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Study sets matching "homeostasis acid base"

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Study sets matching "homeostasis acid base"

36 terms
Acid-base homeostasis - respiratory
To calculate blood plasma pH
The pH at which 50% is ionised and 50%…
Left
Right
What is the equation shown used to calculate?
What is pKa?
If pH rises which way does the equation drive?
If pH decreases which way does the equation drive?
To calculate blood plasma pH
What is the equation shown used to calculate?
The pH at which 50% is ionised and 50%…
What is pKa?
90 terms
Acid/Base Homeostasis
Dynamic Equilibrium Equation for H+
What organs excretes CO2?
What organs excretes H+ and HCO3-?
Why is it important for the body to re…
CO2 + H2O --> [H2CO3-] --> H+ + HCO3-
Lungs
Kidneys
Enzyme activity is pH-dependent
Dynamic Equilibrium Equation for H+
CO2 + H2O --> [H2CO3-] --> H+ + HCO3-
What organs excretes CO2?
Lungs
85 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
Normal Acid Base Balance
Acid-base balance
CO₂-bicarbonate buffer system
Acidemia
The body maintains its pH within a normal range (7.35 - 7.45)
- Maintained by pulmonary and renal excretion of carbon dioxi…
Dissolved CO₂ + H2O <—> H2CO3 <—> HCO3- + H+
a blood pH below the normal range of 7.35 -7.45
Normal Acid Base Balance
The body maintains its pH within a normal range (7.35 - 7.45)
Acid-base balance
- Maintained by pulmonary and renal excretion of carbon dioxi…
65 terms
Acid Base Homeostasis
how much H+ typically in the blood
what is normal [H+] in the blood
what are the mechanisms of keeping thi…
Acid production in the body: 2 types
about 40 nEq/L, this is much less than that of the other ions
not concentration but pH: ... 7.37<normal pH<7.42... compatible wi…
1. ECF buffereing... 2. ICF buffering... 3. respiratory compensatio…
1. volatile acid production in the form of CO2... 2. nonvolatile…
how much H+ typically in the blood
about 40 nEq/L, this is much less than that of the other ions
what is normal [H+] in the blood
not concentration but pH: ... 7.37<normal pH<7.42... compatible wi…
10 terms
Physio Acid/Base homeostasis
pH=6.1+log[HCO3]/(.3PaCO2)=7.4
Changing PCO2 move right/left, non bic…
PCT: NHE3... TAL: NHE3... a-intercalated: H/…
NO IT DOESN'T
What is the human pH equation?
Describe how one moves up/down the davenport diagram, and rig…
Describe the enzyme in the PCT, TAL and DCT that is responsib…
Does HCO3 reabsorption in the PCT change net HCO3?
pH=6.1+log[HCO3]/(.3PaCO2)=7.4
What is the human pH equation?
Changing PCO2 move right/left, non bic…
Describe how one moves up/down the davenport diagram, and rig…
38 terms
Acid Base Homeostasis
What ways does the body regulate its pH?
What is a buffer? How does it regulate…
If pH RISES how does the BUFFER regula…
If the pH DROPS how does the BUFFER re…
Buffers, Respiratory System, Urinary System
Buffers are mixtures of weak acids and weak bases at equilibr…
The weak acid portion of the buffer system releases H+ (H+) ↑…
The weak base portion of the buffer system binds H+ (H+)↓ cau…
What ways does the body regulate its pH?
Buffers, Respiratory System, Urinary System
What is a buffer? How does it regulate…
Buffers are mixtures of weak acids and weak bases at equilibr…
38 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
contributors to acid load
contributors to base load
how is CO2 generated?
fixed acids
- physiologic and pathophysiologic processes that generate ac…
- physiologic and pathophysiologic processes that generate ba…
- cellular metabolism produces waste that is acid, from carbo…
- sulfuric acid... - phosphoric acid
contributors to acid load
- physiologic and pathophysiologic processes that generate ac…
contributors to base load
- physiologic and pathophysiologic processes that generate ba…
30 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
What is the optimal pH range of human…
How can the acid-base status of a pati…
What things are measured by an ABG sam…
What is the normal range of pCO2 in ABG?
