Study sets matching "genetics dna replication"

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Study sets matching "genetics dna replication"

11 terms
DNA & Genetics Unit -- Replication
Because DNA includes one parent strand…
This strand of the original DNA allows…
This strand of the original DNA runs i…
This enzyme attaches to DNA and unwind…
Semiconservative
Leading Strand
Lagging Strand
Helicase
Because DNA includes one parent strand…
Semiconservative
This strand of the original DNA allows…
Leading Strand
37 terms
Bio- Genetics & DNA Replication
Genotype
Phenotype
Watson and Crick
Histones
allelic representation of a trait
physical expression of a genotype
introduced a double helical model for the structure of deoxyr…
inert proteins that supercoil DNA is wrapped around forming c…
Genotype
allelic representation of a trait
Phenotype
physical expression of a genotype
12 terms
DNA & Genetics Unit -- Replication
Because DNA includes one parent strand…
This strand of the original DNA allows…
This strand of the original DNA runs i…
This enzyme attaches to DNA and unwind…
Semiconservative
Leading Strand
Lagging Strand
Helicase
Because DNA includes one parent strand…
Semiconservative
This strand of the original DNA allows…
Leading Strand
26 terms
Genetics DNA Replication
semiconservative
conservative
dispersive
replisome
one helix of DNA splits into two each with one parent and one…
a completely daughter and completely parental strand of DNA a…
random parental and daughter bits make up each strand of DNA…
complex of multiple proteins involved in replication
semiconservative
one helix of DNA splits into two each with one parent and one…
conservative
a completely daughter and completely parental strand of DNA a…
24 terms
Genetics and DNA Replication : Advanced
Meaning of "Homo-"
Meaning of "Hetero-"
Genotype
Phenotype
Same
Different
The Genetic Makeup of an Organism (Example: BB, Bb, bb)
Physical Characteristics of an Organism (Example: Brown Hair,…
Meaning of "Homo-"
Same
Meaning of "Hetero-"
Different
36 terms
Molecular Genetics and DNA Replication
Genetics
Genome
Genomics
Gene
study of the patterns and mechanisms of inheritance and natur…
full set of genes in an organism
study of the genome
sequence of nucleotides that encodes a protein and determines…
Genetics
study of the patterns and mechanisms of inheritance and natur…
Genome
full set of genes in an organism
Genetics Quiz: DNA Replication
What model does DNA follow?
About the Semi-Conservative Model
DNA Polymerase I
DNA Polymerase II
Semi-Conservative Model
Parental strand serves as a template... Nucleotides added to the…
Replicates DNA 5' to 3' ends... Exonuclease activity
DNA Repair
What model does DNA follow?
Semi-Conservative Model
About the Semi-Conservative Model
Parental strand serves as a template... Nucleotides added to the…
Genetics, DNA Replication, Transcription
Karotyping
Pedigree analysis
deletion
duplication
A preparation of chromosomes arrested in metaphase. Chromosom…
"family tree". Examines the expression of traits in each gene…
removal of genetic information.
addition of genetic information.
Karotyping
A preparation of chromosomes arrested in metaphase. Chromosom…
Pedigree analysis
"family tree". Examines the expression of traits in each gene…
55 terms
DNA Replication and Genetics
DNA Structure
Nucleotide
RNA Structure
5'
double strand helix, nucleotides joined by bases (AT, CG), co…
Has a phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, base. Has covalent bonds
single strand, nucleotides joined by bases (AU, CG), coiled t…
When the phosphate (circle) is facing up
DNA Structure
double strand helix, nucleotides joined by bases (AT, CG), co…
Nucleotide
Has a phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, base. Has covalent bonds
Genetics-7 DNA & Replication
Frederick Griffith's Experiments
DNA is the transforming agent
Hershey-Chase Expirament
DNA is the hereditary material
Streptococcus pneumoniae in two different strains used to inf…
DNA is the agent transforming the R strain into virulence. If…
made use of phage... T2, a virus that infects bacteria... Hypothesi…
The phage proteins are mere structural packaging that is disc…
Frederick Griffith's Experiments
Streptococcus pneumoniae in two different strains used to inf…
DNA is the transforming agent
DNA is the agent transforming the R strain into virulence. If…
39 terms
Molecular Genetics-DNA & DNA replication
molecular genetics
Structure of DNA
Nucleotides of DNA consist of:
phosphodiester bond
-molecular nature of genes & expression... -young area of geneti…
-structure proposed by Watson & Crick... -molecule comped of two…
-deoxyribose(5-C sugar)... -phosphate... -nitrogenous base (A, T, G…
-to form DNA, nucleotides are bonded together between the P a…
molecular genetics
-molecular nature of genes & expression... -young area of geneti…
Structure of DNA
-structure proposed by Watson & Crick... -molecule comped of two…
17 terms
Genetics/DNA Replication
heterozygous
homozygous
hybrid
purebred
Having two different alleles (one dominant and one recessive)
Having two of the same alleles (two dominant or two recessive)
The opposite of purebred. Another word for heterozygous.
