Study sets matching "geology 101"

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Study sets matching "geology 101"

320 terms
Geology 101
What is chemical weathering?
types of chemical weathering
types of physical weathering
exfoliation
converts minerals and rocks into altered solids solutions pre…
hydrolysis, oxidation, dissolution
exfoliation, frost wedging, thermal expansion
plutons split into sheets along joints that lie parallel to t…
What is chemical weathering?
converts minerals and rocks into altered solids solutions pre…
types of chemical weathering
hydrolysis, oxidation, dissolution
32 terms
Geology "101"
From lowest to highest temperature, wh…
In general, how does the density of ma…
In Earth's crust, what type of rock is…
The thickest layer of the Earth is the
Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
Density increases with depth
Only basalt
Mantle
From lowest to highest temperature, wh…
Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
In general, how does the density of ma…
Density increases with depth
106 terms
Geology 101
Hotter heat spells; colder cold spells…
The more assumptions made, the more un…
Hours of calm tedium interspersed with…
SEEKERS OF TRUTH:
Global weirding
Occam's Razor
a) Ocean sailing b) Scientific data collection. c) Both of th…
Scientists
Hotter heat spells; colder cold spells…
Global weirding
The more assumptions made, the more un…
Occam's Razor
Geology 101
lithosphere
upper mantle
lower mantle
geothermal gradient
The outer layer of the Earth, this section contains the crust…
The shallower part of the mantle, from the beginning of the m…
The deeper part of the mantle, from 660 km down to 2900 km.
The rate of change in temperature with depth in the Earth. Th…
lithosphere
The outer layer of the Earth, this section contains the crust…
upper mantle
The shallower part of the mantle, from the beginning of the m…
139 terms
Geology 101
Which is a major boundary of chemical…
2 most abundant elements in the bulk e…
According to the principle of isostasy…
substitution of one ion for another is…
lower mantle/outer core
iron, oxygen
less dense than asthenosphere
electrical charges are similar ... ionic radii are similar
Which is a major boundary of chemical…
lower mantle/outer core
2 most abundant elements in the bulk e…
iron, oxygen
102 terms
Geology 101
Magma is molten rock that exists _____…
Which of the following is NOT one of t…
Igneous rocks are classified based on…
Phaneritic texture indicates that a ro…
Below; At
Increase Pressure
Both composition and texture
Slowly, beneath the surface, from magma
Magma is molten rock that exists _____…
Below; At
Which of the following is NOT one of t…
Increase Pressure
45 terms
Geology 101
Three types of plate boundaries
New lithosphere is created _______
Isotopes of an element have different…
the main difference between intrusive…
transform(plates slide horizontally), divergent(plates move a…
at mid-ocean ridges
neutrons
where they solidify
Three types of plate boundaries
transform(plates slide horizontally), divergent(plates move a…
New lithosphere is created _______
at mid-ocean ridges
Geology 101
Interconnected System
Alfred Wegener
Age of the earth
Plate Tectonic Theory
Atmosphere- Gases surrounding earth... Biosphere- All Life... Hydro…
First theory of continental drift- ... -Geometric fit of the con…
4.6 BY
20 pieces or plates that move slowly relative to each other... 6…
Interconnected System
Atmosphere- Gases surrounding earth... Biosphere- All Life... Hydro…
Alfred Wegener
First theory of continental drift- ... -Geometric fit of the con…
48 terms
Geology 101
What is the principal of uniformitaria…
How did the Earth's moon form? ... Why is…
what is the nebular hypothesis and how…
How does density change with depth? Wh…
• The principal of Uniformitarianism means that "The present…
• a Mars-sized body collided with the earth - Resulting in:…
• The nebular hypothesis means that a nebula (an area which i…
• Density changes with depth... • The tectonic plates- forms the…
What is the principal of uniformitaria…
• The principal of Uniformitarianism means that "The present…
How did the Earth's moon form? ... Why is…
• a Mars-sized body collided with the earth - Resulting in:…
126 terms
Geology 101
physical geology vs historical geology
Catastrophism
