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Study sets matching "geology chapter 12"

45 terms
Exploring Geology, Chapter 12
Hypocenter/focus
epicenter
When is the epicenter and hypocenter t…
Normal Fault
The place where the earthquake is generated
is the point on Earth's surface directly above where the eart…
When the seismic event happens on the surface
Hypocenter/focus
The place where the earthquake is generated
epicenter
is the point on Earth's surface directly above where the eart…
25 terms
Geology Chapter 12
Seismic reflection
Seismic refraction
concave upward
crust
Some of the energy of seismic body waves bounce off when they…
Some of the energy of seismic body waved are bent when they e…
Density is generally increasing with depth in the Earth, whic…
Thin outermost layer of the solid earth.
Seismic reflection
Some of the energy of seismic body waves bounce off when they…
Seismic refraction
Some of the energy of seismic body waved are bent when they e…
24 terms
Geology - Chapter 12
Mineral Resource
Earth System
Earth Crust is made up of primarily wh…
Igneous Processes (Pipes)
Any rock, mineral or element that has some physical or chemic…
Atmosphere, Biosphere, Hydrosphere and Solid Earth
Silicon, Oxygen, Aluminum and Iron
Molten magma deep inside earth will concentrate and travel to…
Mineral Resource
Any rock, mineral or element that has some physical or chemic…
Earth System
Atmosphere, Biosphere, Hydrosphere and Solid Earth
50 terms
Geology Chapter 12
Energy
Resource
Reserves
Photosynthesis
The capacity to do work
A material that can be drawn on in order to be used
Areas of concentrated resources
Process by which plants convert sunlight to food
Energy
The capacity to do work
Resource
A material that can be drawn on in order to be used
42 terms
Geology - Chapter 12 - Meteorology
Meteorology
Weather
Climate
Air Mass
the study of atmospheric phenomena
Current short-term state of the atmosphere. Example weather s…
Long-term variation of weather in a particular area, averaged…
A large body of air that takes the characteristics (humidity,…
Meteorology
the study of atmospheric phenomena
Weather
Current short-term state of the atmosphere. Example weather s…
18 terms
Geology Chapter 12
ablation
basal slip
continental glacier
crevasse
Loss of glacial ice through melting, sublimation, or calving
the sliding of glacial ice along bedrock caused by a layer of…
a glacier that covers a large part of a continent and can smo…
A deep crack or fissure in the ice of a glacier.
ablation
Loss of glacial ice through melting, sublimation, or calving
basal slip
the sliding of glacial ice along bedrock caused by a layer of…
17 terms
Geology 10 Chapter 12
A(n) ___ is a lake occupying a bedrock…
A(n) _____ is a coastal inlet that is…
A(n) _____ is the sharp peak that rema…
An esker is a long sinuous ridge of ice.
tarn
Fijord
horn
false
A(n) ___ is a lake occupying a bedrock…
tarn
A(n) _____ is a coastal inlet that is…
Fijord
Geology Chapter 12
Asthenosphere
Conduction
Convection
Density
weak layer beneath the lithospheric mantle
the flow of heat through a material
the transfer of heat where hot materials replace cold materia…
a property of matter defined as mass per unit volume
Asthenosphere
weak layer beneath the lithospheric mantle
Conduction
the flow of heat through a material
10 terms
Geology -- Chapter 12
Seismic Waves
Seismic Stations
Normal Fault
Reverse Fault
vibrations that are transmitted through rock with the release…
scientific instruments that record seismic waves
A fault line associated with divergent plate boundaries where…
A fault line associated with convergent plate boundaries wher…
Seismic Waves
vibrations that are transmitted through rock with the release…
Seismic Stations
scientific instruments that record seismic waves
10 terms
Geology Chapter 12
Invasive Species
extinct/extinction
selective pressure
adaptation
a non-native species (a species outside of its range) whose i…
the complete loss of a species from an area; may be local (go…
a nonrandom influence affecting who survives or reproduces
a trait that helps an individual survive or reproduce
Invasive Species
a non-native species (a species outside of its range) whose i…
extinct/extinction
the complete loss of a species from an area; may be local (go…
10 terms
Chapter 12 Historical Geology
Small Shelly Fauna
Plankton
Nekton
Benthos
microscopic skeletonized fossils which belonged to these anim…
pelagic (live above the sea floor) organisms which are floate…
pelagic (live above the sear floor) organisms which are swimm…
organisms that live on or in the seafloor ... either epifauna (…
Small Shelly Fauna
microscopic skeletonized fossils which belonged to these anim…
Plankton
pelagic (live above the sea floor) organisms which are floate…
24 terms
Chapter 12: Geology
How does geology relate to environment…
Convergent Boundaries
Transform Boundaries
Divergent Boundaries
...