The opposite of hybrid. Another word for homozygous.
heterozygous
Having two different alleles (one dominant and one recessive)
homozygous
Having two of the same alleles (two dominant or two recessive)
22 terms
Genetics, DNA Replication, and Mutations
Dihybrid cross
Co-dominance
Incomplete dominance
Sex-linked traits
Both dominant traits appear
The trait expressed is a mix of the two dominant traits
A trait that is found on X but not Y
Dihybrid cross
Co-dominance
Both dominant traits appear
20 terms
Genetics DNA Structure and Replication
What bonds hold the sugar-phosphate ba…
Give examples of DNA base composition…
Describe the semiconservative model of…
How many origins of replication do pro…
-The sugar-phosphate backbone is held together by phosphodies…
-ssDNA: A=25% T=45% G=18% C=12%... -ssRNA: A=34% U=30% G=20% C=1…
Simply put, the two parent strands are separated and used as…
-Prokaryotes usually only use 1 origin of replication... -Most p…
What bonds hold the sugar-phosphate ba…
-The sugar-phosphate backbone is held together by phosphodies…
Give examples of DNA base composition…
-ssDNA: A=25% T=45% G=18% C=12%... -ssRNA: A=34% U=30% G=20% C=1…
67 terms
Genetics DNA Replication
The functional group on the pentose su…
3'-5' exonuclease activity that serves…
a break in the phospho-diester bond of…
a class of proteins that manipulate DN…
3'-OH
proofreading
nick
topoisomerase
The functional group on the pentose su…
3'-OH
3'-5' exonuclease activity that serves…
proofreading
52 terms
Genetics(DNA Replication)
DNA replication occurs in which organi…
Where does DNA Replication occur in Eu…
Where does DNA Replication occur in pr…
Where does DNA Replication occur in ce…
-Eukaryotics cells... -Prokariokic Cells (bacteria)... -Viruses
Nucleus in the linear Chromosomes
Large circular chromosome
Plasmids
DNA replication occurs in which organi…
-Eukaryotics cells... -Prokariokic Cells (bacteria)... -Viruses
Where does DNA Replication occur in Eu…
Nucleus in the linear Chromosomes
15 terms
Genetics DNA Replication Genes
DnaB
DnaG
PolA
DnaE
Helicase
Primase
DNA polymerase I
DNA polymerase III
DnaB
Helicase
DnaG
Primase
53 terms
Genetics DNA Replication
theta replication
replication fork
origin of replication
1
term for circular DNA replication mechanism
point where DNA duplex is being unwound
proteins bind here to initiate synthesis
# bacteria ori sites
theta replication
term for circular DNA replication mechanism
replication fork
point where DNA duplex is being unwound
43 terms
Molecular Genetics- DNA Replication
Nucleotides
1 of 4 nitrogenous bases... Phosphate gro…
Adenine... Thymine... Cytosine... Guanine
The phosphate group of one nucleotide…
DNA is composed of _______
Each nucleotide molecule contains...
The four nitrogenous bases are called
How are nucleotides connected?
Nucleotides
DNA is composed of _______
1 of 4 nitrogenous bases... Phosphate gro…
Each nucleotide molecule contains...
Genetics- DNA fingerprinting/replication
What enzyme lays down the RNA primer?
What enzyme breaks down the hydrogen b…
What enzyme adds the appropriate nucle…
What enzyme joins Okazaki fragments an…
primase
helicase
DNA polymerase
ligase
What enzyme lays down the RNA primer?
