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Study sets matching "gmat critical reasoning"

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Study sets matching "gmat critical reasoning"

21 terms
Critical Reasoning (EmpowerGmat)
CR Structure
HOW TO SUCCEED ON CR QUESTIONS
1.Reading Mindset: I'm the Worlds Best…
2. Position of Superiority
ARGUMENT STRUCTURE... Evidence + Assumption (MISSING INFO) = Con…
HOW TO SUCCEED ON CR QUESTIONS
Think: "Nothing gets by me! ... 1. I begin a CR question by see…
Rather than seeing CR prompts as intimidating test questions,…
CR Structure
ARGUMENT STRUCTURE... Evidence + Assumption (MISSING INFO) = Con…
HOW TO SUCCEED ON CR QUESTIONS
HOW TO SUCCEED ON CR QUESTIONS
13 terms
Empower GMAT Critical Reasoning
Assumption Setup
Strengten Setup
Weaken Setup
Evaluate A Plan Setup
Assumption Setup
Strengten Setup
27 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Abbreviations
Increase / more/ high
Causes / leads to / results in
Greater than / more than /majority
Equals / correlates with
...
...
>
=
Increase / more/ high
...
Causes / leads to / results in
...
39 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning
premise
conclusion
background
counterpoint or counterpremise
part of the core of an argument... supports the author's conclu…
the primary claim that the author is trying to prove or the o…
provide context to help you understand the basic situation... n…
a piece of information that goes against the authors conclusi…
premise
part of the core of an argument... supports the author's conclu…
conclusion
the primary claim that the author is trying to prove or the o…
11 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Keywords
Because
For
Since
As a result of
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Because
Evidence
For
Evidence
34 terms
GMAT: Critical Reasoning
Argument Structure
Identifying the Parts of an Argument
Finding the Conclusion
Signal Words for Argument Parts
PREMISE + (ASSUMPTION) = CONCLUSION... Premise: stated pieces o…
1. Look for the conclusion.... - often the last sentence of an a…
Presented in 3 common ways, so read the question first!... 1. Q…
Conclusion:... Therefore... As a result... Suggests... It follows that... In…
Argument Structure
PREMISE + (ASSUMPTION) = CONCLUSION... Premise: stated pieces o…
Identifying the Parts of an Argument
1. Look for the conclusion.... - often the last sentence of an a…
33 terms
GMAT-Critical Reasoning
Contrast
Contrast
Contrast
Contrast
nevertheless
despite
although
but
Contrast
nevertheless
Contrast
despite
16 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning
Strengthen:... Cause & Effect ("X caused…
Assumption:... Connects the evidence to c…
Inference:... What must be true based on…
Inference:... Right Answer Choices
Right answers will:... (1) Eliminate other causes... (2) Show that…
Solve via NEGATION... (1) "All" = "Not all"... (2) "Some" = "None"…
Pay attention to the stimulus and the modifiers used, i.e. al…
Right answers will:... (1) Paraphrase facts within the stimulus…
Strengthen:... Cause & Effect ("X caused…
Right answers will:... (1) Eliminate other causes... (2) Show that…
Assumption:... Connects the evidence to c…
Solve via NEGATION... (1) "All" = "Not all"... (2) "Some" = "None"…
40 terms
GMAT: Critical Reasoning (Veritas)
Attacking CR
How to find the conclusion?
4 question types - acronym? and meaning?
CR question. What do you do first? The…
1. separate: context, premise, conclusion... 2. question stem: u…
1. language: therefore, thus, hence, conclusion, it should be…
SWIM... S.trengthen... W.eaken... I.nference... M.ethod of reasoning
1. Read question stem first... 2. Identify type of question: SWI…
Attacking CR
1. separate: context, premise, conclusion... 2. question stem: u…
How to find the conclusion?
1. language: therefore, thus, hence, conclusion, it should be…
28 terms
GMAT Prep - Critical Reasoning
When the GMAT refers to an argument
What does it mean for an argument to d…
Read task/question before reading para…
paraphrase the argument
....it doesn't mean a conversation that involves two people s…
"need" or "rely on"
...