ocean-continental. Ocean-ocean. continental-continental (coll…
?
when plates move away from each other,
How does geology relate to environment…
...
Convergent Boundaries
ocean-continental. Ocean-ocean. continental-continental (coll…
59 terms
Geology chapter 12
Acid rain
Biofuel
Biomass
Blowout
Precipitation in which air pollutants react with water to mak…
Gas or liquid fuel made from plant material (biomass). Exampl…
The amount of organic material in a specified volume.
A deep, bowl-like depression scoured out of desert terrain by…
Acid rain
Precipitation in which air pollutants react with water to mak…
Biofuel
Gas or liquid fuel made from plant material (biomass). Exampl…
29 terms
Chapter 12 Geology
Cambrian explosion
Carbon-14 (14C)
Contact
Correlation
The remarkable diversification of life, indicated by the foss…
A radioactive isotope of the element carbon; the ratio of 14C…
The boundary surface between two rock bodies (as between two…
The process of defining the age relations between the strata…
Cambrian explosion
The remarkable diversification of life, indicated by the foss…
Carbon-14 (14C)
A radioactive isotope of the element carbon; the ratio of 14C…
22 terms
Geology Chapter 12
Relative Ages
Numerical Ages
The Principle of Uniformitarianism
The Principle of Original Horizontality
Based upon order of formation... Qualitative method developed hu…
Actual number of years since an event... Quantitative method dev…
Processes observed today were the same in the past... We can obs…
Sediments settle out of a fluid by gravity... This causes sedime…
Relative Ages
Based upon order of formation... Qualitative method developed hu…
Numerical Ages
Actual number of years since an event... Quantitative method dev…
21 terms
Geology Chapter 12
earthquakes
elastic rebound
focus
epicenter
movements of the ground caused by sudden releases of energy w…
a sudden return of elastically deformed rock to its undeforme…
location within the Earth on the fault where the first motion…
point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
earthquakes
movements of the ground caused by sudden releases of energy w…
elastic rebound
a sudden return of elastically deformed rock to its undeforme…
36 terms
geology chapter 12
3 major layers of Earth's interior
densest material
mineral phase change
seismic velocities
crust, mantle, core
iron, it sinks to the center of the earth (makes up core)
happens to lower mantle rocks as the minerals are compressed…
travel times of P (compressional) and S (shear) waves through…
3 major layers of Earth's interior
crust, mantle, core
densest material
iron, it sinks to the center of the earth (makes up core)
78 terms
Geology 101 chapter 12
collecting system
dendritic drainage pattern
major character--
transporting system
this consists of the network of tributaries in the head-water…
treelike, common in a collecting system.
...
the main trunk stream, which functions as a channel through w…
collecting system
this consists of the network of tributaries in the head-water…
dendritic drainage pattern
treelike, common in a collecting system.
11 terms
Geology Chapter 12
Orogen
Stromatolites
Eukaryote
Mitochondrion
A body of rocks affected by mountain building.
An organically produced sedimentary structure that consists o…
An organism whose cells are characterized by a nucleus with c…
A body within a eukaryotic cell in which complex compounds ar…
Orogen
A body of rocks affected by mountain building.
Stromatolites
An organically produced sedimentary structure that consists o…
108 terms
Geology chapter 12 - FINAL
develop in well-ordered drainage basins
separate 2 drainage basins
main source of water for river systems
river systems are part of the ____ sys…
river systems
divides
precipitation
hydrologic
develop in well-ordered drainage basins
river systems
separate 2 drainage basins
divides
21 terms
Geology Chapter 12
A Typical source rock of oil, which st…
The oil window is..
Oil forms because
Natural gas..