Between 7.35 and 7.45
By obtaining an arterial blood gas (ABG) sample for analysis.
pH... pCO2... pO2... Bicarbonate... Oxygen Saturation
35-45 mm Hg
What is the optimal pH range of human…
Between 7.35 and 7.45
How can the acid-base status of a pati…
By obtaining an arterial blood gas (ABG) sample for analysis.
36 terms
Acid-base homeostasis
What is the input for acid-base homeos…
What is the output for acid-base homeo…
How much CO2 is produced per day?
What is the plasma [H+]?
Metabolism
Lungs ... Kidneys
25mol/day
40nmol/L
What is the input for acid-base homeos…
Metabolism
What is the output for acid-base homeo…
Lungs ... Kidneys
31 terms
Acid-base homeostasis
Three primary systems that regulate H+…
What are the blood buffer systems?
Are any buffer systems subject to acti…
What is the isohydric principle?
Buffers - seconds... Respiratory centre - minutes... Kidneys - hours
Proteins - Protons can combine with proteins and hydroxyls ca…
Yes, the bicarbonate system.
It states that all buffer systems are in equilibrium with eac…
Three primary systems that regulate H+…
Buffers - seconds... Respiratory centre - minutes... Kidneys - hours
What are the blood buffer systems?
Proteins - Protons can combine with proteins and hydroxyls ca…
73 terms
Acid Base Homeostasis
pH 7.28-7.45: how to determine H+ conc…
pH 7.0 H+ concentration?
pH 7.40 H+ concentration?
pH above 7.40? ex. 7.50
80-decimal fraction of pH
100 nmole/l
40 nmoles/l
.80 x 40= 32 nmoles/lter
pH 7.28-7.45: how to determine H+ conc…
80-decimal fraction of pH
pH 7.0 H+ concentration?
100 nmole/l
20 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
blood pH
mechanisms of acid base homeostasis
acid
base
pH between 7.35-7.45
buffers, respiratory system, renal system
carbon dioxide (CO2)
bicarbonate (HCO-3)
blood pH
pH between 7.35-7.45
mechanisms of acid base homeostasis
buffers, respiratory system, renal system
11 terms
Acid Base Homeostasis
Homeostasis
primary extracellular cation and deter…
more sodium in ECF
dietary Na
-maintenance of static, constant conditions in the internal e…
sodium
-leads to more volume in ECF bc ICF and ECF are in osmotic ho…
-ingested Na stays in ECF bc sodium pumps keep it out of ICF…
Homeostasis
-maintenance of static, constant conditions in the internal e…
primary extracellular cation and deter…
sodium
11 terms
Acid Base Homeostasis
Homeostasis
primary extracellular cation and deter…
more sodium in ECF
dietary Na
-maintenance of static, constant conditions in the internal e…
sodium
-leads to more volume in ECF bc ICF and ECF are in osmotic ho…
-ingested Na stays in ECF bc sodium pumps keep it out of ICF…
Homeostasis
-maintenance of static, constant conditions in the internal e…
primary extracellular cation and deter…
sodium
Acid-Base Homeostasis
Normal Blood pH
Normal PaCO2
Normal HCO3-
No compensation
Acid 7.35-7.45 Base
Base 35-45 Acid... Respiratory
Acid 22-26 Base... Metabolic
Outstanding value is still normal
Normal Blood pH
Acid 7.35-7.45 Base
Normal PaCO2
Base 35-45 Acid... Respiratory
9 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
pH
Acid
Base
Buffer
Determined by concentration of Hydrogen ions (H+).... Normal is…
Donate H+ in a solution
Accept H+
Any mechanism which resists changes in pH.