...
When the GMAT refers to an argument
....it doesn't mean a conversation that involves two people s…
What does it mean for an argument to d…
"need" or "rely on"
14 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning
Conclusion and inference Strategy
Which of the following, if true, would…
Dissecting an argument
How to identify an assumption
1. Identify premises... 2. Draw a conclusion that must follow... 3.…
Weaken means to cast doubt!... - Identify the link between prem…
1. Identify premises... 2. Identify conclusion... 3. Identify unsta…
Identify the link between premises and conclusion to identify…
Conclusion and inference Strategy
1. Identify premises... 2. Draw a conclusion that must follow... 3.…
Which of the following, if true, would…
Weaken means to cast doubt!... - Identify the link between prem…
65 terms
Prompts for GMAT Critical Reasoning
"The argument proceeds by:"
derives ...by
method of reasoning
response to
method of reasoning
method of reasoning
method of reasoning
method of reasoning
"The argument proceeds by:"
method of reasoning
derives ...by
method of reasoning
23 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning - EmpowerGMAT
Answer Option Pattern
Strategy
How to Succeed
Arguments
The 3 Easy Outs... (1) Two out of scope... (2) One "180"... 2 Options…
(1) Read stimulus like a lawyer... (2) Read question... (3) Look fo…
(1) Read like lawyer... (2) View prompts as weak arguments... (3) N…
Always look for what's missing, i.e. the assumption!
Answer Option Pattern
The 3 Easy Outs... (1) Two out of scope... (2) One "180"... 2 Options…
Strategy
(1) Read stimulus like a lawyer... (2) Read question... (3) Look fo…
48 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning
Logical opposite of none
Logical opposite of not all
Some includes the possibility of
Not all includes the possibility of
Some
All
All
None
Logical opposite of none
Some
Logical opposite of not all
All
11 terms
GMAT-Critical Reasoning
Common Logical Fallacies (S&W)
Tips to find a conclusion
Strategies for Strength and Weakness Q…
Strategies for Inference Questions
-mistaking correlation for causation ... ( it is dark outside, s…
-conclusion language... -call for action... -premise language... -the…
1) Properly categorize the problem. ... 2) Isolate the conclusio…
-CORRECT answers must be TRUE. ... -Scope is the key to success…
Common Logical Fallacies (S&W)
-mistaking correlation for causation ... ( it is dark outside, s…
Tips to find a conclusion
-conclusion language... -call for action... -premise language... -the…
11 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Keywords
Because
For
Since
As a result of
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Because
Evidence
For
Evidence
24 terms
Critical Reasoning - GMAT
Finding a conclusion
premise wording
Why test
Strengthen
1- conclusionary language... 2- call for action... 3- premise wordi…
Because of, in summary
If the argument gives a reason why for the statement, it coul…
Identify and fill gaps in logic that exist in weak arguments
Finding a conclusion
1- conclusionary language... 2- call for action... 3- premise wordi…
premise wording
Because of, in summary
13 terms
Gmat a critical Reasoning
CR weaken question
CR assumption
Evaluation of an argument
Argument structure ... Premise ... Conclusio…
Idetification :... Common... Weaken , undermine ... If true ... Less com…
How to identify ... Common : assumption ... Less common : ... Assume…
Identify ... Common : ... Evaluate , determine ... Useful to know , s…
Premise : ... A premise is a set of information ( fact or claim)…
CR weaken question
Idetification :... Common... Weaken , undermine ... If true ... Less com…
CR assumption
How to identify ... Common : assumption ... Less common : ... Assume…
38 terms
GMAT critical reasoning
Scope
Find the Conclusion
Supply Your Own Conclusion
Causal Assumption
Stay within the scope of the argument.... If your rationale see…
The conclusion is often found in the first or last sentence o…
In "supply your own conclusion" questions, the conclusion mus…
Ask whether there might be an alternative cause if an argumen…
Scope
Stay within the scope of the argument.... If your rationale see…
Find the Conclusion
The conclusion is often found in the first or last sentence o…
