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Study sets matching "geology 101"

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Study sets matching "geology 101"

320 terms
Geology 101
What is chemical weathering?
types of chemical weathering
types of physical weathering
exfoliation
converts minerals and rocks into altered solids solutions pre…
hydrolysis, oxidation, dissolution
exfoliation, frost wedging, thermal expansion
plutons split into sheets along joints that lie parallel to t…
What is chemical weathering?
converts minerals and rocks into altered solids solutions pre…
types of chemical weathering
hydrolysis, oxidation, dissolution
32 terms
Geology "101"
From lowest to highest temperature, wh…
In general, how does the density of ma…
In Earth's crust, what type of rock is…
The thickest layer of the Earth is the
Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
Density increases with depth
Only basalt
Mantle
From lowest to highest temperature, wh…
Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
In general, how does the density of ma…
Density increases with depth
72 terms
Geology 101
Interconnected System
Alfred Wegener
Age of the earth
Plate Tectonic Theory
Atmosphere- Gases surrounding earth... Biosphere- All Life... Hydro…
First theory of continental drift- ... -Geometric fit of the con…
4.6 BY
20 pieces or plates that move slowly relative to each other... 6…
Interconnected System
Atmosphere- Gases surrounding earth... Biosphere- All Life... Hydro…
Alfred Wegener
First theory of continental drift- ... -Geometric fit of the con…
106 terms
Geology 101
Hotter heat spells; colder cold spells…
The more assumptions made, the more un…
Hours of calm tedium interspersed with…
SEEKERS OF TRUTH:
Global weirding
Occam's Razor
a) Ocean sailing b) Scientific data collection. c) Both of th…
Scientists
Hotter heat spells; colder cold spells…
Global weirding
The more assumptions made, the more un…
Occam's Razor
126 terms
Geology 101
physical geology vs historical geology
Catastrophism
Uniformitarianism
Paleozoic
Physical Geology is the examination of the materials that mak…
Catastrophism is the doctrine that Earth's history has been d…
Earth's geologic processes acted in the same manner and with…
542-251 million years ago... Life flourished in the seas. Plant…
physical geology vs historical geology
Physical Geology is the examination of the materials that mak…
Catastrophism
Catastrophism is the doctrine that Earth's history has been d…
29 terms
Geology 101
جنس ذرات داخل سنگ
دلیل تنوع سنگ ها در مناطق مختلف
چگونگی شناسایی سنگ های رسوبی تخریبی
کانی های موجود در سنگ رسوبی با منشا آذ…
االیت... پلت... انکولیت... خرده سنگ... فسیل
اب و هوای مختلف... حرکت و تغییر مکان قاره ها
شباهت ذرات تشکیل دهنده با سنگ مادر
کوارتز - روشن... فلدسپات - تیره - Si - Mg- Fe... میکا
جنس ذرات داخل سنگ
االیت... پلت... انکولیت... خرده سنگ... فسیل
دلیل تنوع سنگ ها در مناطق مختلف
اب و هوای مختلف... حرکت و تغییر مکان قاره ها
139 terms
Geology 101
Which is a major boundary of chemical…
2 most abundant elements in the bulk e…
According to the principle of isostasy…
substitution of one ion for another is…
lower mantle/outer core
iron, oxygen
less dense than asthenosphere
electrical charges are similar ... ionic radii are similar
Which is a major boundary of chemical…
lower mantle/outer core
2 most abundant elements in the bulk e…
iron, oxygen
Geology 101
lithosphere
upper mantle
lower mantle
geothermal gradient
The outer layer of the Earth, this section contains the crust…
The shallower part of the mantle, from the beginning of the m…
The deeper part of the mantle, from 660 km down to 2900 km.
