Study sets matching "hematological disorders"

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Study sets matching "hematological disorders"

hematological disorders
what causes red blood cells to be prod…
what does anemia do to the body?
what are the 4 primary causes of anemia?
Examples of blood loss... acute vs chronic
We make RBCs in bone marrow... When we use them up (RBCs contai…
lowers the capacity to carry O2 throughout the body
BLOOD LOSS... DEFICIENT ERYTHROPOEISIS... HEMOLYSIS... DEFECTIVE HE…
Acute: hemorrhage, menstruation... Chronic: ulcers, slow GI ble…
what causes red blood cells to be prod…
We make RBCs in bone marrow... When we use them up (RBCs contai…
what does anemia do to the body?
lowers the capacity to carry O2 throughout the body
hematological disorders
what is the function of RBCs, WBCs & p…
what is anemia?
what are the 3 causes of anemia?
The amount of oxygen carried to the ti…
RBCs = O2 to tissues & take away CO2... WBCs = IMS; protection f…
a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood…
blood loss (acute or chronic)... lack of RBC production... increase…
Available O2... # of RBCs ... Ability of cardiovascular system to d…
what is the function of RBCs, WBCs & p…
RBCs = O2 to tissues & take away CO2... WBCs = IMS; protection f…
what is anemia?
a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood…
190 terms
Hematological Disorders
Leukemia
Immature WBC's
Ionizing Radiation, exposure to chemic…
Anemia
A group of malignant disorders affecting the blood and blood-…
What is there an over production of in Leukemia?
Name several causes and risk factors for getting Leukemia.
The overproduction of immature WBC's will crowd out the other…
Leukemia
A group of malignant disorders affecting the blood and blood-…
Immature WBC's
What is there an over production of in Leukemia?
Hematological disorders
Acute Myeloid
Chronic Myeloid
s/s of Acute myeloid
Complication of Acute Myeloid
Defect hematologic stem cell
Mutation in the myeloid cells with uncontrolled proliferation…
fever, Infection, weakness, Fatigue anemia bone pain
Bleeding and Infection
Acute Myeloid
Defect hematologic stem cell
Chronic Myeloid
Mutation in the myeloid cells with uncontrolled proliferation…
Hematological Disorders
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis regulation
Functions of Red Blood Cells:
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
the process of producing red blood cells by the stem cells in…
Transport... •O2, CO2, metabolic wastes, nutrients, heat & hormo…
-The sedimentation rate (sed rate) blood test measures how qu…
Erythropoiesis
the process of producing red blood cells by the stem cells in…
Erythropoiesis regulation
14 terms
Hematological Disorders
Steps in coagulation
Hemophilia, Type A
Hemophilia Type B
VonWillebrand Disease
1. Blood vessel constricts... 2. Platelets stick to patch area... 3…
X-linked (F8)... Joint bleeding, prolonged bleeding, muscle hema…
"Christmas disease"... X-Linked recessive (F9)... <30% activity of…
Most common inherited bleeding disorder... Dominant>Recessive... Ea…
Steps in coagulation
1. Blood vessel constricts... 2. Platelets stick to patch area... 3…
Hemophilia, Type A
X-linked (F8)... Joint bleeding, prolonged bleeding, muscle hema…
50 terms
Hematological Disorders
A patient develops hemolytic anemia af…
A 32-year-old male of Mediterranean de…
What is the most common cause of micro…
What is the most common physical exam…
Answer: C. Supportive treatment... Explanation: Hemolytic anemi…
Answer: A. Hemolytic... Explanation: Sulfa medications can caus…
Answer: A. Iron deficiency... Explanation: All of the answers l…
Answer: D. Conjunctival pallor... Explanation: Conjunctival pal…
A patient develops hemolytic anemia af…
Answer: C. Supportive treatment... Explanation: Hemolytic anemi…
A 32-year-old male of Mediterranean de…
Answer: A. Hemolytic... Explanation: Sulfa medications can caus…
Hematological Disorders
What s/s will your patient portray if…
What synthetic hormone stimulates the…
In Aplastic anemia the patient has a l…
What is the appropriate nursing care f…
Yellowing of eyes/skin, fainting, chest pain, angina, heart a…
Epoetin alfa (Procrit)
Pancytopenia (WBC, RBC, platelets)
Apply pressure for 10-15 minutes, frequent vitals, apply a pr…
What s/s will your patient portray if…
Yellowing of eyes/skin, fainting, chest pain, angina, heart a…
What synthetic hormone stimulates the…
Epoetin alfa (Procrit)
18 terms
Hematological Disorders
How long does epistaxis usually last?