Shale
the relatively narrow range of temperatures in which oil can…
algae and plankton decomposed under conditions of heat, press…
burns more cleanly then oil does
A Typical source rock of oil, which st…
Shale
The oil window is..
the relatively narrow range of temperatures in which oil can…
8 terms
Historical Geology Chapter 12
Orogen
Mitochondrea
Chloroplast
Acritarchs
A body of rocks affected by mountain building
An organelle within a eukaryotic cell in which complex compou…
A body within a cell of a plant or plantlike protist that ser…
An extinct group of apparently eukaryotic phytoplankton whose…
Orogen
A body of rocks affected by mountain building
Mitochondrea
An organelle within a eukaryotic cell in which complex compou…
56 terms
Geology 2 - Chapter 12
salinity
thermocline
thermohaline circulation
tides
a measure of the salt content of a solution
transitional zone between the mixed layer at the surface and…
the deep-ocean global "conveyer belt" circulation, driven by…
a regular, daily cycle of rising and falling sea level that r…
salinity
a measure of the salt content of a solution
thermocline
transitional zone between the mixed layer at the surface and…
14 terms
Geology Chapter 12
Transpiration
20%
Rivers
Laminar Flow
Water vapor released by plants
Percentage of precipitation that falls on land
Water returns to the oceans through ____
Little mixing takes place between adjacent flow lines within…
Transpiration
Water vapor released by plants
20%
Percentage of precipitation that falls on land
25 terms
Geology, Chapter 12
The two types of glaciated terrain on…
Unsorted and unlayered rock debris car…
Glaciers with a positive budget are ad…
The thicker part of a glacier will flo…
False
True
True
False
The two types of glaciated terrain on…
False
Unsorted and unlayered rock debris car…
True
30 terms
chapter 12 geology
Guiding questions about every resource
Use of fossil fuels for energy is pred…
T or F: The vast majority of petroleum…
Renewable resources
1.) What creates them and on what timescale?... 2.) Why are they…
increase
False- majority used for plastic and other consumer products
produced at a rate similar to the rate they are consumed- foo…
Guiding questions about every resource
1.) What creates them and on what timescale?... 2.) Why are they…
Use of fossil fuels for energy is pred…
increase
27 terms
Geology Chapter 12 Study Guide
Glacier
Ice Age
Topography
Ice caps, ice sheets, ice shelves
A thick mass of ice (great than 50m) that is formed by the co…
An interval of time when continental ice sheets develop in mi…
Cirque Glaciers, Valley Glaciers, Fjord Glaciers, and Piedmon…
_____, ______, and ______ are not constrained by topography.
Glacier
A thick mass of ice (great than 50m) that is formed by the co…
Ice Age
An interval of time when continental ice sheets develop in mi…
18 terms
Geology 101 Bagley Quiz #8 Chapter 12
mineral phase change -
physical property that is responsible…
when an iron-rich fluid in the core is…
Will NOT result in a Seismic Velocity…
atoms in a mineral are rearranged into a more stable and dens…
Density
Geodynamo
Magnetism
mineral phase change -
atoms in a mineral are rearranged into a more stable and dens…
physical property that is responsible…
Density
27 terms
Chapter 12 Geology 105
Water
Hydrologic cycle
Laminar flow
Turbulent flow
single most important geological agent for erosion, transport…
powered by energy from the sun (solar radiation) Water vapor…
lines of flow are parallel; little to no mixing between layer…
streamlines intertwine;mixing between layers;individual molec…
Water
single most important geological agent for erosion, transport…
Hydrologic cycle
powered by energy from the sun (solar radiation) Water vapor…
29 terms
Geology 105 chapter 12
Abrasion
Alluvial Fan
Alluvium
Base Level
The process whereby rock is worn smooth by the impact of sedi…
A cone-shaped accumulation of mostly sand and gravel deposite…
A collective term for all detrital sediment transported and d…
The level below which a stream or river cannot erode; sea lev…
Abrasion
The process whereby rock is worn smooth by the impact of sedi…
Alluvial Fan
A cone-shaped accumulation of mostly sand and gravel deposite…
16 terms
Geology Chapter 12 MG
Which of the following describes the c…
How do waves refract in rocks?
Why does a shadow zone occur for P-wav…
Which of the following behaviors of se…
Waves are concave up because rock density increases with depth.