pH
Determined by concentration of Hydrogen ions (H+).... Normal is…
Acid
Donate H+ in a solution
12 terms
Acid base homeostasis
PO2 affects
Acidosis is:
Respiratory acidosis:
Metabolic acidosis:
Body fluids because an enzyme combines CO2 with water to form…
pH of ECF below 7.35 (H+ too high)
Caused by lung dysfunction, and accumulation of CO2.... Rate exc…
Reasons other than accumulation of CO2. ... 1) Lactic acid produ…
PO2 affects
Body fluids because an enzyme combines CO2 with water to form…
Acidosis is:
pH of ECF below 7.35 (H+ too high)
16 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
What is pH
Concentration of pH
Normal pH of ECF
Equation
Is the concentration of H+ in a solution
- pH 7 is neutral ... - pH below 7 is acidic... - pH above 7 is alk…
pH of ECF normally remains with relatively narrow limits usua…
CO2 + H2O ⇆ H2CO3 (carbonic acid) ⇆ H+... = HCO3- (bicarbonate)
What is pH
Is the concentration of H+ in a solution
Concentration of pH
- pH 7 is neutral ... - pH below 7 is acidic... - pH above 7 is alk…
42 terms
acid and base homeostasis
measurement of hydrogen ions in their…
relationship between pH and H+
biggest acid in body
acid
pH
inverse relationship
CO2
any chemical substance capable of releasing H+
measurement of hydrogen ions in their…
pH
relationship between pH and H+
inverse relationship
11 terms
Acid base Homeostasis powerpoint
pH
pH of ECF
Respiratory Acidosis
Metabolic Acidosis
is the concentration of H+ in a solution
Normally remains within relatively narrow limits using pH 7.3…
Occurs when CO2 accumulates during lung disfunction
Caused by... 1. Lactic acid production during anaerobic respirat…
pH
is the concentration of H+ in a solution
pH of ECF
Normally remains within relatively narrow limits using pH 7.3…
37 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
Acid-Base Homeostasis
How is pH maintained?
Neutral pH
Acidic pH
Refers to the processes that maintain the proper pH of body f…
By regulating the concentration of free H+ ions
7.0
Less than 7
Acid-Base Homeostasis
Refers to the processes that maintain the proper pH of body f…
How is pH maintained?
By regulating the concentration of free H+ ions
33 terms
Acid-Base homeostasis
arterial blood
buffers
chemical buffer
pka and concentration
which blood is used in practice as a reference?
agent the minimizes changes in pH when and acid or base is ad…
mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base ; ex: carbonic…
effectiveness of a buffer is based on
arterial blood
which blood is used in practice as a reference?
buffers
agent the minimizes changes in pH when and acid or base is ad…
96 terms
acid-base homeostasis
acid characteristics:
base characteristics:
what is the pKa?
normal pH of arterial blood:
-dissociate in sol'n... -produce hydrogen ions... -more hydrogen io…
-ionize in sol'n... -produce hydroxide ions... -more hydroxide ions…
the pH at which a compound is 50% ionized
7.35-7.45
acid characteristics:
-dissociate in sol'n... -produce hydrogen ions... -more hydrogen io…
base characteristics:
-ionize in sol'n... -produce hydroxide ions... -more hydroxide ions…
30 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
Acid Base Homeostasis
Acid Production
Acid Buffering
Buffer type and locations
Involves the interplay of acid production, acid buffering, an…
Occurs in body cells!... Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) - cells secrete…
-Keeps the body from having rapid pH swings.... -A buffer is a s…
-hemoglobin buffer system is inside erythrocytes... -Phosphate b…
Acid Base Homeostasis
Involves the interplay of acid production, acid buffering, an…
Acid Production
Occurs in body cells!... Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) - cells secrete…
25 terms
Acid Base Homeostasis
what happens to temperature as pH decr…
what happens to temperature as pH incr…
as pH decreases, what happens to Hgb a…
as pH increases, what happens to Hgb a…
temperature increases (hyperthermia)
temperature decreases (hypothermia)
will have decreased affinity= greater risk of desaturation
will have increased affinity= O2 and Hgb have tighter bond
what happens to temperature as pH decr…
temperature increases (hyperthermia)
what happens to temperature as pH incr…
temperature decreases (hypothermia)
53 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
pH
relationship btw pH and H+
acid-Base Balance
Bases
H+... normal is ph is 7.35-7.45
it is inverse... an increase in PH is a decrease in H+... a decreas…
Acids- any chemical substance capable of RELEASING an H+
any substance capable of combining with or ACCEPTING a hydrog…
pH
H+... normal is ph is 7.35-7.45