When should epistaxis go to ER?
HGB in 2 months?
HGB in 6-12 years?
10 minutes
Lasts more than 30 mins
9-14
11.5-15.5
How long does epistaxis usually last?
10 minutes
When should epistaxis go to ER?
Lasts more than 30 mins
Hematological Disorders
Anemia
Anemia Pathophysiology
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Iron deficiency anemia causes
Deficiency of RBC's or insufficient Hb within the RBC's... B/C H…
Impaired production of RBC's i.e. aplastic anemia and nutriti…
Most common nutrient deficiency in the world... occurs when the…
insufficient intake of iron, excessive blood loss or persiste…
Anemia
Deficiency of RBC's or insufficient Hb within the RBC's... B/C H…
Anemia Pathophysiology
Impaired production of RBC's i.e. aplastic anemia and nutriti…
hematological disorders
hematologic disorders
GI Disorders
immune/lymphatic disorders
urinary disorders
...
...
...
...
hematologic disorders
...
GI Disorders
...
23 terms
Hematological Disorders
Pediatric Considerations
Heme Assessment
Iron Deficiency Anemia
IDA Risk Factors
Children compensate well to low hemoglobin levels, fetal iron…
CBC is the most common tool (left shift usually indicates a n…
The most common nutrition disorder in US (higher in Hispanic…
Preemies (low fetal iron supply since iron is stored in the l…
Pediatric Considerations
Children compensate well to low hemoglobin levels, fetal iron…
Heme Assessment
CBC is the most common tool (left shift usually indicates a n…
52 terms
Hematological Disorders
3 types of Blood Cells
Erythrocyte Production
Anemia
CM of Anemia
erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes
regulated by 02 requirements, metabolic activity, erythropoie…
dec in # of RBC's, hematocrit, hemoglobin
CV - inc HR, angina, MI, CHF... Resp. - inc RR, dyspnea ... Neuro.…
3 types of Blood Cells
erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes
Erythrocyte Production
regulated by 02 requirements, metabolic activity, erythropoie…
Hematological Disorders
Nutritional anemia, megaloblastic, mic…
Megaloblastic anemia
Microcytic anemia
Iron depletion
The most common form of anemia, further classified as _______…
Large, irregular, oval shaped RBC with decreased capacity to…
Small, hypochromic, pale RBC, with impaired heme synthesis re…
Subclinical phase, there is increased transferrin iron-bindin…
Nutritional anemia, megaloblastic, mic…
The most common form of anemia, further classified as _______…
Megaloblastic anemia
Large, irregular, oval shaped RBC with decreased capacity to…
9 terms
Hematological disorders
anemia
iron-deficiency anemia
pernicious anemia
aplastic anemia
causes a reduction in O2 transport: basic problem is a hemogl…
insufficient iron impairs hemoglobin synthesis. Caused by: lo…
vitamin b12 deficiency, due to lack of intrinsic factor. larg…
impairment or failure of bone marrow; often idiopathic (rando…
anemia
causes a reduction in O2 transport: basic problem is a hemogl…
iron-deficiency anemia
insufficient iron impairs hemoglobin synthesis. Caused by: lo…
Hematological Disorders
erythropoiesis
erythropoietin
RBC production requirements (5)
average lifespan of a RBC
erythrocyte production
released by the kidneys in response to hypoxemia (low O2 leve…
iron... folate... B12... erythropoietin... functional stem cells
100-120 days
erythropoiesis
erythrocyte production
erythropoietin
released by the kidneys in response to hypoxemia (low O2 leve…
Hematological disorders
Red Marrow
Lymph
Thymus
Spleen
blood cells are formed here
White cell function
T cell maturation
extra red cells, has immunity, destroys old red cells
Red Marrow
blood cells are formed here
Lymph
White cell function
Hematological disorders
RBC primary role
RBC stimulus
RBC are produced where?
