Study sets matching "geo chapter 3"

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Study sets matching "geo chapter 3"

27 terms
Geology chapter 3
Naturally occuring
Generally inorganic
Solid Substance
Orderly crystalline structure
Minerals form by natural geologic process
Inorganic crystalline solids like table salt is an example (f…
Only solid crystalline substances are considered minerals. Ic…
Atoms (ions) are arranged in an orderly, repetitive matter.Cr…
Naturally occuring
Minerals form by natural geologic process
Generally inorganic
Inorganic crystalline solids like table salt is an example (f…
8 terms
Geology Chapter 3
Plate Boundaries
Convergent
Oceanic-Oceanic:
Oceanic Continental:
Divergent ... Convergent... Transform
When two plates Collide. (3 types)... Oceanic- Oceanic... Oceanic C…
two oceanic plates collide one ocean plate will go under the…
oceanic plate will go under. (Andes Mountain)
Plate Boundaries
Divergent ... Convergent... Transform
Convergent
When two plates Collide. (3 types)... Oceanic- Oceanic... Oceanic C…
Geology Chapter 3
mineralogy
Flint and Chert
3700 B.C.
2200 B.C.
study of minerals
First minerals mined which people fashioned into weapons and…
Egyptians began mining gold, silver, and copper
humans had discovered how to combine copper with tin to make…
mineralogy
study of minerals
Flint and Chert
First minerals mined which people fashioned into weapons and…
72 terms
Geology Chapter 3
Weathering
Mass Wasting
Erosion
Slump
the physical breakdown (disintegration) and chemical alterati…
the transfer of rock and soil downslope, under the influence…
the physical removal of material by a mobile agent such as fl…
downward sliding of a mass of rock or unconsolidated material…
Weathering
the physical breakdown (disintegration) and chemical alterati…
Mass Wasting
the transfer of rock and soil downslope, under the influence…
23 terms
Historical Geology Chapter 3
Gondwana
continental drift
Laurasia
Evidence for Continental Drift
was a super continent composed of inda, south africa, austral…
all land was once one land mass called pangea and; hypothesis…
northern land mass that encompassed north america, greenland,…
-continental fit... -similarity of rock sequences and mountain r…
Gondwana
was a super continent composed of inda, south africa, austral…
continental drift
all land was once one land mass called pangea and; hypothesis…
30 terms
Geology Chapter 3
Igneous rocks
Intrusive igneous rocks
Extrusive igneous rocks
Texture
When magma cools and solidifies.
When magma solidifies underground.
When magma solidifies at the Earth's surface.
The rocks appearance with respect to size of grains. Crystal…
Igneous rocks
When magma cools and solidifies.
Intrusive igneous rocks
When magma solidifies underground.
21 terms
Geology Chapter 3
Mineral
Crystal
Crystal Face
Crystal Structure
A homogeneous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance…
A single, continuous piece of a mineral bounded by flat surfa…
The flat surfaces of a crystal, formed during the crystals gr…
The arrangement of atoms in a crystal
Mineral
A homogeneous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance…
Crystal
A single, continuous piece of a mineral bounded by flat surfa…
25 terms
Chapter 3 Geology
geosphere
crust
mantle
core
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer…
Earth's outermost layer.
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and co…
Center of the earth
geosphere
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer…
crust
Earth's outermost layer.
Geology Chapter 3
Characteristics of a mineral
A rock is a
Composition of minerals
Nucleus
1. naturally occurring... 2. inorganic... 3. solid... 4. chemical elem…
Naturally occurring aggregate, or combinations of one or more…
elements and atoms
central region of atom that has protons and neutrons
Characteristics of a mineral
1. naturally occurring... 2. inorganic... 3. solid... 4. chemical elem…
A rock is a
Naturally occurring aggregate, or combinations of one or more…
205 terms
Geology Prelude, Geology Chapter 1, Geology Chapter 2, Geology Chapter 3, Geology Interlude, Geology Chapter 4
Geologist
Geology
What are some questions that drive geo…
Science
A scientist who studies the Earth
Or Geoscience is the study of the Earth.
How was the world made?... How does it continue to Evolve?... What…
The use of observation, experiment, and calculation to explai…
Geologist
A scientist who studies the Earth
Geology
Or Geoscience is the study of the Earth.
