Study sets matching "gmat critical reasoning"

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Study sets matching "gmat critical reasoning"

Critical Reasoning (EmpowerGmat)
CR Structure
HOW TO SUCCEED ON CR QUESTIONS
1.Reading Mindset: I'm the Worlds Best…
2. Position of Superiority
ARGUMENT STRUCTURE... Evidence + Assumption (MISSING INFO) = Con…
HOW TO SUCCEED ON CR QUESTIONS
Think: "Nothing gets by me! ... 1. I begin a CR question by see…
Rather than seeing CR prompts as intimidating test questions,…
CR Structure
ARGUMENT STRUCTURE... Evidence + Assumption (MISSING INFO) = Con…
HOW TO SUCCEED ON CR QUESTIONS
HOW TO SUCCEED ON CR QUESTIONS
27 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Abbreviations
Increase / more/ high
Causes / leads to / results in
Greater than / more than /majority
Equals / correlates with
...
...
>
=
Increase / more/ high
...
Causes / leads to / results in
...
39 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning
premise
conclusion
background
counterpoint or counterpremise
part of the core of an argument... supports the author's conclu…
the primary claim that the author is trying to prove or the o…
provide context to help you understand the basic situation... n…
a piece of information that goes against the authors conclusi…
premise
part of the core of an argument... supports the author's conclu…
conclusion
the primary claim that the author is trying to prove or the o…
Empower GMAT Critical Reasoning
Assumption Setup
Strengten Setup
Weaken Setup
Evaluate A Plan Setup
Assumption Setup
Strengten Setup
39 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning
Scope
Find the Conclusion
Premise Clauses
Supply Own Conclusion
Stay within the scope of the argument. ... -No farfetched ration…
-often found in first or last sentence of passage... - look for…
-usually show support or offer evidence... -look for "because, s…
-conclusion must be supported by all premises, not just one... -…
Scope
Stay within the scope of the argument. ... -No farfetched ration…
Find the Conclusion
-often found in first or last sentence of passage... - look for…
11 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Keywords
Because
For
Since
As a result of
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Because
Evidence
For
Evidence
GMAT-Critical Reasoning
Contrast
Contrast
Contrast
Contrast
nevertheless
despite
although
but
Contrast
nevertheless
Contrast
despite
GMAT Critical Reasoning
Strengthen:... Cause & Effect ("X caused…
Assumption:... Connects the evidence to c…
Inference:... What must be true based on…
Inference:... Right Answer Choices
Right answers will:... (1) Eliminate other causes... (2) Show that…
Solve via NEGATION... (1) "All" = "Not all"... (2) "Some" = "None"…
Pay attention to the stimulus and the modifiers used, i.e. al…
Right answers will:... (1) Paraphrase facts within the stimulus…
Strengthen:... Cause & Effect ("X caused…
Right answers will:... (1) Eliminate other causes... (2) Show that…
Assumption:... Connects the evidence to c…
Solve via NEGATION... (1) "All" = "Not all"... (2) "Some" = "None"…
28 terms
GMAT Prep - Critical Reasoning
When the GMAT refers to an argument
What does it mean for an argument to d…
Read task/question before reading para…
paraphrase the argument
....it doesn't mean a conversation that involves two people s…
"need" or "rely on"
...
...
When the GMAT refers to an argument
....it doesn't mean a conversation that involves two people s…
What does it mean for an argument to d…
"need" or "rely on"
40 terms
GMAT: Critical Reasoning (Veritas)
Attacking CR
How to find the conclusion?
4 question types - acronym? and meaning?
CR question. What do you do first? The…
1. separate: context, premise, conclusion... 2. question stem: u…
1. language: therefore, thus, hence, conclusion, it should be…
SWIM... S.trengthen... W.eaken... I.nference... M.ethod of reasoning
1. Read question stem first... 2. Identify type of question: SWI…
Attacking CR
1. separate: context, premise, conclusion... 2. question stem: u…
How to find the conclusion?