Immature cell in 1%of circulating RBC
Oxygenation, acid-base balance
Erythropoeitin (kidney), cytokines
Bone marrow, stem cell (pluripotent)
Reticulocyte
RBC primary role
Oxygenation, acid-base balance
RBC stimulus
Erythropoeitin (kidney), cytokines
69 terms
hematological disorders
activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT)
platelet adhesion
platelet aggregation
allele
measures the activity of the intrinsic and common pathways of…
adhesion of platelets to any area with damaged blood vessel…
progressive accumulation of platelets, attracted by other pla…
one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by…
activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT)
measures the activity of the intrinsic and common pathways of…
platelet adhesion
adhesion of platelets to any area with damaged blood vessel…
Hematological Disorders
Composition of Blood... Blood is compose…
Blood Clotting
Describe steps of Hemostasis (blood cl…
______ breaks down the blood clot
PLASMA... CELLULAR COMPONENTS: Erythrocytes (RBCs), Leukocytes (…
Hemostasis
1. Vasconstriction or vascular spasm after injury... 2. Platelet…
Plasmin
Composition of Blood... Blood is compose…
PLASMA... CELLULAR COMPONENTS: Erythrocytes (RBCs), Leukocytes (…
Blood Clotting
Hemostasis
62 terms
Hematological Disorders
RBC disorders
Decreased RBC Production
Increased RBC destruction
Blood loss
Reduction in the number of RBCs, reduction in the amount of h…
Iron deficiency... Vitamin B12 deficiency... Folic acid deficiency…
Sickle cell anemia ... Antibodies... Infection... Toxins
Acute and Chronic
RBC disorders
Reduction in the number of RBCs, reduction in the amount of h…
Decreased RBC Production
Iron deficiency... Vitamin B12 deficiency... Folic acid deficiency…
Hematological disorders
Erythrocytes
Anemia
Loss of erythrocytes
Sickle Cell disease
RBC... 1/2 life-120 days... Removed by spleen... Organelles-plasmalemm…
Reduced hemoglobin... Causes-loss of erythrocytes, hemolysis, de…
Acute or chronic loss of blood... Mechanical or autoimmune hemol…
AA more common... Hemoglobin sickles... The flat red blood cell sic…
Erythrocytes
RBC... 1/2 life-120 days... Removed by spleen... Organelles-plasmalemm…
Anemia
Reduced hemoglobin... Causes-loss of erythrocytes, hemolysis, de…
51 terms
Hematological Disorders
elevated red blood cells
decreased red blood cells
increased white blood cells
decreased white blood cells
polycythemia
anemia
infection
pancytopenia/leukopenia
elevated red blood cells
polycythemia
decreased red blood cells
anemia
39 terms
Hematological Disorders
Major RBC Disorders
Anemia
Size Classification of Anemia
Pancytopenia
-Anemia... -Polycythemia... -Pancytopenia... -Thalassemia... Problem can…
Abnormally low hemoglobin concentration or *not enough heal…
-Microcytic (smaller than normal RBC)... -Macrocytic (larger tha…
Deficiency of all three blood cell types.... -Characteristic o…
Major RBC Disorders
-Anemia... -Polycythemia... -Pancytopenia... -Thalassemia... Problem can…
Anemia
Abnormally low hemoglobin concentration or *not enough heal…
53 terms
Hematological Disorders
erythrocytes definition
erythrocytes function
anemia definition
causes of anemia
RBCs, biconcave disc, made by flat bones, half life is 120 da…
carry hemoglobin to transport O2, CO2 and buffer pH by attach…
reduced hemoglobin
loss of erythrocytes, hemolysis (increased destruction of ery…
erythrocytes definition
RBCs, biconcave disc, made by flat bones, half life is 120 da…
erythrocytes function
carry hemoglobin to transport O2, CO2 and buffer pH by attach…
28 terms
Hematological Disorders
Anemia-Nursing Care
Pernicious Anemia- Nursing Care
Aplastic Anemia- Nursing Care
WBC range
decrease in the number of RBC or decrease in the capability t…
Intrinsic factor missing resulting in an inability to absorb…
body stops producing enough new blood cells- S/S: Leukopenia…
5,000 - 10,000
Anemia-Nursing Care
decrease in the number of RBC or decrease in the capability t…
Pernicious Anemia- Nursing Care
Intrinsic factor missing resulting in an inability to absorb…
Hematological Disorders
Cresent shaped
Platelet count less than 100,000
DIC
Mononucleosis
Sickle cell
...