Uniformitarianism
Paleozoic
Physical Geology is the examination of the materials that mak…
Catastrophism is the doctrine that Earth's history has been d…
Earth's geologic processes acted in the same manner and with…
542-251 million years ago... Life flourished in the seas. Plant…
physical geology vs historical geology
Physical Geology is the examination of the materials that mak…
Catastrophism
Catastrophism is the doctrine that Earth's history has been d…
13 terms
Geology 101
Convergent Boundary
Divergent Boundary
Tsunami
Transform Boundary
The boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away…
A giant wave usually caused by an earthquake beneath the ocea…
Convergent Boundary
Divergent Boundary
The boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away…
66 terms
Geology 101 Terms
Subduction
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
Atmosphere
A geological process in which one edge of a crustal plate is…
The lower part of the mantle
The upper part of the mantle and the crust
The air and area that is above the crust and below space
Subduction
A geological process in which one edge of a crustal plate is…
Asthenosphere
The lower part of the mantle
26 terms
Geology 101
the rock cycle
weathering
erosion
transportation
A sequence of events involving the ... formation, alteration, de…
The destructive process by which rocks are changed on exposur…
The wearing away of soil and rock by the action of ... streams,…
The movement of sediment by natural agents ... either as solid p…
the rock cycle
A sequence of events involving the ... formation, alteration, de…
weathering
The destructive process by which rocks are changed on exposur…
19 terms
Geology 101
Minerals
Mineral
*Rock forming minerals
Elements
Organic, crystalline solid, with a definite (but not always f…
-Composed of 1 or more elements... -Must have a solid crystallin…
-Igneous... -Sedimentary... -Metamorphic
Is one of the naturally occurring substances composed of a si…
Minerals
Organic, crystalline solid, with a definite (but not always f…
Mineral
-Composed of 1 or more elements... -Must have a solid crystallin…
geology 101
The meteorites thought to best represe…
A major boundary in Earth's interior a…
The 2 most abundant chemical elements…
The principle of isostasy holds that c…
b
lower mantle/outer core
iron and oxygen
it is less dense than the asthenosphere
The meteorites thought to best represe…
b
A major boundary in Earth's interior a…
lower mantle/outer core
29 terms
Geology 101
جنس ذرات داخل سنگ
دلیل تنوع سنگ ها در مناطق مختلف
چگونگی شناسایی سنگ های رسوبی تخریبی
کانی های موجود در سنگ رسوبی با منشا آذ…
االیت... پلت... انکولیت... خرده سنگ... فسیل
اب و هوای مختلف... حرکت و تغییر مکان قاره ها
شباهت ذرات تشکیل دهنده با سنگ مادر
کوارتز - روشن... فلدسپات - تیره - Si - Mg- Fe... میکا
جنس ذرات داخل سنگ
االیت... پلت... انکولیت... خرده سنگ... فسیل
دلیل تنوع سنگ ها در مناطق مختلف
اب و هوای مختلف... حرکت و تغییر مکان قاره ها
Geology 101
Above we see a cross section of a cube…
When you snap a stick between your han…
In the context of geology, a joint ref…
Both normal faults in reverse faults a…
Stretching
Brittle
A natural crack, on which there has been no sliding, in rock
Dip slip/ down
Above we see a cross section of a cube…
Stretching
When you snap a stick between your han…
Brittle
30 terms
Geology 101
Geophysicists
Seismic Waves
Geological Engineers
Petroleum Geologists
Determines the difference between seismic waves and nuclear b…
Ground-shaking caused by underground nuclear detonations
Determine how stable a slope is
Determine the best places to dig for oil
Geophysicists
Determines the difference between seismic waves and nuclear b…
Seismic Waves
Ground-shaking caused by underground nuclear detonations
Geology 101
Divergent
Convergent
Transform
Subduction
New crust formed, tensional forces, Mid Ocean ridges
crust recycled into the mantle. builds mountains. compressive
Shearing, san Andreas fault,
When an oceanic plate (denser) sinks beneath a continental pl…
Divergent
New crust formed, tensional forces, Mid Ocean ridges
Convergent
crust recycled into the mantle. builds mountains. compressive
geology 101
Present is the key to the past - Unifo…
Processes active during early planetar…
Stony meteorites - fragments of mantle…
Chondrites - fragments of the 'origina…
...