1. language: therefore, thus, hence, conclusion, it should be…
Prompts for GMAT Critical Reasoning
"The argument proceeds by:"
derives ...by
method of reasoning
response to
method of reasoning
method of reasoning
method of reasoning
method of reasoning
"The argument proceeds by:"
method of reasoning
derives ...by
method of reasoning
14 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning
Conclusion and inference Strategy
Which of the following, if true, would…
Dissecting an argument
How to identify an assumption
1. Identify premises... 2. Draw a conclusion that must follow... 3.…
Weaken means to cast doubt!... - Identify the link between prem…
1. Identify premises... 2. Identify conclusion... 3. Identify unsta…
Identify the link between premises and conclusion to identify…
Conclusion and inference Strategy
1. Identify premises... 2. Draw a conclusion that must follow... 3.…
Which of the following, if true, would…
Weaken means to cast doubt!... - Identify the link between prem…
GMAT Critical Reasoning - EmpowerGMAT
Answer Option Pattern
Strategy
How to Succeed
Arguments
The 3 Easy Outs... (1) Two out of scope... (2) One "180"... 2 Options…
(1) Read stimulus like a lawyer... (2) Read question... (3) Look fo…
(1) Read like lawyer... (2) View prompts as weak arguments... (3) N…
Always look for what's missing, i.e. the assumption!
Answer Option Pattern
The 3 Easy Outs... (1) Two out of scope... (2) One "180"... 2 Options…
Strategy
(1) Read stimulus like a lawyer... (2) Read question... (3) Look fo…
5 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Steps
Step 1
Step 2
Untangle the stimulus
Step 3
Identify the question type
Untangle the stimulus
Paraphrasing and find the conclusion, evidence and assumption
Predict the answers
Step 1
Identify the question type
Step 2
Untangle the stimulus
GMAT Critical Reasoning Keywords
Because
For
Since
As a result of
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Because
Evidence
For
Evidence
GMAT Critical Reasoning Steps
Step 1
Step 2
Untangle the stimulus
Step 3
Identify the question type
Untangle the stimulus
Paraphrasing and find the conclusion, evidence and assumption
Predict the answers
Step 1
Identify the question type
Step 2
Untangle the stimulus
11 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Keywords
Because
For
Since
As a result of
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Because
Evidence
For
Evidence
13 terms
Gmat a critical Reasoning
CR weaken question
CR assumption
Evaluation of an argument
Argument structure ... Premise ... Conclusio…
Idetification :... Common... Weaken , undermine ... If true ... Less com…
How to identify ... Common : assumption ... Less common : ... Assume…
Identify ... Common : ... Evaluate , determine ... Useful to know , s…
Premise : ... A premise is a set of information ( fact or claim)…
CR weaken question
Idetification :... Common... Weaken , undermine ... If true ... Less com…
CR assumption
How to identify ... Common : assumption ... Less common : ... Assume…
48 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning
Logical opposite of none
Logical opposite of not all
Some includes the possibility of
Not all includes the possibility of
Some
All
All
None
Logical opposite of none
Some
Logical opposite of not all
All
11 terms
GMAT-Critical Reasoning
Common Logical Fallacies (S&W)
Tips to find a conclusion
Strategies for Strength and Weakness Q…
Strategies for Inference Questions
-mistaking correlation for causation ... ( it is dark outside, s…
-conclusion language... -call for action... -premise language... -the…
1) Properly categorize the problem. ... 2) Isolate the conclusio…
-CORRECT answers must be TRUE. ... -Scope is the key to success…
Common Logical Fallacies (S&W)
-mistaking correlation for causation ... ( it is dark outside, s…
Tips to find a conclusion
-conclusion language... -call for action... -premise language... -the…
38 terms
GMAT critical reasoning
Scope
Find the Conclusion
Supply Your Own Conclusion
Causal Assumption
Stay within the scope of the argument.... If your rationale see…
The conclusion is often found in the first or last sentence o…
In "supply your own conclusion" questions, the conclusion mus…
Ask whether there might be an alternative cause if an argumen…
Scope
Stay within the scope of the argument.... If your rationale see…
Find the Conclusion
The conclusion is often found in the first or last sentence o…
Critical Reasoning - GMAT
Finding a conclusion
premise wording
Why test
Strengthen
1- conclusionary language... 2- call for action... 3- premise wordi…
Because of, in summary
If the argument gives a reason why for the statement, it coul…
Identify and fill gaps in logic that exist in weak arguments
Finding a conclusion
1- conclusionary language... 2- call for action... 3- premise wordi…
premise wording
Because of, in summary
34 terms
GMAT: Critical Reasoning
Argument Structure
Identifying the Parts of an Argument
Finding the Conclusion
Signal Words for Argument Parts
PREMISE + (ASSUMPTION) = CONCLUSION... Premise: stated pieces o…
1. Look for the conclusion.... - often the last sentence of an a…
Presented in 3 common ways, so read the question first!... 1. Q…
Conclusion:... Therefore... As a result... Suggests... It follows that... In…
Argument Structure
PREMISE + (ASSUMPTION) = CONCLUSION... Premise: stated pieces o…
Identifying the Parts of an Argument
1. Look for the conclusion.... - often the last sentence of an a…
7 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Argument Structure
What is a PREMISE?