...
...
Cresent shaped
Sickle cell
Platelet count less than 100,000
...
36 terms
Hematological Disorders
RBC's
WBC
Platelets... (thrombocytes)
hematopoiesis
3.5-6.7... last 120 days
5-10K... 13-20 days
150-400K... 5-7 days
continual process of replenishing blood supply... formation and…
RBC's
3.5-6.7... last 120 days
WBC
5-10K... 13-20 days
40 terms
Hematological Disorders
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Clinical Ma…
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
Acute Lymphocytic Anemia Clinical Mani…
Uncontrolled proliferation of myeloblasts and hyperplasia of…
Fatigue and weakness, headache, mouth sores, anemia, bleeding…
Immature small lymphocytes proliferate in the bone marrow; mo…
Fever, pallor, bleeding, anorexia, fatigue and weakness. Bone…
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
Uncontrolled proliferation of myeloblasts and hyperplasia of…
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Clinical Ma…
Fatigue and weakness, headache, mouth sores, anemia, bleeding…
Hematological Disorders
Rationale for the use of Heparin for DVT
Embolus
Intrinsic Coagulation Pathway
Extrinsic Coagulation Pathway
used to minimize further consumption of clotting factors. The…
- Embolus from left ventricle- ischemic stroke or distal arte…
initiated when blood comes into contact with altered vascular…
begins when the vascular wall is traumatized (crush injury)... -…
Rationale for the use of Heparin for DVT
used to minimize further consumption of clotting factors. The…
Embolus
- Embolus from left ventricle- ischemic stroke or distal arte…
31 terms
Hematological Disorders
Components of Blood
Functions of Blood
Hematopoiesis
Red Blood Cell Production
Plasma (55%)... RBC's (45%)... WBC's and platelets (<1%)
Erythrocytes carry oxygen to tissues and remove carbon dioxid…
Formation of blood cells
Origin in bone marrow ... Regulated by oxygen demand and the blo…
Components of Blood
Plasma (55%)... RBC's (45%)... WBC's and platelets (<1%)
Functions of Blood
Erythrocytes carry oxygen to tissues and remove carbon dioxid…
29 terms
Hematological Disorders
Food Allergies That Children Usually O…
Food Allergies That Persist Throughout…
Allergic Response
Atopy
Egg, soy, milk, wheat
Shellfish, fish, tree nuts, peanut
IgE antibodies respond, mast cells activated, histamine relea…
Allergic reactions not life threatening (eczema, allergic rhi…
Food Allergies That Children Usually O…
Egg, soy, milk, wheat
Food Allergies That Persist Throughout…
Shellfish, fish, tree nuts, peanut
25 terms
Hematological Disorders
Iron Deficiency Anemia
B12 Deficiency
Folate Deficiency
Hemolytic Anemia
Pallor, fatigability, weakness, dizziness, irritability... Pagop…
Megaloblastic Anemia... Presents with:... 1) methylmalonyl acidem…
Homocysteineremia... megaloblastic anemia... related to diet... Assoc…
Primary (Congenital) vs. Secondary (acquired)... Indirect Signs…
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Pallor, fatigability, weakness, dizziness, irritability... Pagop…
B12 Deficiency
Megaloblastic Anemia... Presents with:... 1) methylmalonyl acidem…
52 terms
Hematological Disorders
lymphoid
myeloid
reticulocyte
extramedullary hematopoiesis
This type of progenitor gives rise to lymphocytes and natural…
This type of progenitor gives rise to all WBCs other than lym…
The formation of the _______ is toward the end of erythropoie…