...
...
...
Present is the key to the past - Unifo…
...
Processes active during early planetar…
...
47 terms
Geology 101
Chemical
What environmental condition is reduce…
Frost wedging
Salt crystal growth
Is when there is a chemical transformation of rock into other…
Pressure
expansion of ice forces a rock apart
Mineral crystal development forces a rock apart
Chemical
Is when there is a chemical transformation of rock into other…
What environmental condition is reduce…
Pressure
102 terms
Geology 101
System
Geology
Physical Geology
Historical Geology
Combination of related parts that interact in an organized ma…
From Greek geo and logos. Defined as the study of Earth but n…
Study of Earth materials, such as minerals and rocks, as well…
Examines the origin and evolution of Earth, its continents, o…
System
Combination of related parts that interact in an organized ma…
Geology
From Greek geo and logos. Defined as the study of Earth but n…
63 terms
geology 101
what is geology
issues with population growth
demographic transition
high mortality rate and high birth rat…
...
-food production... -soil erosion, pollution, chemical contamina…
transition from high levels of fertility and mortality to low…
Uruguay and Afganistan
what is geology
...
issues with population growth
-food production... -soil erosion, pollution, chemical contamina…
Geology 101
Interconnected System
Alfred Wegener
Age of the earth
Plate Tectonic Theory
Atmosphere- Gases surrounding earth... Biosphere- All Life... Hydro…
First theory of continental drift- ... -Geometric fit of the con…
4.6 BY
20 pieces or plates that move slowly relative to each other... 6…
Interconnected System
Atmosphere- Gases surrounding earth... Biosphere- All Life... Hydro…
Alfred Wegener
First theory of continental drift- ... -Geometric fit of the con…
78 terms
Geology 101
The Nebular Theory is the most widely…
The enormous cloud of gas and dust ini…
What object makes up most of the solar…
Through the course of time, bodies in…
A large cloud of space gas and dust condensed and contracted…
The inward pull of gravity.
The Sun.
fewer in number; larger in size
The Nebular Theory is the most widely…
A large cloud of space gas and dust condensed and contracted…
The enormous cloud of gas and dust ini…
The inward pull of gravity.
96 terms
Geology 101
Volcanic Dome
Viscosity
Basalt
Caldera
A bulbous, steep-sided mass of rock.
A measure of fluid's resistance to flow.
A dark, fine-grained, mafic igneous rock composed largely of…
When great volumes of magma are discharged rapidly from a lar…
Volcanic Dome
A bulbous, steep-sided mass of rock.
Viscosity
A measure of fluid's resistance to flow.
101 terms
Geology 101
Composite is the most violent type of…
In a reverse fault the hanging wall mo…
Which is not one of the Earth's sphere…
Vascular texture is a texture of Metam…
True
True
Lithosphere
False
Composite is the most violent type of…
True
In a reverse fault the hanging wall mo…
True
11 terms
geology 101
Chalcopyrite
Limonite
Plagioclase (calcium variety)
Staurolite
Chalcopyrite
Limonite
77 terms
Geology 101
Pegmatite
Coarse Grained
Medium-Grained
Fine Grained
Huge grained
large crystals
crystals visible to the naked eye
to small to see without hand lens
Pegmatite
Huge grained
Coarse Grained
large crystals
Geology 101 Exam 3
creep
all of the above... -topography... -kinds of…
a sinkhole.