Waves refract toward the boundary when moving from less to mo…
P-waves refract as they go through the outer core.
Waves stopping (truncating), refracting (bending), reflecting…
Which of the following describes the c…
Waves are concave up because rock density increases with depth.
How do waves refract in rocks?
Waves refract toward the boundary when moving from less to mo…
66 terms
Geology midterm 1 (chapter 12)
Geologic Time
Deep Time
Nicolas Steno (Danish Physician)
Lithification and uplift suggest:
Provides a frame of reference for understanding: rocks,fossil…
Immense span of geologic time
found fossils in Apennines and reasoned they must be former a…
Long Periods of Time
Geologic Time
Provides a frame of reference for understanding: rocks,fossil…
Deep Time
Immense span of geologic time
34 terms
Chapter 12 Geology 105
Water
Hydrologic cycle
Laminar flow
Turbulent flow
single most important geological agent for erosion, transport…
powered by energy from the sun (solar radiation) Water vapor…
lines of flow are parallel; little to no mixing between layer…
streamlines intertwine;mixing between layers;individual molec…
Water
single most important geological agent for erosion, transport…
Hydrologic cycle
powered by energy from the sun (solar radiation) Water vapor…
14 terms
Geology Chapter 12
Mass Wasting
Trigger of mass wasting
Angle of repose
Rotational slide
The downslope movement of rock, regolith, and soil under the…
Saturation of material with water, over steepening slopes, re…
The steepest angle at which material remains stable.
The surface of rapture is a concave-upward curve that resembl…
Mass Wasting
The downslope movement of rock, regolith, and soil under the…
Trigger of mass wasting
Saturation of material with water, over steepening slopes, re…
13 terms
geology 1001 chapter 12
middle east
new zealand
africa
southwest coast of africa
continental collision
subduction
continental rift
seafloor spreading
middle east
continental collision
new zealand
subduction
10 terms
Geology 100 Chapter 12
C. movement along faults
A. right before an earthquake
E. all of the above
E. both b and c
Which of the following processes generates most earthquakes?…
When do rocks along a fault have the highest amount of stress…
If an area has shallow, intermediate, and deep earthquakes, w…
The characteristics of S-waves include:... A. they can travel th…
C. movement along faults
Which of the following processes generates most earthquakes?…
A. right before an earthquake
When do rocks along a fault have the highest amount of stress…
15 terms
Geology Chapter 12
Quartz and feldspar are the two most a…
Field geologists usually carry a small…
A mineral formed by the combination of…
Field geologists usually carry a bottl…
c. thumb nail scratch test
streak
the mineral formed by evaporation of inland seas and lakes
calcite and other carbonate minerals found in limestone
Quartz and feldspar are the two most a…
c. thumb nail scratch test
Field geologists usually carry a small…
streak
29 terms
Geology 105 chapter 12
Abrasion
Alluvial Fan
Alluvium
Base Level
The process whereby rock is worn smooth by the impact of sedi…
A cone-shaped accumulation of mostly sand and gravel deposite…
A collective term for all detrital sediment transported and d…
The level below which a stream or river cannot erode; sea lev…
Abrasion
The process whereby rock is worn smooth by the impact of sedi…
Alluvial Fan
A cone-shaped accumulation of mostly sand and gravel deposite…
11 terms
Physical Geology Chapter 12
Methods to Study:
Continental Margins
Active Continental Margins
Passive Continental Margins
1. Direct Sampling(Samplers, Piston)... 2. Echo Sounding(Reflect…
Separate continent from ocean basins lying below sea level (C…
Narrow shelf and slope descending into ocean trench with acti…
Not a lot of activity
Methods to Study:
1. Direct Sampling(Samplers, Piston)... 2. Echo Sounding(Reflect…
Continental Margins
Separate continent from ocean basins lying below sea level (C…
31 terms
Geology Chapter 12 Streams
stream
river
channels
flood plain
any body of water, large or small, that flows over the land s…
any major branch of a large stream system
well-defined troughs that allow water to flow over large dist…
flat area about level w/the top of the channel; lies on eithe…
stream
any body of water, large or small, that flows over the land s…
river
any major branch of a large stream system
12 terms
Chapter 12 Geology terms
Aa
Pahoehoe
Pillow lava
Phreatic eruption
Lava having a rough surface