relationship btw pH and H+
it is inverse... an increase in PH is a decrease in H+... a decreas…
24 terms
Acid Base Homeostasis and Imbalances
What is the purpose of acid base homeo…
Acid
Base
Measurement of Balance: pH
Metabolic processes produce acids that must be neutralized an…
Substances that release H+ ion when dissolved in water
Substances that will bind to H+ ion when dissolved in water
Measure of H+ ion concentration... H+ ion concentration < 0.0001…
What is the purpose of acid base homeo…
Metabolic processes produce acids that must be neutralized an…
Acid
Substances that release H+ ion when dissolved in water
43 terms
Acid/Base Homeostasis
Three things that work together to ens…
Acid
Base
How is the acidity and basicity of a s…
Chemical buffers, Respiratory system, Urinary system
chemical substance that donate hydrogen ion (H+)
Chemical substance that accept hydrogen ion (H+)
pH units
Three things that work together to ens…
Chemical buffers, Respiratory system, Urinary system
Acid
chemical substance that donate hydrogen ion (H+)
73 terms
Acid Base Homeostasis
Disorders of hydrogen ion (H+) metabol…
If the disorder of H+ develops to abno…
If the disorder is due to a loss of ac…
T/F A patient can have acidosis even t…
excess H+; acidosis... deficiency of H+; alkalosis
respiratory
metabolic
True
Disorders of hydrogen ion (H+) metabol…
excess H+; acidosis... deficiency of H+; alkalosis
If the disorder of H+ develops to abno…
respiratory
22 terms
acid-base homeostasis
acids
bases
normal pH of arterial blood
acidosis
molecules that release free H
molecules that bind free H (proteins and Hemoglobin also do t…
7.35 to 7.45
pH less than 7.35
acids
molecules that release free H
bases
molecules that bind free H (proteins and Hemoglobin also do t…
52 terms
Acid- Base Homeostasis
When we up or down by one pH unit, we…
pH arterial blood
pH venous blood
pH of interstitial fluid
10
7.35 -7.45
7.35 because there is more carbonic acid
7.35
When we up or down by one pH unit, we…
10
pH arterial blood
7.35 -7.45
17 terms
Acid- Base Homeostasis
Acid Base Homeostasis
pH maintained
Acids
Bases
-Refers to process that maintain the proper pH of body fluids
-Regulating the concentration of free (unbound) hydrogen ion…
Molecules that release free H+ ... ex. hydrochloric acid: HCI =>…
Molecules that bind free H+... ex. HCO3- + H+ => H2CO3... *Proteins…
Acid Base Homeostasis
-Refers to process that maintain the proper pH of body fluids
pH maintained
-Regulating the concentration of free (unbound) hydrogen ion…
60 terms
Homeostasis Acid-Base (N160)
Which of the following is true about t…
Acid-base imbalances may be isolated f…
Hydrogen concentration in the blood &…
Which of the following is true about p…
a, c, & d... Incorrect:... b) Hydrogen ion is regulated within a v…
False! ... Acid-base imbalance is the result/caused by other di…
Hydrogen concentration in the blood & body is normally very l…
d) As hydrogen concentration increases, pH decreases
Which of the following is true about t…
a, c, & d... Incorrect:... b) Hydrogen ion is regulated within a v…
Acid-base imbalances may be isolated f…
False! ... Acid-base imbalance is the result/caused by other di…
29 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
Acid-Base balance
What does the bodies metabolic process…
Cation
Anion
Physiological mechanism that keeps the hydrogen ion conc. Of…
H+ that is why its regulation is vital
Positively charged ions
Negatively charged ions
Acid-Base balance
Physiological mechanism that keeps the hydrogen ion conc. Of…
What does the bodies metabolic process…
H+ that is why its regulation is vital
46 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
Acids and Bases
normal body pH
pH regulation
types of acids
- acids: donate protons... - bases: accept protons... - pH = measu…
- between 7.35 and 7.45
- Kidneys and lungs work together to maintain pH between 7.35…
- volatile (carbonic acid, H2CO3) --> can be removed through…
Acids and Bases
- acids: donate protons... - bases: accept protons... - pH = measu…
normal body pH
- between 7.35 and 7.45
19 terms
Acid Base Homeostasis
buffers, lungs and kidneys
buffers
lung
kidney
mechanisms of acid-base homeostasis
carbolic acid, hemoglobin and phosphate are all under what me…
co2 drives what mechanism of homeostasis
HCO3-, phosphate and NH3/NH4 drive what mechanism of homeosta…
buffers, lungs and kidneys
mechanisms of acid-base homeostasis
buffers
carbolic acid, hemoglobin and phosphate are all under what me…
18 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
Normal extracellular pH
Abnormal blood pH
How can acidification occur
How is acidification often counteracted?