primase
What enzyme breaks down the hydrogen b…
helicase
24 terms
Genetics DNA Replication
What drives polymerization of the prim…
What is a structural similarity that n…
AZT, Thymidine, 2'-3'-Dideoxyinosine,…
Main fxn of topoisomerases
Hydrolysis of PPi
Nucleoside analogs that lack 3'-OH inhibit DNA replication
Nucleoside analogs that lack 3'-OH
Prevent supercoiling while replication is happening
What drives polymerization of the prim…
Hydrolysis of PPi
What is a structural similarity that n…
Nucleoside analogs that lack 3'-OH inhibit DNA replication
26 terms
Genetics DNA Replication
Okazaki Fragments
Types of DNA Polymerase
Exonuclease activity
Oric Region
Fragments on the lagging strand during DNA replication
DNA Pol 1: removal of the primer, fill in gaps, proofread... DNA…
Used to cut out incorrect nucleotides and proofread
Region in prokaryotes of where DNA replication initiates and…
Okazaki Fragments
Fragments on the lagging strand during DNA replication
Types of DNA Polymerase
DNA Pol 1: removal of the primer, fill in gaps, proofread... DNA…
22 terms
Genetics- DNA Replication
Describe DNA replication as being semi…
Explain the experimental setup, result…
Explain the mechanisms by which DNA re…
Describe how errors occur during repli…
Watson and Crick proposed that the mechanism of DNA replicati…
The Meselson-Stahl experiment provided evidence to support th…
DNA replication starts at the origin of replication, where th…
Errors may occur during replication when an incorrect base is…
Describe DNA replication as being semi…
Watson and Crick proposed that the mechanism of DNA replicati…
Explain the experimental setup, result…
The Meselson-Stahl experiment provided evidence to support th…
Genetics DNA Replication
DNA Polymerase 3
DNA Polymerase 2
DNA Polymerase 1
Helicase
Main enzyme that adds nucleotides in the 5'-3' direction
Repairs function for DNA
Exonuclease activity removes RNA primer and replaces with new…
Opens the DNA helix by breaking hydrogen bonds between the ni…
DNA Polymerase 3
Main enzyme that adds nucleotides in the 5'-3' direction
DNA Polymerase 2
Repairs function for DNA
52 terms
Genetics | DNA Replication
The speed with which an organism can r…
What is the difference between conserv…
After one round of replication, if rep…
After one round of replication, if rep…
replicate; divide
conservative -- one DNA molecule contains 2 parental strands,…
heavy
intermediate
The speed with which an organism can r…
replicate; divide
What is the difference between conserv…
conservative -- one DNA molecule contains 2 parental strands,…
57 terms
Genetics: DNA Replication
Contribution to Structure Discovery: E…
Contribution to Structure Discovery: L…
Contribution to Structure Discovery: R…
Contribution to Structure Discovery: W…
Base pairing. In all species, A/T equal amounts and G/C equal…
Space-filling models. Predicts bond angles, distances.
X-Ray Crystallography. Hints at double-helical structure.
Model building. Combined all previous models into one elegant…
Contribution to Structure Discovery: E…
Base pairing. In all species, A/T equal amounts and G/C equal…
Contribution to Structure Discovery: L…
Space-filling models. Predicts bond angles, distances.
Genetics - DNA Replication
Where does DNA synthesis in bacteria b…
How is DNA synthesized within the bact…
Give the general mechanism for DNA rep…
What's the name of the origin of repli…
At the origin of replication.
Bidirectionally
Begins in the S phase, starts at the origin of replication, D…
oriC; has AT rich regions and DnaA boxes which are places tha…
Where does DNA synthesis in bacteria b…
At the origin of replication.
How is DNA synthesized within the bact…
Bidirectionally
DNA replication and the genetic code
DNA replication
Semi-conservation replication
Continuous and discontinuous replication
Replication errors
Process of DNA being replicated into two new identical strands
DNA unwinds and splits into its two strands... -Enzyme *DNA heli…
DNA polymerase only moves from 3' to 5'... DNA is unzipped in on…
An incorrectly matched sequence of bases may occur in a newly…
DNA replication
Process of DNA being replicated into two new identical strands
Semi-conservation replication
DNA unwinds and splits into its two strands... -Enzyme *DNA heli…
Genetics Ch. 9: DNA Replication
Conservative DNA replication
Dispersive DNA replication
Semi-conservative DNA replication
Meselsohn and Stahl Experiment
A model of replication that says that the original DNA is com…
States that the original DNA is replicated & strands that hav…
States that 1 strand of original DNA is replicated & new stra…
Labelled DNA with N isotopes: N15=heavy and N14=light... Conclu…
Conservative DNA replication
A model of replication that says that the original DNA is com…
Dispersive DNA replication
States that the original DNA is replicated & strands that hav…
Genetics- DNA replication
semiconservative model of replication
conservative model of replication
dispersive model of replication
origins of replication
predicts that when a double helix replicates, each daughter m…
two parent strands rejoin
each strand is a mix of old and new
where two DNA strands are separated, opening up a replication…
semiconservative model of replication
predicts that when a double helix replicates, each daughter m…
conservative model of replication
two parent strands rejoin
Genetics DNA Replication Enzymes
Helicase
SSB
Primase
DNA Polymerase
"Unzips" DNA strand (breaks hydrogen bonds)
Holds the two strands apart so that hydrogen bonds don't re f…
Binds a small stretch of RNA to existing DNA called the primer
Attaches RNA primer and works along DNA strand matching the b…
Helicase
"Unzips" DNA strand (breaks hydrogen bonds)
SSB
Holds the two strands apart so that hydrogen bonds don't re f…
27 terms
Genetics 2400: DNA Replication
Central Dogma
Transcription
Translation
DNA Replication Criteria
The proposed flow of information from DNA to RNA to Protein.