Lava with a smooth, swirled surface. It is highly fluid and s…
basaltic lava that cools under water. Piles of ellipsoidal, p…
steam explosions that occur when hot, gas-charged magma encou…
Aa
Lava having a rough surface
Pahoehoe
Lava with a smooth, swirled surface. It is highly fluid and s…
15 terms
Geology Chapter 12
hypocenter
epicenter
seismic waves
causes
center of earthquake
center on surface
movement out from hypocenter
faulting (compression, tension, shear)
hypocenter
center of earthquake
epicenter
center on surface
20 terms
Geology Chapter 12 Vocab
Uniformitarianism
Relative Dating
Law Of Superposition
Principle Of Original Horizontality
The concept that processes that have shaped Earth in the past…
Process by which rocks are placed in their proper sequence or…
The geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers…
layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal po…
Uniformitarianism
The concept that processes that have shaped Earth in the past…
Relative Dating
Process by which rocks are placed in their proper sequence or…
30 terms
Geology Chapter 12
Geologic Time
Geologic Column
Fossils
Uniformitariansim
the span of time since the Earth's formation
the chart that geologists use to divide time into intervals
remnants of ancient life preserved in rock
physical processes we observe today also operated in the past…
Geologic Time
the span of time since the Earth's formation
Geologic Column
the chart that geologists use to divide time into intervals
19 terms
Geology Chapter 12
Aragonite Sea
Amniote Egg
Ectothermic
Endothermic
Seas in which primarily aragonite or high-magnesium calcite a…
Egg with compartmentalized sacs that allowed vertebrates to r…
"cold-blooded", refers to animals that cannot regulate its ow…
"warm blooded: refers to an animal that generates body heat a…
Aragonite Sea
Seas in which primarily aragonite or high-magnesium calcite a…
Amniote Egg
Egg with compartmentalized sacs that allowed vertebrates to r…
59 terms
Geophys: Geology Chapter 12 & 20
most common elements in the earth
most common elements in the crust
5 mineral making groups
silicates
-iron(biggest %), oxygen, silicon, magnesium, nickel, calcium…
-oxygen and silicon... -these elements make up 75% of the Earth'…
-silicates, oxides, carbonates, sulfides, and sulfates
-contains oxygen and silicon ... -make up more than 90% of miner…
most common elements in the earth
-iron(biggest %), oxygen, silicon, magnesium, nickel, calcium…
most common elements in the crust
-oxygen and silicon... -these elements make up 75% of the Earth'…
20 terms
Chapter 12 Geology
Asthenosphere
Crust
Lower Mantle
Moho
A weak layer beneath the Lithosphere - similar to litho but m…
Two types: continental and oceanic... Have very different compo…
Between the transition zone (660 klicks) and the liquid core…
The boundary between the crust and mantle ... One of the first…
Asthenosphere
A weak layer beneath the Lithosphere - similar to litho but m…
Crust
Two types: continental and oceanic... Have very different compo…
14 terms
Geology chapter 12
Principle of Uniformitarianism
Relative Age
Numerical Age
Principle of Suoerposition
Physical processes we observe today also operated in the past…
the age of one feature with respect to another
The age of a feature given in years
In a sequence of sedimentary rock layers, each layer must be…
Principle of Uniformitarianism
Physical processes we observe today also operated in the past…
Relative Age
the age of one feature with respect to another
22 terms
Geology Chapter 12
Renewable
Non Renewable
Resources
Reserves
replenished in a reasonable amount of time (months to decades…
Cannot be replenished, or too slow with respect to human life…
total amount of a given material that exists (estimate)
what we obtain (economically); change with price, technology,…
Renewable
replenished in a reasonable amount of time (months to decades…
Non Renewable
Cannot be replenished, or too slow with respect to human life…
8 terms
Geology chapter 12
Earthquakes
Elastic rebound
How to locate the source of an earthqu…
Hypocenter
energy is stored in rocks and is suddenly released, produced…
an explanation for how energy is spread during earthquakes. A…
seismogram. closer together the different types of waves are,…
Place beneath the surface where the first real takes place
Earthquakes
energy is stored in rocks and is suddenly released, produced…
Elastic rebound
an explanation for how energy is spread during earthquakes. A…
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