Geology Chapter 3 Atmosphere
atmosphere mixture
atmosphere serves as...
stratospheric ozone
loss of stratospheric ozone causes wha…
mixture of gas: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases
a filter
good ozone that keeps out ultraviolet radiation
Acid rain
atmosphere mixture
mixture of gas: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases
atmosphere serves as...
a filter
60 terms
Historical Geology Chapter 3
Fossil
Permineralization
Carbonization
Trace Fossils
The remains of tangible traces of an organism left in sedimen…
A mode of fossilization in which spaces within part of an org…
The process by which a residue of carbon is left on the surfa…
A track, trail, or burrow left in the geologic record by a mo…
Fossil
The remains of tangible traces of an organism left in sedimen…
Permineralization
A mode of fossilization in which spaces within part of an org…
13 terms
Geology Chapter 3
Cenozoic Era
Glacier
Continental Ice Sheet
Mountain Glacier
the last 65 million years of Earth's history
a large river of ice that forms on land and moves under the i…
a very large glacier, often more than 1 km in depth, that for…
a glacier that forms in mountainous regions at high elevations
Cenozoic Era
the last 65 million years of Earth's history
Glacier
a large river of ice that forms on land and moves under the i…
67 terms
Geology Chapter 3
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
Physical Weathering
Chemical Weathering
Silicates Generally Weather...
formed by chemical precipitation from water
involves the formation and enlargement of cracks (freeze, thaw)
Interaction of acidic rain water and comes in contact with un…
In the same order as they crystalize
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
formed by chemical precipitation from water
Physical Weathering
involves the formation and enlargement of cracks (freeze, thaw)
Geology Chapter 3
What is a mineral?
Are the following minerals or not?
Are the following Mineral or not? (Ans…
Matter
A mineral is:... -Naturally occurring... -Inorganic... -Crystalline so…
Liquid water? ... Snow? ... Window glass? ... Volcanic glass? ... Basalt…
-Liquid water? No its not a solid.... -Snow? yes... -Window glass?…
-Matter has mass and occupies space.... -Matter consists of atom…
What is a mineral?
A mineral is:... -Naturally occurring... -Inorganic... -Crystalline so…
Are the following minerals or not?
Liquid water? ... Snow? ... Window glass? ... Volcanic glass? ... Basalt…
29 terms
Geology 105 Chapter 3
Mineral
Silicates
Ferromagnesian
Non-silicates
A solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence.
minerals that contain silicon and oxygen and usually one or m…
Type of silicates rich in Fe, Mg, and Ca
Minerals without the presence of silicon or oxygen as a tetra…
Mineral
A solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence.
Silicates
minerals that contain silicon and oxygen and usually one or m…
58 terms
chapter 3 physical geology
mineralogy
mineral
rock
• Elements
the study of minerals
• Naturally occurring... • Inorganic... • Solid... • Ordered intern…
any solid mass of material or mineral like matter that occurs…
• Basic building blocks of minerals... • Over 100 known (92 nat…
mineralogy
the study of minerals
mineral
• Naturally occurring... • Inorganic... • Solid... • Ordered intern…
57 terms
Geology Chapter 3
external processes
weathering
Mass wasting
Erosion
a process such as weathering, mass wasting, or erosion that i…
the physical breakdown (disintegration) and chemical alterati…
the transfer of rock and soil downslope, under the influence…
the physical removal of material by a mobile agent such as fl…
external processes
a process such as weathering, mass wasting, or erosion that i…
weathering
the physical breakdown (disintegration) and chemical alterati…
Geology Chapter 3
rock
magma
lava
intrusive igneous rock
a naturally formed, consolidated material usually composed of…
molten rock created by melting of preexisting rock above a su…
magma that has been extruded onto the Earth's surface (extrus…
magma that is not extruded onto the Earth's surface and intru…
rock
a naturally formed, consolidated material usually composed of…
magma
molten rock created by melting of preexisting rock above a su…
15 terms
Exploring Geology, Chapter 3
1. Identify on a world map the named c…
Identify on a world map the named ocea…
2. Identify on a world map the main ty…
3. List observations Wegener used to s…
b. North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Austra…
a. Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, Artici. People attack…
a. Seamounts ... b. Island... c. Island Arc: Curving chains of isla…
a. Some continents appeared to fit togetherb. Correspondence…
1. Identify on a world map the named c…
b. North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Austra…
Identify on a world map the named ocea…
a. Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, Artici. People attack…
Geology Chapter 3
Octet Rule
Chemical Bond
Ion
Ionic Bond
...