The process of DNA going to RNA
The process of RNA going to protein.
1. High fidelity (no errors)... 2. Once and only once per cell c…
Central Dogma
The proposed flow of information from DNA to RNA to Protein.
Transcription
The process of DNA going to RNA
Genetics linkage & dna replication
Two loci on different chromosomes. Ind…
Plasmid
Conjugation (bacteria)
A site
Four gamete types with equal frequency
Circular dna molecule: in bacteria
Direct contact cell to cell to replicate
Aminoacyl site- acceptor site - translation
Two loci on different chromosomes. Ind…
Four gamete types with equal frequency
Plasmid
Circular dna molecule: in bacteria
10 terms
Genetics: DNA Replication
What does DNA do?
Semiconservative
conservative
dispersive
- Carries genetic material... - copy info... - be able to determini…
one strand of new DNA one strand of old
1 helix of old 1 helix of new
sections of both DNA
What does DNA do?
- Carries genetic material... - copy info... - be able to determini…
Semiconservative
one strand of new DNA one strand of old
21 terms
Genetics Ch 3: DNA Replication
Three Models of DNA Replication
Important Experiment
Meselson & Stahl Experiment
DNA Polymerases (DNA Polymerase I)
- Mathew Meselson... - Frank Stahl
Three Models of DNA Replication
Important Experiment
- Mathew Meselson... - Frank Stahl
13 terms
Genetics - DNA Replication
in vivo
Leading Strand
Lagging Strand
Okazaki Fragments
Occurring within a living organism
continuously has a free 3' site
Discontinuously in short okazaki fragments. Ligase joins them…
fragments that are made when lagging strand is replicated
in vivo
Occurring within a living organism
Leading Strand
continuously has a free 3' site
10 terms
Genetics - DNA Replication
DnaA Protiens
DnaC Protiens
DNA Helicase (DnaB)
Topoisomerase II (DNA Grase)
Bind to DnaA box sequences within the origin to initiate DNA…
Aid DnaA in the recruitment of DNA helicase to the origin
Separates double-stranded DNA
Removes positive supercoiling ahead of the replication fork
DnaA Protiens
Bind to DnaA box sequences within the origin to initiate DNA…
DnaC Protiens
Aid DnaA in the recruitment of DNA helicase to the origin
Microbial Genetics - DNA Replication
DNA Gyrase
DNA Ligase
DNA Polymerase
Endonucleases
Relaxes supercoiling ahead of the replication fork.
Makes covalent bonds to join DNA strands; joins Okazaki fragm…
Synthesizes DNA; proofreads and repairs DNA
Cut DNA backbone in a strand of DNA; facilitate repair and in…
DNA Gyrase
Relaxes supercoiling ahead of the replication fork.
DNA Ligase
Makes covalent bonds to join DNA strands; joins Okazaki fragm…
29 terms
Genetics and DNA replication
Homozygous
Heterozygous
Co-dominance
Incomplete Dominance
Same genes, either dominant or recessive
Differing genes, dominant trait is displayed
Two dominant alleles, both affect the phenotype ex: human blo…
Phenotype of F1 hybrids is between the phenotypes of the two…
Homozygous
Same genes, either dominant or recessive
Heterozygous
Differing genes, dominant trait is displayed
22 terms
Genetics- DNA Replication
Describe DNA replication as being semi…
Explain the experimental setup, result…
Explain the mechanisms by which DNA re…
Describe how errors occur during repli…
Watson and Crick proposed that the mechanism of DNA replicati…
The Meselson-Stahl experiment provided evidence to support th…
DNA replication starts at the origin of replication, where th…
Errors may occur during replication when an incorrect base is…
Describe DNA replication as being semi…
Watson and Crick proposed that the mechanism of DNA replicati…
Explain the experimental setup, result…
The Meselson-Stahl experiment provided evidence to support th…
Genetics - DNA Replication
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
The topoisomerase uncoils the double helix to make the *hel…
The RNA primer writes small sections of RNA to serve as a s…
DNA polymerase 3 writes the complementary strand in the 5'…
The DNA polymerase 1 replaces the small sections of RNA wit…
Step 1
The topoisomerase uncoils the double helix to make the *hel…
Step 2
The RNA primer writes small sections of RNA to serve as a s…
Molecular Genetics: DNA and Replication
In DNA, the purines are
In DNA, the pyramidines are
The 3' carbon is exposed to the ___ gr…
The 5' carbon is exposed to the ___ gr…
A and G
T and C
hydroxyl
phosphate
In DNA, the purines are
A and G
In DNA, the pyramidines are
T and C
33 terms
Genetics 2 - DNA Replication
DNA acts as a template for the... synthes…
Semiconservative replication
meselson and stahl experiment
separations of dna of different densit…
• two strands of DNA are complimentary... • if DNA is untwisted…
• evidence for semiconservative replication... came from Meselso…
...