11 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Keywords
Because
For
Since
As a result of
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Because
Evidence
For
Evidence
34 terms
GMAT: Critical Reasoning
Argument Structure
Identifying the Parts of an Argument
Finding the Conclusion
Signal Words for Argument Parts
PREMISE + (ASSUMPTION) = CONCLUSION... Premise: stated pieces o…
1. Look for the conclusion.... - often the last sentence of an a…
Presented in 3 common ways, so read the question first!... 1. Q…
Conclusion:... Therefore... As a result... Suggests... It follows that... In…
Argument Structure
PREMISE + (ASSUMPTION) = CONCLUSION... Premise: stated pieces o…
Identifying the Parts of an Argument
1. Look for the conclusion.... - often the last sentence of an a…
5 terms
The words for GMAT Critical reasoning
reiteration
spell out
generalization
at issue
重复
阐述
概括
在讨论
reiteration
重复
spell out
阐述
19 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Types
Question Type:... Describe the Role
Question Type:... Describe the Argument
Question Type:... Find the Assumption
Question Type:... Weaken
Goal:... Identify the role of the bold portions.... Common Quest…
Goal:... Describe the structure of the argument.... Common Quest…
Goal:... Identify an unstated assumption.... Common Question Phr…
Goal:... Weaken the author's conclusion by attacking the assump…
Question Type:... Describe the Role
Goal:... Identify the role of the bold portions.... Common Quest…
Question Type:... Describe the Argument
Goal:... Describe the structure of the argument.... Common Quest…
GMAT Critical Reasoning Chapter 1
Parts of an Argument
Premise
Conclusion
Assumption
Premise, Conclusion, Assumption
- Any reason(s), statistic(s), or evidence the author uses to…
- The main or central claim of the argument... - Often sounds li…
- The unstated part of the argument that is required to to co…
Parts of an Argument
Premise, Conclusion, Assumption
Premise
- Any reason(s), statistic(s), or evidence the author uses to…
60 terms
GMAT Critical Reasoning Indicator Words
If...
When...
Whenever...
Every...
Introduces a sufficient condition... ('Must be true' questions)
Introduces a sufficient condition... ('Must be true' questions)
Introduces a sufficient condition... ('Must be true' questions)
Introduces a sufficient condition... ('Must be true' questions)
If...
Introduces a sufficient condition... ('Must be true' questions)
When...
Introduces a sufficient condition... ('Must be true' questions)
25 terms
GMAT 大黑 P33 Critical Reasoning
specialize
insure, assurance
determine
obligated
v.专门研究
v. 保证,确保
决定
a.有义务的,有责任的
specialize
v.专门研究
insure, assurance
v. 保证,确保
16 terms
GMAT 大黑 P517 Critical Reasoning
emission
pollutant
proportion
regulate
散发
污染物
比例
vt.管理,控制;调整,调节
emission
散发
pollutant
污染物
15 terms
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Inference) #4 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
20 terms
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Strengthen the Argument) #2 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Both strengthen and weaken arguments a…
For strengthen
A strengthen answer will provides us w…
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Find a new piece of information, that if added to the existin…
The new piece of information will typically serve as evidence…
That information will make the conclusion more valid
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Both strengthen and weaken arguments a…
Find a new piece of information, that if added to the existin…
20 terms
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Weaken the argument) #3 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
16 terms
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Find the Assumption) #1 Importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
82 terms
Critical Reasoning
A priori
Ad hominem
Appeal to closure
Appeal to heaven
"rationalization" - starting with a given fact or conclusion…
"personal attack" - attempting to refute an argument by attac…
an argument, standpoint or conclusion must be accepted no mat…
asserting that God ordered, supports or approves of one's own…
A priori
"rationalization" - starting with a given fact or conclusion…
Ad hominem
"personal attack" - attempting to refute an argument by attac…
7 terms