All of the Above... -reduces friction... -ad…
Imagine you have just bought some property and notice that th…
To prepare a landslide hazard map for an area, you would idea…
The figure below shows a cross-sectional view of soil arching…
How does water influence slope stability?
creep
Imagine you have just bought some property and notice that th…
all of the above... -topography... -kinds of…
To prepare a landslide hazard map for an area, you would idea…
43 terms
Geology 101 Test 1
what is viscosity?
what is the most abundant elements in…
what is the most abundant rock type on…
plutonic
thickness
oxygen, silicon
basalt
igneous rock from magma that has cooled and solidified beneat…
what is viscosity?
thickness
what is the most abundant elements in…
oxygen, silicon
38 terms
Geology 101 : Chapter 14
Hydrologic Cycle
Stream
Runoff
Dendritic Network
Evaporation, transportation, precipitation, infiltration, run…
Ribbons of water that flow down channels
Water in motion over the land surface
Branching, "treelike" due to uniform material
Hydrologic Cycle
Evaporation, transportation, precipitation, infiltration, run…
Stream
Ribbons of water that flow down channels
46 terms
Geology 101
Geology can help us learn about Earth'…
Which of the following is probably lea…
Which of the following Earth layers is…
Which layer in the earth is similar to…
all of these
on gentle slopes away from mountains
oceanic crust
continental crust
Geology can help us learn about Earth'…
all of these
Which of the following is probably lea…
on gentle slopes away from mountains
54 terms
Geology 101, Unit 3
Origin of Water on Earth
Hydrosphere and Distribution of Water
Hydrological Cycle
Oceans
Water was released from the earth's interior during volcanic…
Hydrosphere includes all of the water near the surface of the…
Powered by solar energy, atmosphere provides link between oce…
71% of Earth's surface covered in Oceans, Precipitation and R…
Origin of Water on Earth
Water was released from the earth's interior during volcanic…
Hydrosphere and Distribution of Water
Hydrosphere includes all of the water near the surface of the…
77 terms
Geology 101 Exam 1
What is geology?
What is the evidence for expansion of…
How did the solar system and earth for…
How did the Earth form?
The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of…
The red shift of light from distant galaxies
Nebular Theory: Creation of the solar system according to whi…
By the accretion of planetesimals orbiting the sun at a certa…
What is geology?
The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of…
What is the evidence for expansion of…
The red shift of light from distant galaxies
6 terms
Geology 101
What is molten rock above the earths s…
What is molten rock below earths surfa…
List the 3 main types of rocks
What type of rock is most likely going…
Lava
Magma
Igneous, Sedimentary, Metimorphic
Sedimentary
What is molten rock above the earths s…
Lava
What is molten rock below earths surfa…
Magma
GEOLOGY 101
Absolute dating
relative dating
Varves
Dendrochronology
determination of the actual age of a rock
determination of whether a particular rock unit is older or y…
layers of fine-grained sediment layed down each winter, each…
counted in living trees by coring, one ring=one year, thickne…
Absolute dating
determination of the actual age of a rock
relative dating
determination of whether a particular rock unit is older or y…
53 terms
Geology 101
How did the planets form?
Was earth originally separated into la…
Did original atmosphwre have oxygen?
How did earth get so hot?
Nebula existed first, then this cloud condensed, formed sun a…
Eath was uniform then melted and lighter material went up hea…
• No, came from photosynthesis, evolotuion of first primitive…
Radioactive decay, meteorite impacts, and compression
How did the planets form?