...
...
...
Octet Rule
...
Chemical Bond
...
84 terms
chapter 3 geology
two attributes of life
fossils
where are fossils found
body fossil
self-regulation self-replication
remains of ancient organisms that died thousands of years ago
sedimentary rocks
organic remains
two attributes of life
self-regulation self-replication
fossils
remains of ancient organisms that died thousands of years ago
22 terms
Geology Chapter 3
Igneous rocks
Sedimentary rocks
Metamorphic rocks
Partial melting
formed when magma cools and hardens (ex. basalt, obsidian)
formed from particles of sand, shells, pebbles, and other fra…
formed under the surface of the Earth, mainly in the lithosph…
the incomplete melting of a rock composed of minerals with di…
Igneous rocks
formed when magma cools and hardens (ex. basalt, obsidian)
Sedimentary rocks
formed from particles of sand, shells, pebbles, and other fra…
55 terms
Geology Chapter 3
anion
atomic mass
atomic number
bedding
A negatively charged ion
The sum of an atom's protons and neutrons
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
The formation of parallel layers, or beds, by deposition of s…
anion
A negatively charged ion
atomic mass
The sum of an atom's protons and neutrons
26 terms
Geology Chapter 3 Vocabulary
Rock
Igneous Rock
Sedimentary Rock
Metamorphic Rock
A consolidated mixture of minerals
A rock formed by the crystallization of molten magma.
Rock formed from the weathered products of preexisting rocks…
Rock formed by the alteration of preexisting rock deep within…
Rock
A consolidated mixture of minerals
Igneous Rock
A rock formed by the crystallization of molten magma.
28 terms
Geology chapter 3
Toxins
Persistent Chemicals
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Risk Assessment
chemicals that cause direct damage upon xposure
chemicals that don't readily degrade over time
the federal agency responsible for setting policy and enforci…
weighing the risks and benefits of a particular action in ord…
Toxins
chemicals that cause direct damage upon xposure
Persistent Chemicals
chemicals that don't readily degrade over time
54 terms
Geology - Chapter 3
actual geologic dating
alpha particle
Archean Eon
atom
...
A particle equivalent to the nucleus of a helium atom, emitte…
Pertaining to the division of Precambrian time beginning 3.8…
The smallest divisible unit retaining the characteristics of…
actual geologic dating
...
alpha particle
A particle equivalent to the nucleus of a helium atom, emitte…
Geology Chapter 3
anion
atomic mass
atomic number
carbonate
negatively charged ion
sum of the masses its protons and its neutrons
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
class of minerals composed of carbon and oxygen in combinatio…
anion
negatively charged ion
atomic mass
sum of the masses its protons and its neutrons
Geology Chapter 3
The surface of the earth
Tectonics
Volcano distributions
Divergent Boundary
Notable for many geologic features like valleys, coast lines…
the study of the origin and arrangement of broad structural f…
Large volcanic belt along the west coasts of North and South…
two plates move apart relative to one another; magma fills th…
The surface of the earth
Notable for many geologic features like valleys, coast lines…
Tectonics
the study of the origin and arrangement of broad structural f…
9 terms
Chapter 3 Geology
name 3 Ferro magnesium silicates
name for a fine grained texture
an example of a mafic and fine grained…
an example of a rock that is felsic an…
olivine, pyroxene, amphibole
aphanitic
basalt
granite
name 3 Ferro magnesium silicates
olivine, pyroxene, amphibole
name for a fine grained texture
aphanitic
27 terms
Geology chapter 3
mineral
Rock
atoms
nucleus
-Naturally occurring... -generally inorganic... -Solid substance... -O…
A solid mass of minerals or mineral-like matter that occurs n…
-all matter, including minerals are composed of atoms ... -the s…
-protons and neutrons located here... -surrounded by electrons
mineral
-Naturally occurring... -generally inorganic... -Solid substance... -O…
Rock
A solid mass of minerals or mineral-like matter that occurs n…
7 terms
Geology Chapter 3
law of superposition
intrusions
radiometric dating
"closed system"
younger rocks are laid on top of older rocks, gives relative…
intrude existing rock layers, are younger than the rocks they…
gives absolute dates, requires lab, errors if system isn't cl…
measure the amount of Parent, measure the amount of Daughter,…