The rate of change in temperature with depth in the Earth. Th…
lithosphere
The outer layer of the Earth, this section contains the crust…
upper mantle
The shallower part of the mantle, from the beginning of the m…
102 terms
Geology 101
Magma is molten rock that exists _____…
Which of the following is NOT one of t…
Igneous rocks are classified based on…
Phaneritic texture indicates that a ro…
Below; At
Increase Pressure
Both composition and texture
Slowly, beneath the surface, from magma
Magma is molten rock that exists _____…
Below; At
Which of the following is NOT one of t…
Increase Pressure
45 terms
Geology 101
Three types of plate boundaries
New lithosphere is created _______
Isotopes of an element have different…
the main difference between intrusive…
transform(plates slide horizontally), divergent(plates move a…
at mid-ocean ridges
neutrons
where they solidify
Three types of plate boundaries
transform(plates slide horizontally), divergent(plates move a…
New lithosphere is created _______
at mid-ocean ridges
66 terms
Geology 101 Terms
Subduction
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
Atmosphere
A geological process in which one edge of a crustal plate is…
The lower part of the mantle
The upper part of the mantle and the crust
The air and area that is above the crust and below space
Subduction
A geological process in which one edge of a crustal plate is…
Asthenosphere
The lower part of the mantle
48 terms
Geology 101
What is the principal of uniformitaria…
How did the Earth's moon form? ... Why is…
what is the nebular hypothesis and how…
How does density change with depth? Wh…
• The principal of Uniformitarianism means that "The present…
• a Mars-sized body collided with the earth - Resulting in:…
• The nebular hypothesis means that a nebula (an area which i…
• Density changes with depth... • The tectonic plates- forms the…
What is the principal of uniformitaria…
• The principal of Uniformitarianism means that "The present…
How did the Earth's moon form? ... Why is…
• a Mars-sized body collided with the earth - Resulting in:…
65 terms
Geology 101 Final
Uniformitarianism
Plate Tectonics
Hypothesis
How old is the earth
The same natural laws and processes that operate in the unive…
A scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of…
A proposed explanation to a phenomenon, an educated guess.
4.5 billion years
Uniformitarianism
The same natural laws and processes that operate in the unive…
Plate Tectonics
A scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of…
11 terms
geology 101
Chalcopyrite
Limonite
Plagioclase (calcium variety)
Staurolite
Chalcopyrite
Limonite
77 terms
Geology 101
Pegmatite
Coarse Grained
Medium-Grained
Fine Grained
Huge grained
large crystals
crystals visible to the naked eye
to small to see without hand lens
Pegmatite
Huge grained
Coarse Grained
large crystals
102 terms
Geology 101
System
Geology
Physical Geology
Historical Geology
Combination of related parts that interact in an organized ma…
From Greek geo and logos. Defined as the study of Earth but n…
Study of Earth materials, such as minerals and rocks, as well…
Examines the origin and evolution of Earth, its continents, o…
System
Combination of related parts that interact in an organized ma…
Geology
From Greek geo and logos. Defined as the study of Earth but n…
64 terms
GEOLOGY 101
Define Geology
4 Components of Geology
4 Dimensions of Geology
Catastrophism
the scientific study of the earth's processes, materials, ori…
1) physical forces that shaped the earth... 2) Chemical Reaction…
1) up and down direction... 2) north and south position ... 3) east…
the earth evolved through a series of immense world wide uphe…
Define Geology
the scientific study of the earth's processes, materials, ori…
4 Components of Geology
1) physical forces that shaped the earth... 2) Chemical Reaction…
63 terms
geology 101
what is geology
issues with population growth
demographic transition
high mortality rate and high birth rat…
...
-food production... -soil erosion, pollution, chemical contamina…
transition from high levels of fertility and mortality to low…
Uruguay and Afganistan
what is geology
...