Nebula existed first, then this cloud condensed, formed sun a…
Was earth originally separated into la…
Eath was uniform then melted and lighter material went up hea…
Geology 101
Physical Geology
Historical Geology
Parsimony
Superposition
Examines earths material and seeks to understand many thought…
seeks understanding of the origin of Earth and its developmen…
simplest explanation equals best interpretation, if it explai…
contact of rock bodies are where we find critical info about…
Physical Geology
Examines earths material and seeks to understand many thought…
Historical Geology
seeks understanding of the origin of Earth and its developmen…
25 terms
Geology 101 Chapter 8
Metamorphism
Parent Rock
Metamorphic Grade
Recrystallization
"to change form" - the transition of one rock into another by…
The rock that was metamorphised
The degree to which the parent rock changes during metamorphism
The process of forming new, stable minerals larger than the o…
Metamorphism
"to change form" - the transition of one rock into another by…
Parent Rock
The rock that was metamorphised
43 terms
Geology 101
Silicates
Oxides
Sulfides
Sulfates
minerals that contain silicon and oxygen and usually one or m…
Contain Oxygen and one or more other elements (usually metals)
A type of mineral in which metals are combined with sulfur, e…
Salt of sulfuric acid
Silicates
minerals that contain silicon and oxygen and usually one or m…
Oxides
Contain Oxygen and one or more other elements (usually metals)
94 terms
Geology 101 Quiz Review
fifteen billion
earth's magnetic field
fault
the universe is considerably older tha…
From choices below, the best estimate of the age of the Unive…
Earth's surface is protected from solar wind and cosmic radia…
A fracture in the crust, where rocks slide past one another,…
In our current understanding of the Big Bang, ________.... the U…
fifteen billion
From choices below, the best estimate of the age of the Unive…
earth's magnetic field
Earth's surface is protected from solar wind and cosmic radia…
64 terms
GEOLOGY 101
Define Geology
4 Components of Geology
4 Dimensions of Geology
Catastrophism
the scientific study of the earth's processes, materials, ori…
1) physical forces that shaped the earth... 2) Chemical Reaction…
1) up and down direction... 2) north and south position ... 3) east…
the earth evolved through a series of immense world wide uphe…
Define Geology
the scientific study of the earth's processes, materials, ori…
4 Components of Geology
1) physical forces that shaped the earth... 2) Chemical Reaction…
30 terms
Geology 101
Paleozoic
Cambrian
Cambrian
Ordovician
ancient life
explosion of life
burgess shale
renewed diversification
Paleozoic
ancient life
Cambrian
explosion of life
47 terms
Geology 101
Big Bang Theory
14 billion years ago
all mass and energy in a single point
Gas cloud, center grows dense and hot
Exploded ~13.7 GA
When did the Big Bang occur?
How did the world start out?
How did the sun start out?
Big Bang Theory
Exploded ~13.7 GA
14 billion years ago
When did the Big Bang occur?
16 terms
Geology 101
the rock cycle
weathering
erosion
transportation
A sequence of events involving the ... formation, alteration, de…
The destructive process by which rocks are changed on exposur…
The wearing away of soil and rock by the action of ... streams,…
The movement of sediment by natural agents ... either as solid p…
the rock cycle
A sequence of events involving the ... formation, alteration, de…
weathering
The destructive process by which rocks are changed on exposur…
88 terms
Geology 101
Weathering
Erosion
Mechanical Weathering
Grus
Slow physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks or n…
Transportation of weathered material by running water, glacie…
The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken int…
Smaller pieces of granite gravel or mineral components of qua…
Weathering
Slow physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks or n…
Erosion
Transportation of weathered material by running water, glacie…
GEOLOGY 101
Law of Original Horizontality
Law of Lateral Continuity
Law of Superposition
Law of inclusions
states that layers of sediment are originally deposited horiz…
states that layers of sediment initially extend laterally in…
stating that in any undisturbed sequence of rocks deposited i…
with sedimentary rocks, if inclusions (or clasts) are found i…
Law of Original Horizontality
states that layers of sediment are originally deposited horiz…
Law of Lateral Continuity
states that layers of sediment initially extend laterally in…
95 terms
Geology 101
Shield
Platforms
Mountains
Ocean Ridges
Large flat areas of deformed rocks
Flat horizontal layers of rock
young linear regions deformed rock
broad ridge, fractured
Shield
Large flat areas of deformed rocks
Platforms
Flat horizontal layers of rock
44 terms
geology 101
silicates
oxides
sulfides
sulfates
any of the many minerals consisting primarily of SiO42− combi…
a binary compound of oxygen with another element or group.
a binary compound of sulfur with another element or group.
a salt or ester of sulfuric acid, containing the anion SO42−…
silicates
any of the many minerals consisting primarily of SiO42− combi…
oxides
a binary compound of oxygen with another element or group.
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