law of superposition
younger rocks are laid on top of older rocks, gives relative…
intrusions
intrude existing rock layers, are younger than the rocks they…
41 terms
Chapter 3 Geology
Seamounts
Abyssal Plains
Mid-Ocaen Ridges
Oceanic Fracture Zones
mountains on the seafloor that do not reach seal level
smooth surface moderately deep in the ocean flood
are broad, symmetrical ridges that cross the ocean basins
Cracks and steps cross the seafloor mostly at right angles to…
Seamounts
mountains on the seafloor that do not reach seal level
Abyssal Plains
smooth surface moderately deep in the ocean flood
46 terms
Geology Chapter 3
The surface of the earth
Tectonics
Volcano distributions
Divergent Boundary
Notable for many geologic features like valleys, coast lines…
the study of the origin and arrangement of broad structural f…
Large volcanic belt along the west coasts of North and South…
two plates move apart relative to one another; magma fills th…
The surface of the earth
Notable for many geologic features like valleys, coast lines…
Tectonics
the study of the origin and arrangement of broad structural f…
Geology Chapter 3 Vocab
Chemical Properties
Physical Properties
Color
Clarity
a mineral's characteristics that can only be observed and mea…
A mineral's characteristics that can be observed without chan…
A mineral's most noticeable property and may be a clue to it'…
A mineral's degree of transparency or their ability to transm…
Chemical Properties
a mineral's characteristics that can only be observed and mea…
Physical Properties
A mineral's characteristics that can be observed without chan…
GEOLOGY 1211- Chapter 3
How the mountains are formed?
What are the Himalayas
How did the Himalayas formed
How rock Deform (Images)
When plate boundaries converge
Mountain range home of nine of the ten highest peaks on Earth…
When the Indian-Australian Plate and the Eurasian plate colli…
How the mountains are formed?
When plate boundaries converge
What are the Himalayas
Mountain range home of nine of the ten highest peaks on Earth…
41 terms
Geology Chapter 3
Mineralogy
Criteria of a Mineral
Atomic Number
Atomic Mass
Branch of geology that studies the composition, structure, ap…
1. Naturally Occurring... 2. Solid Crystalline Substance... 3. Inor…
The number of protons in the nucleus
The sum of the masses of its protons and its neutrons
Mineralogy
Branch of geology that studies the composition, structure, ap…
Criteria of a Mineral
1. Naturally Occurring... 2. Solid Crystalline Substance... 3. Inor…
34 terms
Geology -- Chapter 3
Earth's Surface
Volcanoes
Plate Boundaries
Tectonic Plates
71% Ocean; 2% Island; about 27% Continents
Widespread, but commonly occur in belts. Ex. One belt extends…
Defined and outlined by the distribution of tectonic activity…
Earth's lithosphere which is broken into about a dozen rigid…
Earth's Surface
71% Ocean; 2% Island; about 27% Continents
Volcanoes
Widespread, but commonly occur in belts. Ex. One belt extends…
Geology - Chapter 3
carbonate
cleavage
conchoidal fracture
crystal
rocks containing calcite and/or dolomite
the tendency of a mineral to break along preferred planes; a…
smoothly curving, clamshell-shaped surfaces along which mater…
a single, continuous piece of a mineral bounded by flat surfa…
carbonate
rocks containing calcite and/or dolomite
cleavage
the tendency of a mineral to break along preferred planes; a…
Geology Chapter 3
Continental Drift
All Continents
Seamount
Tectonic study
Hypothesis that the Earth was once a whole (Pangea) and later…
North America, South America, Asia, Antartica, Africa, Austra…
Mountain beneath the ocean that does not reach the surface. M…
The study of the origin and arrangement of the brad structura…
Continental Drift
Hypothesis that the Earth was once a whole (Pangea) and later…
All Continents
North America, South America, Asia, Antartica, Africa, Austra…
Geology Chapter 3 terminology
Igneous Rocks
Intrusive (plutonic)
Phanertic
Extrusive
-Most abundant type in Earth's crust... -Form when molten rock c…
-Form when from magma that cools slowly underground... -Phaneritic
Coarse grained
-Lava cools quickly at Earth's surface... - Aphanitic, too rapid…
Igneous Rocks
-Most abundant type in Earth's crust... -Form when molten rock c…
Intrusive (plutonic)
-Form when from magma that cools slowly underground... -Phaneritic
Geology Chapter 3
Aphanetic
baked zone
besalt
batholith
finely grained igneous rock; not 100% of crystals formed; maj…
...