issues with population growth
-food production... -soil erosion, pollution, chemical contamina…
Geology 101
Interconnected System
Alfred Wegener
Age of the earth
Plate Tectonic Theory
Atmosphere- Gases surrounding earth... Biosphere- All Life... Hydro…
First theory of continental drift- ... -Geometric fit of the con…
4.6 BY
20 pieces or plates that move slowly relative to each other... 6…
Interconnected System
Atmosphere- Gases surrounding earth... Biosphere- All Life... Hydro…
Alfred Wegener
First theory of continental drift- ... -Geometric fit of the con…
101 terms
Geology 101
Composite is the most violent type of…
In a reverse fault the hanging wall mo…
Which is not one of the Earth's sphere…
Vascular texture is a texture of Metam…
True
True
Lithosphere
False
Composite is the most violent type of…
True
In a reverse fault the hanging wall mo…
True
53 terms
Geology 101
From Nebula to Planet Earth
Hierarchical Structure of the Universe
Meteroite
Meteor
1. Nebula... 2. Supernova... 3. Nebula Contraction and rotation... 4.…
Universe... Cluster of galaxies... galaxies... Nebula... Supernova... planet…
Has landed, was moving through interplanetary space, samples…
Falling or shooting star, visible path of meteoroid moving th…
From Nebula to Planet Earth
1. Nebula... 2. Supernova... 3. Nebula Contraction and rotation... 4.…
Hierarchical Structure of the Universe
Universe... Cluster of galaxies... galaxies... Nebula... Supernova... planet…
19 terms
Geology 101
Minerals
Mineral
*Rock forming minerals
Elements
Organic, crystalline solid, with a definite (but not always f…
-Composed of 1 or more elements... -Must have a solid crystallin…
-Igneous... -Sedimentary... -Metamorphic
Is one of the naturally occurring substances composed of a si…
Minerals
Organic, crystalline solid, with a definite (but not always f…
Mineral
-Composed of 1 or more elements... -Must have a solid crystallin…
30 terms
Geology 101
Geophysicists
Seismic Waves
Geological Engineers
Petroleum Geologists
Determines the difference between seismic waves and nuclear b…
Ground-shaking caused by underground nuclear detonations
Determine how stable a slope is
Determine the best places to dig for oil
Geophysicists
Determines the difference between seismic waves and nuclear b…
Seismic Waves
Ground-shaking caused by underground nuclear detonations
131 terms
geology 101
The meteorites thought to best represe…
A major boundary in Earth's interior a…
The 2 most abundant chemical elements…
The principle of isostasy holds that c…
b
lower mantle/outer core
iron and oxygen
it is less dense than the asthenosphere
The meteorites thought to best represe…
b
A major boundary in Earth's interior a…
lower mantle/outer core
136 terms
Geology 101 Final Review
The age of the Earth has been measured…
Chemical Weathering causes Rocks to be…
What Sediment composition would be the…
What concepts have been used to suppor…
D
E
C, Quartz is a very stable mineral and insoluble mineral.
F.
The age of the Earth has been measured…
D
Chemical Weathering causes Rocks to be…
E
26 terms
Geology 101
the rock cycle
weathering
erosion
transportation
A sequence of events involving the ... formation, alteration, de…
The destructive process by which rocks are changed on exposur…
The wearing away of soil and rock by the action of ... streams,…
The movement of sediment by natural agents ... either as solid p…
the rock cycle
A sequence of events involving the ... formation, alteration, de…
weathering
The destructive process by which rocks are changed on exposur…
78 terms
Geology 101
Above we see a cross section of a cube…
When you snap a stick between your han…
In the context of geology, a joint ref…
Both normal faults in reverse faults a…
Stretching
Brittle
A natural crack, on which there has been no sliding, in rock
Dip slip/ down
Above we see a cross section of a cube…
Stretching
When you snap a stick between your han…
Brittle
119 terms
Geology 101
Continental Drift
Evidence of continental drift
Pangea
Sea floor spreading
The hypothesis created by Alfred Wegener that states that the…
-rock layers on coastlines of different continents match... -pal…
A supercontinent containing all of Earth's land that existed…
Seafloor spreading occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new ocea…
Continental Drift
The hypothesis created by Alfred Wegener that states that the…
Evidence of continental drift
-rock layers on coastlines of different continents match... -pal…
75 terms
geology 101
Present is the key to the past - Unifo…
Processes active during early planetar…
Stony meteorites - fragments of mantle…
Chondrites - fragments of the 'origina…
...
...
...
...
Present is the key to the past - Unifo…
...
Processes active during early planetar…
...
47 terms
Geology 101
Chemical
What environmental condition is reduce…
Frost wedging
Salt crystal growth
Is when there is a chemical transformation of rock into other…
Pressure
expansion of ice forces a rock apart
Mineral crystal development forces a rock apart
Chemical
Is when there is a chemical transformation of rock into other…
What environmental condition is reduce…
Pressure
119 terms
Geology 101
1. gravitational potential energy conv…
- Thought to represent core material f…
Ridged crust plus rigid upper mantle
- Very deformable mantle ... - underlying…
What are the 4 phases of how Earth (or any planet) is formed?
