks down... 2)Microtubules from the centro…
Chromosomes align along the metaphase plate with inter chroma…
1)Centrometes divide... 2) Separate sister chromatids move to se…
Prophase
1)Chromosomes condense and become visible... 2)Centrosomes move…
Prometaphase
1)Nuclear envelope breaks down... 2)Microtubules from the centro…
42 terms
Genetics Chapter 4 Terms
Gene Interaction
X-linkage
Allele
Loss-of-function mutation
production of novel phenotypes by the interaction of alleles…
the pattern of inheritance resulting from genes located on th…
one of the possible alternative forms of a gene, often distin…
mutations that produce alleles that encode proteins with redu…
Gene Interaction
production of novel phenotypes by the interaction of alleles…
X-linkage
the pattern of inheritance resulting from genes located on th…
19 terms
Genetics chapter 4
Example of incomplete dominance
Example of codominance
Codomiance
Why is blood type and example of Codom…
Tay-sachs
MN blood group
Expression of gene products in both alleles. Both products ar…
An individual may exhibit either or both allele.
Example of incomplete dominance
Tay-sachs
Example of codominance
MN blood group
Genetics chapter 4
centimorgan (cM)/ map unit (m.u.)
chromosome map
cis conformation
coefficient of coincidence (c.o.c.)
The "distance" between two linked gene pairs where 1 percent…
A representation of all chromosomes in the genome as lines, m…
In a heterozygote having two mutant sites within a gene or wi…
The ratio of the observed number of double recombinants to th…
centimorgan (cM)/ map unit (m.u.)
The "distance" between two linked gene pairs where 1 percent…
chromosome map
A representation of all chromosomes in the genome as lines, m…
69 terms
Genetics Chapter 4 Terms
Allele
Mutation
Wild type (wt) allele
Gene Interaction
Alternate form of a gene
the ultimate source of alleles: new pheonotypes result from c…
occurs most frequently in nature and is usually but not alway…
when a single phenotype is affected by more than one set of a…
Allele
Alternate form of a gene
Mutation
the ultimate source of alleles: new pheonotypes result from c…
Chapter 4 Genetics
sex
sex determination
hermaphrodites
monoecious
sexual phenotype:males have smaller gametes than females
the mechanism by which sex is established
both sexes are present in the same organism, occurs in some s…
organisms that bear both male and female reproductive structu…
sex
sexual phenotype:males have smaller gametes than females
sex determination
the mechanism by which sex is established
Chapter 4 Genetics
Heredity
Trait
Genetics
Fertilization
the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetica…
a genetically determined characteristic.
the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characte…
the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, o…
Heredity
the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetica…
Trait
a genetically determined characteristic.
16 terms
Genetics Vocabulary Chapter 4
autosomal dominant
autosomal recessive
dihybrid cross
genotype
the inheritance of one autosomal allele causing a phenotype,…
the inheritance of one autosomal allele causing a phenotype,…
breeding individuals heterozygous for two traits
the allele combinations in an individual that cause particula…
autosomal dominant
the inheritance of one autosomal allele causing a phenotype,…
autosomal recessive
the inheritance of one autosomal allele causing a phenotype,…
Chapter 4 - Genetics
heredity
trait
genetics
fertilization
The passing of traits from parents to offspring.
A specific characteristic that an organism can pass to its of…
The scientific study of heredity.
The process in sexual reproduction in which an egg cell and a…
heredity
The passing of traits from parents to offspring.
trait
A specific characteristic that an organism can pass to its of…
22 terms
Genetics Chapter 4
Alleles
Wild Type
Mutant Allele
Incomplete Dominance
alternate forms of the same gene
the allele that occurs most commonly in a population (indicat…
caused by a mutation in the DNA of the wild type allele
phenotype is intermediate between two homozygous phenotypes
Alleles
alternate forms of the same gene
Wild Type
the allele that occurs most commonly in a population (indicat…
Genetics Chapter 4
Locus heterogeneity
Germline (Gonadal) Mosaicism
Obligate Carrier
Penetrance
A disease that can be caused by mutations at different loci i…
A type of mosaic in which the germ line of an individual cont…
An individual who is known to possess a disease-causing gene…
The probability of expressing a phenotype, given that an indi…
Locus heterogeneity
A disease that can be caused by mutations at different loci i…
Germline (Gonadal) Mosaicism
A type of mosaic in which the germ line of an individual cont…
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