a fine grained, mafic, igneous rock composed predominantly of…
a large discordant pluton with an areal extent at earth's sur…
Aphanetic
finely grained igneous rock; not 100% of crystals formed; maj…
baked zone
...
45 terms
Geology chapter 3
mineral
Minerals must be
Rock
principal shells
any naturally occurring, inorganic solid that posseses an ord…
Naturally occurring, solid substance, orderly crystalline str…
any solid mass of mineral, or mineral-like matter that occurs…
the regions around the nucleus that the elections move about in
mineral
any naturally occurring, inorganic solid that posseses an ord…
Minerals must be
Naturally occurring, solid substance, orderly crystalline str…
Geology Chapter 3
CHANGE THE # OF PROTONS
CHANGE THE # OF NEUTRONS
CHANGE THE # OF ELECTRONS
6 CHARACTERISTICS OF MINERALS
change the element (He=2 protons, Li = 3)
change the isotope
-creates positive and negative ions (losing = positive, gaini…
-naturally ocurring... -inorganic... -solid... -specific internal stru…
CHANGE THE # OF PROTONS
change the element (He=2 protons, Li = 3)
CHANGE THE # OF NEUTRONS
change the isotope
35 terms
Geology Chapter 3
Faults
Fault Plane
Fault Scarp
Fault Trace
shear fractures in which the blocks of rock move parallel to…
The plane of slippage between the hanging wall and the foot w…
A small step on the ground surface where one side of a fault…
The intersection between a fault plane and the ground surface
Faults
shear fractures in which the blocks of rock move parallel to…
Fault Plane
The plane of slippage between the hanging wall and the foot w…
41 terms
geology chapter 3
Mineralogy
mineral
rock
Atoms
the study of minerals
any naturally occurring inorganic solid that possesses an ord…
any solid mass of mineral, or mineral-like, matter that occur…
the building blocks of minerals.
Mineralogy
the study of minerals
mineral
any naturally occurring inorganic solid that possesses an ord…
40 terms
Geology 1301 - Essentials of Geology 12e - Chapter 3
Mineralogy
Mineral
Rock
Atom
The study of minerals
A naturally occurring,... inorganic crystalline material with a…
A consolidated mixture of... minerals.
The smallest particle that... exists as an element.
Mineralogy
The study of minerals
Mineral
A naturally occurring,... inorganic crystalline material with a…
43 terms
Geology-Chapter 3
Definition of a mineral:
Atoms:
Octet rule:
Ionic bonding:
1. Naturally occurring... 2. Generally inorganic... 3. Solid substa…
Smallest part of matter that cannot be split... -protons, neutro…
Atoms want 8 valence electrons
the attraction of oppositely charged ions to each other... -tran…
Definition of a mineral:
1. Naturally occurring... 2. Generally inorganic... 3. Solid substa…
Atoms:
Smallest part of matter that cannot be split... -protons, neutro…
23 terms
geology chapter 3
what makes it a mineral?
what makes it a rock?
ion
isotope
1. naturally occurring (not in laboratory)... 2. generally inorg…
any solid mass of minerals or mineral like matter
positively and negatively charged atoms
variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neu…
what makes it a mineral?
1. naturally occurring (not in laboratory)... 2. generally inorg…
what makes it a rock?
any solid mass of minerals or mineral like matter
Environmental Geology | Chapter 3
Igneous rocks
Law of crosscutting relationships
Law of original horizontality
Law of superposition
Rocks formed from the solidification of magma or lava
States that a rock is younger than any other rock that it... cuts
States that when originally deposited, sedimentary layers... are…
States that if a series of layered sediments have not been... ov…
Igneous rocks
Rocks formed from the solidification of magma or lava
Law of crosscutting relationships
States that a rock is younger than any other rock that it... cuts
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