What are irons?
What is the lithosphere?
What is the asthenosphere?
1. gravitational potential energy conv…
What are the 4 phases of how Earth (or any planet) is formed?
- Thought to represent core material f…
What are irons?
68 terms
Geology 101
lithosphere
upper mantle
lower mantle
geothermal gradient
The outer layer of the Earth, this section contains the crust…
The shallower part of the mantle, from the beginning of the m…
The deeper part of the mantle, from 660 km down to 2900 km.
The rate of change in temperature with depth in the Earth. Th…
lithosphere
The outer layer of the Earth, this section contains the crust…
upper mantle
The shallower part of the mantle, from the beginning of the m…
53 terms
Geology 101
How did the planets form?
Was earth originally separated into la…
Did original atmosphwre have oxygen?
How did earth get so hot?
Nebula existed first, then this cloud condensed, formed sun a…
Eath was uniform then melted and lighter material went up hea…
• No, came from photosynthesis, evolotuion of first primitive…
Radioactive decay, meteorite impacts, and compression
How did the planets form?
Nebula existed first, then this cloud condensed, formed sun a…
Was earth originally separated into la…
Eath was uniform then melted and lighter material went up hea…
32 terms
Geology "101"
From lowest to highest temperature, wh…
In general, how does the density of ma…
In Earth's crust, what type of rock is…
The thickest layer of the Earth is the
Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
Density increases with depth
Only basalt
Mantle
From lowest to highest temperature, wh…
Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
In general, how does the density of ma…
Density increases with depth
78 terms
Geology 101
The Nebular Theory is the most widely…
The enormous cloud of gas and dust ini…
What object makes up most of the solar…
Through the course of time, bodies in…
A large cloud of space gas and dust condensed and contracted…
The inward pull of gravity.
The Sun.
fewer in number; larger in size
The Nebular Theory is the most widely…
A large cloud of space gas and dust condensed and contracted…
The enormous cloud of gas and dust ini…
The inward pull of gravity.
96 terms
Geology 101
Volcanic Dome
Viscosity
Basalt
Caldera
A bulbous, steep-sided mass of rock.
A measure of fluid's resistance to flow.
A dark, fine-grained, mafic igneous rock composed largely of…
When great volumes of magma are discharged rapidly from a lar…
Volcanic Dome
A bulbous, steep-sided mass of rock.
Viscosity
A measure of fluid's resistance to flow.
77 terms
Geology 101 Exam 1
What is geology?
What is the evidence for expansion of…
How did the solar system and earth for…
How did the Earth form?
The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of…
The red shift of light from distant galaxies
Nebular Theory: Creation of the solar system according to whi…
By the accretion of planetesimals orbiting the sun at a certa…
What is geology?
The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of…
What is the evidence for expansion of…
The red shift of light from distant galaxies
48 terms
Geology 101
What is the principal of uniformitaria…
How did the Earth's moon form? ... Why is…
what is the nebular hypothesis and how…
How does density change with depth? Wh…
• The principal of Uniformitarianism means that "The present…
• a Mars-sized body collided with the earth - Resulting in:…
• The nebular hypothesis means that a nebula (an area which i…
• Density changes with depth... • The tectonic plates- forms the…
What is the principal of uniformitaria…
• The principal of Uniformitarianism means that "The present…
How did the Earth's moon form? ... Why is…
• a Mars-sized body collided with the earth - Resulting in:…
46 terms
Geology 101
Geology can help us learn about Earth'…
Which of the following is probably lea…
Which of the following Earth layers is…
Which layer in the earth is similar to…
all of these
on gentle slopes away from mountains
oceanic crust
continental crust
Geology can help us learn about Earth'…
all of these
Which of the following is probably lea…
on gentle slopes away from mountains
40 terms
Geology 101 Ch7
Cambrian explosion
Cross-cutting relations
Daughter isotope
Displacement
A burst of evolutionary origins when most of the major body p…
This principle states that a rock such as a dike or a geologi…
the stable isotope produced by the radioactive decay of the p…
Distance and direction of an object's change in position from…