centrifuge for 50-60 h at 100000 x g
DNA acts as a template for the... synthes…
• two strands of DNA are complimentary... • if DNA is untwisted…
Semiconservative replication
• evidence for semiconservative replication... came from Meselso…
29 terms
Molecular genetics - DNA replication
Cloning vector (e.g. plasmid)
RNA polymerase vs reverse transcriptase
Competent bacteria
Acetylation
DNA molecule that carries foreign DNA into a host cell and re…
RNA polymerase (DNA -> mRNA); Reverse transcriptase (mRNA ->…
Take up DNA from the environment
Acetylation of nucleosomes promotes compactchromatin structur…
Cloning vector (e.g. plasmid)
DNA molecule that carries foreign DNA into a host cell and re…
RNA polymerase vs reverse transcriptase
RNA polymerase (DNA -> mRNA); Reverse transcriptase (mRNA ->…
28 terms
Microbial Genetics DNA Replication
genetics
genome
Chromosomes
Genes
the science of heredity, how traits are passed
sum total of genetic information (DNA) in a cell
structures that contain DNA
segments of DNA that code for functional products
genetics
the science of heredity, how traits are passed
genome
sum total of genetic information (DNA) in a cell
16 terms
Genetics - DNA replication and structure
Nucleosomal fibre
Bond between two base pairs
Compaction
Semi conservative
DNA wrapped around histones
phosphodiester
DNA - nucleosomal fibre - chromatin - chromosome
Each new daughter DNA contains 1 strand from the parent molec…
Nucleosomal fibre
DNA wrapped around histones
Bond between two base pairs
phosphodiester
Genetics-- DNA replication
DNA poly I
DNA poly III
Leading strand
lagging strand
5' to 3' polymerase and 5' to 3' exonuclease activity; exonuc…
adds DNA to the end of RNA primer
new strand of DNA that is synthesized continuously
strand replicated in Okazaki fragments
DNA poly I
5' to 3' polymerase and 5' to 3' exonuclease activity; exonuc…
DNA poly III
adds DNA to the end of RNA primer
40 terms
Genetics/DNA replication
Phenotype
Genotype
Law of Dominance
Law of Segregation
an individual's observable traits (height, eye color, blood t…
an individual's collection of genes, or the two alleles inher…
if an organism has 2 different alleles (heterozygous), one al…
during gamete formation (meiosis), the 2 alleles for a trait…
Phenotype
an individual's observable traits (height, eye color, blood t…
Genotype
an individual's collection of genes, or the two alleles inher…
43 terms
Genetics - DNA replication (Sharples)
Describe how a gene and a protein is w…
Describe the process of the 1958 Mesel…
Describe the results of the Meselson-S…
Semi-conservative model
Gene - lowercase 1st letter, italicised.... Protein - uppercase…
Bacteria was grown in ¹⁵N medium.... Transferred to ¹⁴N medium.…
At the start, all the DNA was heavy (H-H). After one generati…
The two parental strands separate and each makes a copy of it…
Describe how a gene and a protein is w…
Gene - lowercase 1st letter, italicised.... Protein - uppercase…
Describe the process of the 1958 Mesel…
Bacteria was grown in ¹⁵N medium.... Transferred to ¹⁴N medium.…
55 terms
Genetics/ DNA Replication
character
trait
true-breeding
hybridization
a heritable feature that varies among individuals, such as fl…
each variant for a character
beings that, over many generations, produce only the same var…
the mating or crossing of two true-breeding varieties
character
a heritable feature that varies among individuals, such as fl…
trait
each variant for a character
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