What is a CONCLUSION?
What is a BACKGROUND?
What is a COUNTERPOINT?
Is part of the core of the argument. In every argument. ... Sup…
Part of the core. In most arguments. ... Is authors main opinio…
Not part of the core. ... Provides context to understand the co…
Not part of the core, only occurs occasionally.... Opposes auth…
What is a PREMISE?
Is part of the core of the argument. In every argument. ... Sup…
What is a CONCLUSION?
Part of the core. In most arguments. ... Is authors main opinio…
19 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Types
Question Type:... Describe the Role
Question Type:... Describe the Argument
Question Type:... Find the Assumption
Question Type:... Weaken
Goal:... Identify the role of the bold portions.... Common Quest…
Goal:... Describe the structure of the argument.... Common Quest…
Goal:... Identify an unstated assumption.... Common Question Phr…
Goal:... Weaken the author's conclusion by attacking the assump…
Question Type:... Describe the Role
Goal:... Identify the role of the bold portions.... Common Quest…
Question Type:... Describe the Argument
Goal:... Describe the structure of the argument.... Common Quest…
5 terms
The words for GMAT Critical reasoning
reiteration
spell out
generalization
at issue
重复
阐述
概括
在讨论
reiteration
重复
spell out
阐述
60 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Indicator Words
If...
When...
Whenever...
Every...
Introduces a sufficient condition... ('Must be true' questions)
Introduces a sufficient condition... ('Must be true' questions)
Introduces a sufficient condition... ('Must be true' questions)
Introduces a sufficient condition... ('Must be true' questions)
If...
Introduces a sufficient condition... ('Must be true' questions)
When...
Introduces a sufficient condition... ('Must be true' questions)
GMAT Critical Reasoning Chapter 1
Parts of an Argument
Premise
Conclusion
Assumption
Premise, Conclusion, Assumption
- Any reason(s), statistic(s), or evidence the author uses to…
- The main or central claim of the argument... - Often sounds li…
- The unstated part of the argument that is required to to co…
Parts of an Argument
Premise, Conclusion, Assumption
Premise
- Any reason(s), statistic(s), or evidence the author uses to…
25 terms
GMAT 大黑 P33 Critical Reasoning
specialize
insure, assurance
determine
obligated
v.专门研究
v. 保证,确保
决定
a.有义务的,有责任的
specialize
v.专门研究
insure, assurance
v. 保证,确保
16 terms
GMAT 大黑 P517 Critical Reasoning
emission
pollutant
proportion
regulate
散发
污染物
比例
vt.管理,控制;调整,调节
emission
散发
pollutant
污染物
15 terms
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Inference) #4 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (KEY)
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
82 terms
Critical Reasoning
A priori
Ad hominem
Appeal to closure
Appeal to heaven
"rationalization" - starting with a given fact or conclusion…
"personal attack" - attempting to refute an argument by attac…
an argument, standpoint or conclusion must be accepted no mat…
asserting that God ordered, supports or approves of one's own…
A priori
"rationalization" - starting with a given fact or conclusion…
Ad hominem
"personal attack" - attempting to refute an argument by attac…
16 terms
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Find the Assumption) #1 Importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
20 terms
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Strengthen the Argument) #2 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Both strengthen and weaken arguments a…
For strengthen
A strengthen answer will provides us w…
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Find a new piece of information, that if added to the existin…
The new piece of information will typically serve as evidence…
That information will make the conclusion more valid
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Both strengthen and weaken arguments a…
Find a new piece of information, that if added to the existin…
20 terms
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Weaken the argument) #3 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
14 terms
Critical Reasoning
Critical Reasoning by Question Types.…
1. Weaken. ... From OG13:... # 2, 4, 8, 20,…
2. Strengthen.... From OG13:... #1, 5, 7, 1…
3. Bold.... From OG13:... #18, 28, 34, 63,…
http://bit.ly/1SBgNGb... 1. Weaken -20%... 2. Strengthen -30%... 3. B…
"Argument is flawed because..." ... "...does not support..."... "..…
"does most to justify the expectation that..."... "[argument], s…
Something is bolded or question asks about structure... "...the…
Critical Reasoning by Question Types.…
http://bit.ly/1SBgNGb... 1. Weaken -20%... 2. Strengthen -30%... 3. B…
1. Weaken. ... From OG13:... # 2, 4, 8, 20,…
"Argument is flawed because..." ... "...does not support..."... "..…