This type of "blood generation" occurs outside of the bone; u…
lymphoid
This type of progenitor gives rise to lymphocytes and natural…
myeloid
This type of progenitor gives rise to all WBCs other than lym…
Hematological Disorders
Anemia Defined:
Anemia occurs
Most common child hood anemia
Most common anemia in pregnancy
A complex of sings and symptoms characterized by decreases in…
When the insult is severe enough to disturb normal homeostati…
Iron deficiency
Iron deficiency
Anemia Defined:
A complex of sings and symptoms characterized by decreases in…
Anemia occurs
When the insult is severe enough to disturb normal homeostati…
28 terms
Hematological disorders
Sickle cell Anemia
Causes of sickling
Treatment for sickling
Interventions for sickling
Abnormal hemaglobin s. Have insufficant oxygen and cause cell…
Fever, dehydration, and emotional or physical stress, any con…
Hydration, oxygen, pain management, bedrest
Maintain hydration in bloodflow, electrolyte replacement if n…
Sickle cell Anemia
Abnormal hemaglobin s. Have insufficant oxygen and cause cell…
Causes of sickling
Fever, dehydration, and emotional or physical stress, any con…
hematological disorders
an increased number of erythrocytes in…
normal HCT for men and women----normal…
__________ polycythemia is a myeloprol…
SS: from increased blood _________= He…
polycythemia vera, 60, 18.5, 16.5
40-50, 36-40, 12-18, 12-16
primary, hypercellular, elevated, spleen, enlarges, fibrotic…
PV, volume, viscosity, uric acid, histamine, water, erythomel…
an increased number of erythrocytes in…
polycythemia vera, 60, 18.5, 16.5
normal HCT for men and women----normal…
40-50, 36-40, 12-18, 12-16
28 terms
Hematological Disorders
Hgb
Hemaglobinopathies
Thalassemias
Similarities between Hemaglobinopathie…
Tetramer made of two pairs of unlike globin chains. 95% is Hg…
Caused by abnormal structure of globins.
Caused by abnormal low amounts of normal globins.
Genetic... Effect globin... Manifestations can be similar
Hgb
Tetramer made of two pairs of unlike globin chains. 95% is Hg…
Hemaglobinopathies
Caused by abnormal structure of globins.
10 terms
Hematological disorders
Clopidogrel
Cyanocobalamin
Enoxaparin
Factor VIII
(Plavix)... - Platelet aggregation inhibitor... - ADP receptor anta…
(vitamin B12)... - Water soluble vitamin... - Coenzyme for fat and…
(Lovenox)- Low molecular weight heparin... - Anticoagulant... - tre…
(Recombinate)... -
Clopidogrel
(Plavix)... - Platelet aggregation inhibitor... - ADP receptor anta…
Cyanocobalamin
(vitamin B12)... - Water soluble vitamin... - Coenzyme for fat and…
50 terms
hematological disorders
Spleen
Lymph Nodes
high WBC
low WBC
major organ of immunity, graveyard of RBCs.
maturation place of lymphocytes
leukocytosis
leukocytopenia
Spleen
major organ of immunity, graveyard of RBCs.
Lymph Nodes
maturation place of lymphocytes
74 terms
Hematological Disorders
CBC
Leukocytosis
Leukopenia
Hematocrit
RBCS,WBC,Platelets
Increased WBC... Associated with inflammation or infection
Decreased WBC... Viral infections, radiation, chemotherapy
Percent by volume of cellular elements in blood
CBC
RBCS,WBC,Platelets
Leukocytosis
Increased WBC... Associated with inflammation or infection
90 terms
hematological disorders
what causes red blood cells to be prod…
what does anemia do to the body?
what are the 4 primary causes of anemia?