GMAT: Logical Reasoning Terms
Equivocation
False Dichotomy
Fallacy of Many ... (plurium interrogatio…
Fallacy of Accident (or Statistical Sy…
When a word has two distinct meanings; the author may use one…
When the author frames the questions in an "either or" format…
when a question is founded on a presupposition that has yet t…
Occurs when the author attempts to apply a general rule to a…
Equivocation
When a word has two distinct meanings; the author may use one…
False Dichotomy
When the author frames the questions in an "either or" format…
14 terms
Critical Reasoning
Critical Reasoning by Question Types.…
1. Weaken. ... From OG13:... # 2, 4, 8, 20,…
2. Strengthen.... From OG13:... #1, 5, 7, 1…
3. Bold.... From OG13:... #18, 28, 34, 63,…
http://bit.ly/1SBgNGb... 1. Weaken -20%... 2. Strengthen -30%... 3. B…
"Argument is flawed because..." ... "...does not support..."... "..…
"does most to justify the expectation that..."... "[argument], s…
Something is bolded or question asks about structure... "...the…
Critical Reasoning by Question Types.…
http://bit.ly/1SBgNGb... 1. Weaken -20%... 2. Strengthen -30%... 3. B…
1. Weaken. ... From OG13:... # 2, 4, 8, 20,…
"Argument is flawed because..." ... "...does not support..."... "..…
9 terms
Critical Reasoning
conclusion: the author's ________
conclusion locator words
premise locator words
premise:
main point
therefore ... so ... hence
because... since ... if
reasons/facts leading to the conclusion
conclusion: the author's ________
main point
conclusion locator words
therefore ... so ... hence
21 terms
Critical Reasoning
All arguments contain at least one ___…
A Premise is ________
Most (but not all) arguments contain a…
Conclusion is_______
Premise
info used by author to support some claim or conclusion. Info…
conclusion
primary claim the author is trying to prove or outcome of pla…
All arguments contain at least one ___…
Premise
A Premise is ________
info used by author to support some claim or conclusion. Info…
15 terms
Critical Reasoning
What are the four major ways to identi…
What are the four major families of cr…
What should you read first when you ap…
Describe the keyword triggers, answers…
1. Conclusion language ("therefore," "thus," "in conclusion,"…
SWIM:... Strengthen - Strengthen an existing conclusion... Weaken -…
Before you ever read the stimulus paragraph, read the questio…
Keyword Triggers: Strengthen, Justify, Explain, Assumption... A…
What are the four major ways to identi…
1. Conclusion language ("therefore," "thus," "in conclusion,"…
What are the four major families of cr…
SWIM:... Strengthen - Strengthen an existing conclusion... Weaken -…
43 terms
Critical Reasoning
Question Types
Kaplan Method for Critical Reasoning
Assumption Questions:
Strengthen or Weakness:
Assumption, Strength, Weakness, Evaluation, Flaw,... Explanation…
1.Identify the question type... 2. untangle the stimulus... 3.Predi…
identify conclusion and evidence; determine central assumptio…
Determine central assumption; confirm answer that makes more…
Question Types
Assumption, Strength, Weakness, Evaluation, Flaw,... Explanation…
Kaplan Method for Critical Reasoning
1.Identify the question type... 2. untangle the stimulus... 3.Predi…
36 terms
Critical Reasoning
What pattern emerges with conclusions…
What should you approach Bolded Statem…
How do you recognize an Inference ques…
What must you do to untangle the stimu…
There is usually a temporal (time) shift from the evidence to…
1. Determine if two bolded statements are going in same or op…
Will ask what "must be true based on the information in the s…
1. Identify conclusion... 2. Identify evidence... 3. figure out cen…
What pattern emerges with conclusions…
There is usually a temporal (time) shift from the evidence to…
What should you approach Bolded Statem…
1. Determine if two bolded statements are going in same or op…
5 terms
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type (Find the Discrepency) #5 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
5 terms
Master Every GMAT Critical Reasoning Question Type ( Describe the Role) #6 importance
Step 1: Identify the Question
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Step 3 Pause and state the Goal
Step 4 Work from wrong to right
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