Critical Reasoning
Logical Fallacy: Necessary / Sufficient
Logical Fallacy: Generalization
Logical Fallacy: False Dichotomy
Logical Fallacy: Numbers / Percentages
An argument will assume something necessary to a conclusion i…
An author draws a conclusion about a population based on a sm…
Assumes that just because one explanation is impossible, anot…
Combining real-world numbers with percentages; conclusion doe…
Logical Fallacy: Necessary / Sufficient
An argument will assume something necessary to a conclusion i…
Logical Fallacy: Generalization
An author draws a conclusion about a population based on a sm…
Critical Reasoning
conclusion: the author's ________
conclusion locator words
premise locator words
premise:
main point
therefore ... so ... hence
because... since ... if
reasons/facts leading to the conclusion
conclusion: the author's ________
main point
conclusion locator words
therefore ... so ... hence
Critical Reasoning
Reasoning
Argument
Relevant
Skepticism
the process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence
A position or viewpoint along with the claims and evidence us…
Closely connected or appropriate to the matter at hand
a doubting or questioning attitude or state of mind; ... not acc…
Reasoning
the process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence
Argument
A position or viewpoint along with the claims and evidence us…
Critical Reasoning
All arguments contain at least one ___…
A Premise is ________
Most (but not all) arguments contain a…
Conclusion is_______
Premise
info used by author to support some claim or conclusion. Info…
conclusion
primary claim the author is trying to prove or outcome of pla…
All arguments contain at least one ___…
Premise
A Premise is ________
info used by author to support some claim or conclusion. Info…
43 terms
Critical Reasoning
Question Types
Kaplan Method for Critical Reasoning
Assumption Questions:
Strengthen or Weakness:
Assumption, Strength, Weakness, Evaluation, Flaw,... Explanation…
1.Identify the question type... 2. untangle the stimulus... 3.Predi…
identify conclusion and evidence; determine central assumptio…
Determine central assumption; confirm answer that makes more…
Question Types
Assumption, Strength, Weakness, Evaluation, Flaw,... Explanation…
Kaplan Method for Critical Reasoning
1.Identify the question type... 2. untangle the stimulus... 3.Predi…
36 terms
Critical Reasoning
What pattern emerges with conclusions…
What should you approach Bolded Statem…
How do you recognize an Inference ques…
What must you do to untangle the stimu…
There is usually a temporal (time) shift from the evidence to…
1. Determine if two bolded statements are going in same or op…
Will ask what "must be true based on the information in the s…
1. Identify conclusion... 2. Identify evidence... 3. figure out cen…
What pattern emerges with conclusions…
There is usually a temporal (time) shift from the evidence to…
What should you approach Bolded Statem…
1. Determine if two bolded statements are going in same or op…
15 terms
Critical Reasoning
What are the four major ways to identi…
What are the four major families of cr…
What should you read first when you ap…
Describe the keyword triggers, answers…
1. Conclusion language ("therefore," "thus," "in conclusion,"…
SWIM:... Strengthen - Strengthen an existing conclusion... Weaken -…
Before you ever read the stimulus paragraph, read the questio…
Keyword Triggers: Strengthen, Justify, Explain, Assumption... A…
What are the four major ways to identi…
1. Conclusion language ("therefore," "thus," "in conclusion,"…
What are the four major families of cr…
SWIM:... Strengthen - Strengthen an existing conclusion... Weaken -…
7 terms
Critical Reasoning
What is a Premise?
What is a conclusion?
what is background information?
What is a counterpoint or counterpremi…
• Is part of the core of the argument; present in every argum…
• Is part of the core of an argument; present in most argumen…
• Is not part of the core; not always present. ... • Provides co…
• Is not part of the core; only present occasionally. ... • Oppo…
What is a Premise?
• Is part of the core of the argument; present in every argum…
What is a conclusion?
• Is part of the core of an argument; present in most argumen…
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Describe the Argument) #9 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Find the Discrepency) #5 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Find the Flaw) #8 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type ( Describe the Role) #6 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Evaluate the argument) #7 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
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