Examples of blood loss... acute vs chronic
We make RBCs in bone marrow... When we use them up (RBCs contai…
lowers the capacity to carry O2 throughout the body
BLOOD LOSS... DEFICIENT ERYTHROPOEISIS... HEMOLYSIS... DEFECTIVE HE…
Acute: hemorrhage, menstruation... Chronic: ulcers, slow GI ble…
what causes red blood cells to be prod…
We make RBCs in bone marrow... When we use them up (RBCs contai…
what does anemia do to the body?
lowers the capacity to carry O2 throughout the body
64 terms
Hematological Disorders
Hematology System Review
Erythrocytes: Function
Erythrocytes: Production
Reticulocyte
1. Bone Marrow: Blood forming tissue, produces cell component…
Responsible for oxygenation. ... Hemoglobin: transports O2 ... Hemo…
Regulated by cellular O2 requirements and general metabolic a…
Immature erythrocytes
Hematology System Review
1. Bone Marrow: Blood forming tissue, produces cell component…
Erythrocytes: Function
Responsible for oxygenation. ... Hemoglobin: transports O2 ... Hemo…
167 terms
Hematological Disorders
How much of the blood is water?
How much of the blood is made of solut…
Approximately how much blood is there…
What percentage of blood volume is pla…
90%
10%
5.5 L
50-55%
How much of the blood is water?
90%
How much of the blood is made of solut…
10%
25 terms
Hematological Disorders
When does iron deficiency anemia peak?
Iron supplements for prophylaxis, mode…
How is sickle cell acquired?
How much water should child with sickl…
6-20 months and puberty
Prophylaxis 1-2mg/kg/day... Moderate 3mg/kg/day or 2XD if needed…
Autosomal recessive disorder; 2 parents with trait = 25% dise…
150mL/kg/day
When does iron deficiency anemia peak?
6-20 months and puberty
Iron supplements for prophylaxis, mode…
Prophylaxis 1-2mg/kg/day... Moderate 3mg/kg/day or 2XD if needed…
119 terms
Hematological Disorders
what makes up the hematological system
what is blood composed of
what does the RES produce
what are the three primary blood cell…
blood, bone marrow and RES
plasma and other cells
macrophages, bone marrow, lymph, and blood cells
erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes
what makes up the hematological system
blood, bone marrow and RES
what is blood composed of
plasma and other cells
Hematological Disorders
Blood
Erythrocytes
Plasma
Plasma is what percent of whole blood?
What is a major body tissue?
Carry oxygen to the tissues and remove carbon dioxide from them
Carries antibodies and nutrients to tissue and removes waste
55%
Blood
What is a major body tissue?
Erythrocytes
Carry oxygen to the tissues and remove carbon dioxide from them
67 terms
Hematological Disorders
What is the function of RBC
What is the half life of RBC?
Which organ removes RBC
What does anemia mean?
Carry hemoglobin to transport O2... Carry CO2... Buffer PH by attac…
120 days
The spleen, after the RBC becomes old and inflexible
Reduced hemoglobin
What is the function of RBC
Carry hemoglobin to transport O2... Carry CO2... Buffer PH by attac…
What is the half life of RBC?
120 days
Hematological Disorders
Hemoglobin
Hematocrit
Total iron Binding Capasity
Serum Iron
14-18 M... 12-16 F... Iron carrying
42-52% M... 37-47 F... Portion of RBC's in 1ml of plasma
250-450... Amount of transferrin inbound with iron.... Increased TI…
50-150
Hemoglobin
14-18 M... 12-16 F... Iron carrying
Hematocrit
42-52% M... 37-47 F... Portion of RBC's in 1ml of plasma
50 terms
hematological disorders
what is the function of RBCs, WBCs & p…
what is anemia?
what are the 3 causes of anemia?
The amount of oxygen carried to the ti…
RBCs = O2 to tissues & take away CO2... WBCs = IMS; protection f…
a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood…
blood loss (acute or chronic)... lack of RBC production... increase…
Available O2... # of RBCs ... Ability of cardiovascular system to d…
what is the function of RBCs, WBCs & p…
RBCs = O2 to tissues & take away CO2... WBCs = IMS; protection f…
what is anemia?
a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood…
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