Remind yourself, in a few words: what's the goal for this par…
Use your knowledge of the above to start eliminating answers.…
Step 1: Identify the Question
Know the clues that will help to signal a particular kind of…
Step 2: Deconstruct the argument
Goal is to take very light notes on the flow of the argument:…
77 terms
Critical Reasoning
Perspective
Prejudice
Frame of Reference
Social Context
Point of view or frame of reference a person takes in approac…
When someone is partial to one thing or another, can be negat…
A particular vantage point from which events are seen and und…
Slice of time, location, culture, politics, and community tha…
Perspective
Point of view or frame of reference a person takes in approac…
Prejudice
When someone is partial to one thing or another, can be negat…
36 terms
Critical Reasoning
claim
argument
premise
conclusion
statement that can be true or false
A set of claims, one of which is intended to be supported by…
claims supported by other claims
claim being supported
claim
statement that can be true or false
argument
A set of claims, one of which is intended to be supported by…
26 terms
Critical reasoning
Interpret
Adequately
Oppose
Prominent
Diễn giải
Một cách đầy đủ
Chống đối
Nổi bật, quan trọng
Interpret
Diễn giải
Adequately
Một cách đầy đủ
26 terms
Critical Reasoning
Affirming the Consequent
Denying the Antecedent
The Fallacy of the Undistributed Middle
Ought from Is
If cheeseburger, then cheese... Cheese, therefore cheeseburger
If cheeseburger, then cheese... Not cheeseburger, therefore no c…
Cheeseburgers have cheese... Cheeseburgers are tasty... Therefore c…
Cheeseburger makes you fat... You shouldn't get fat... Therefore yo…
Affirming the Consequent
If cheeseburger, then cheese... Cheese, therefore cheeseburger
Denying the Antecedent
If cheeseburger, then cheese... Not cheeseburger, therefore no c…
26 terms
Critical Reasoning
Stem Research
Conclusion is King
Conclusion tags
Conclusion Conjuctions
Always read the question stem first. The stem totally both th…
Identifying the conclusion is the most critical part of analy…
Conclusion tags such as those that are four or as result. Con…
While because and since our considered conclusion tags the ac…
Stem Research
Always read the question stem first. The stem totally both th…
Conclusion is King
Identifying the conclusion is the most critical part of analy…
11 terms
Critical Reasoning
https://docs.google.com/presentation/d…
https://docs.google.com/presentation/d…
https://docs.google.com/presentation/d…
https://docs.google.com/presentation/d…
CR CH 5 #1
CR CH 5 #2
CR CH 5 #3
CR CH 5 #4
https://docs.google.com/presentation/d…
CR CH 5 #1
https://docs.google.com/presentation/d…
CR CH 5 #2
12 terms
Critical Reasoning
openness
displacement
arbitrariness
duality of pattern
the ability to understand the message, being able to talk abo…
our human ability to talk about absent or non-existent object…
is the duality of patterning , semanticity
is a pattern on two different levels of sound two parts to a…
openness
the ability to understand the message, being able to talk abo…
displacement
our human ability to talk about absent or non-existent object…
8 terms
Critical Reasoning
Must Be True
Main Point
Weaken Questions
Strengthen Questions
1. The correct answer can always be proven by referring to th…
1. Main point is the same as the conclusion of the argument... C…
1. Stimulus will contain an argument... 2. Focus on the conclusi…
1. Identify the conclusion... 2. Personalize the argument... 3. Loo…
Must Be True
1. The correct answer can always be proven by referring to th…
Main Point
1. Main point is the same as the conclusion of the argument... C…
10 terms
Critical Reasoning
Non sequitur
The definist fallacy and biased defini…
Post hoc ergo propter hoc (Post hoc fa…
Confusion of correlation and causation
Any sequence of ideas where the second does not follow from t…
Using a biased definition in a discussion or argument. Whenev…
A bad argument to show that one thing has caused another. A p…
When a person reasons that just because a certain property P…
Non sequitur
Any sequence of ideas where the second does not follow from t…
The definist fallacy and biased defini…
Using a biased definition in a discussion or argument. Whenev…
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