Cambrian explosion
A burst of evolutionary origins when most of the major body p…
Cross-cutting relations
This principle states that a rock such as a dike or a geologi…
45 terms
Geology 101
Stress
Strain
Compressive stress
Tensile stress
The force per unit acting on any surface within a solid respo…
The relative change of size or shape
tend to shorten or decrease the volume of a solid
tend to cause seperation across the plane in which they act
Stress
The force per unit acting on any surface within a solid respo…
Strain
The relative change of size or shape
83 terms
GEOLOGY 101
Absolute dating
relative dating
Varves
Dendrochronology
determination of the actual age of a rock
determination of whether a particular rock unit is older or y…
layers of fine-grained sediment layed down each winter, each…
counted in living trees by coring, one ring=one year, thickne…
Absolute dating
determination of the actual age of a rock
relative dating
determination of whether a particular rock unit is older or y…
27 terms
Geology 101
Mass wasting
Classification of mass wasting
Natural hazards and risk
Types of mitigation
Angle of Repose for unconsolidated material. Each material ha…
By type of material: Mud, Soil (earth), Rock, ... By type of mot…
• Natural hazards are catastrophic (sudden onset) events with…
• Engineering (building structures that lower the risk)... • Lan…
Mass wasting
Angle of Repose for unconsolidated material. Each material ha…
Classification of mass wasting
By type of material: Mud, Soil (earth), Rock, ... By type of mot…
13 terms
Geology 101
Isostasy
Silicates
Lower mantle/outer core
Framework silicates
Holds that crustal lithosphere "floats" upon/within the under…
Most abundant minerals in Earth's crust
A major boundary in Earth's interior across which both chemic…
Are the most polymerized of the silicate minerals
Isostasy
Holds that crustal lithosphere "floats" upon/within the under…
Silicates
Most abundant minerals in Earth's crust
22 terms
Geology 101
Physical Geology
Historical Geology
Parsimony
Superposition
Examines earths material and seeks to understand many thought…
seeks understanding of the origin of Earth and its developmen…
simplest explanation equals best interpretation, if it explai…
contact of rock bodies are where we find critical info about…
Physical Geology
Examines earths material and seeks to understand many thought…
Historical Geology
seeks understanding of the origin of Earth and its developmen…
43 terms
Geology 101
Silicates
Oxides
Sulfides
Sulfates
minerals that contain silicon and oxygen and usually one or m…
Contain Oxygen and one or more other elements (usually metals)
A type of mineral in which metals are combined with sulfur, e…
Salt of sulfuric acid
Silicates
minerals that contain silicon and oxygen and usually one or m…
Oxides
Contain Oxygen and one or more other elements (usually metals)
30 terms
Geology 101
Paleozoic
Cambrian
Cambrian
Ordovician
ancient life
explosion of life
burgess shale
renewed diversification
Paleozoic
ancient life
Cambrian
explosion of life
47 terms
Geology 101
Big Bang Theory
14 billion years ago
all mass and energy in a single point
Gas cloud, center grows dense and hot
Exploded ~13.7 GA
When did the Big Bang occur?
How did the world start out?
How did the sun start out?
Big Bang Theory
Exploded ~13.7 GA
14 billion years ago
When did the Big Bang occur?
16 terms
Geology 101
the rock cycle
weathering
erosion
transportation
A sequence of events involving the ... formation, alteration, de…
The destructive process by which rocks are changed on exposur…
The wearing away of soil and rock by the action of ... streams,…
The movement of sediment by natural agents ... either as solid p…
the rock cycle
A sequence of events involving the ... formation, alteration, de…
weathering
The destructive process by which rocks are changed on exposur…
GEOLOGY 101
Law of Original Horizontality
Law of Lateral Continuity
Law of Superposition
Law of inclusions
states that layers of sediment are originally deposited horiz…
states that layers of sediment initially extend laterally in…
stating that in any undisturbed sequence of rocks deposited i…
with sedimentary rocks, if inclusions (or clasts) are found i…
Law of Original Horizontality
states that layers of sediment are originally deposited horiz…
Law of Lateral Continuity
states that layers of sediment initially extend laterally in…
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