6.4
>7.4 or <7.4
CO2 from aerobic respiration... Lactic Acid from glycolysis... Fatt…
Bicarbonate, proteins -> act as buffers... - Elimination of CO2…
Normal extracellular pH
6.4
Abnormal blood pH
>7.4 or <7.4
26 terms
Acid Base Homeostasis
Acid base homeostasis
How is PH maintianed?
PH measurements
Acids
the processes that maintain the proper ph of body fluids
By regulating the concentration of free (unbound) H+ in fluids
pH= 7 is neutral... pH < 7 is acidic... pH > 7 is basic (alkaline)
Molecules that release free H+
Acid base homeostasis
the processes that maintain the proper ph of body fluids
How is PH maintianed?
By regulating the concentration of free (unbound) H+ in fluids
Acid-base homeostasis
What is the pKa of the reaction CO2 +…
Cysteine and methionine metabolism...
Aspartate and glutamate metabolism...
Where is glutamine produced
6.1
yields H2SO4-
yields H2SO4-
In the liver, from 'waste' amino acids by transanimation, as…
What is the pKa of the reaction CO2 +…
6.1
Cysteine and methionine metabolism...
yields H2SO4-
47 terms
Acid Base Homeostasis
Rate and Depth of ventilation (breathi…
Central Chemoreceptors
Peripheral Chemoreceptors
Increase in CO2 =
PaCO2
- 70-80 % of ventilatory response... - Located on the ventrolate…
- 20-30 % of ventilatory response... - Indirect contact with blo…
Blood becomes more ACIDIC
Rate and Depth of ventilation (breathi…
PaCO2
Central Chemoreceptors
- 70-80 % of ventilatory response... - Located on the ventrolate…
64 terms
Acid- Base Homeostasis
pH
pH normal range
absolute normal pH
Acid
-degree of acidity or alkalinity ... -reflects H+ ion concentrat…
7.35-7.45
7.4 (anything less is acidotic - more is alkalotic)
large amount of H+ ions/ pH low (Acidotic)
pH
-degree of acidity or alkalinity ... -reflects H+ ion concentrat…
pH normal range
7.35-7.45
22 terms
21: Acid-Base Homeostasis
acid-base balance
Acids
Bases (2 Common Types)
H+ sources come from where?
Process that maintains the proper pH in body fluids
Molecules that release free H+... -Carbonic acid... -Hydrochloric a…
Molecules that bind free H+... -Protein... -Hemoglobin
Metabolic ... Organic acids in body (lactic/fatty acids)... Dietary…
acid-base balance
Process that maintains the proper pH in body fluids
Acids
Molecules that release free H+... -Carbonic acid... -Hydrochloric a…
32 terms
Acid/base homeostasis
3 things work together to ensure the p…
Acid
Base
How is acidity and basicity measured?
Chemical buffers, respiratory system, urinary system
Chemical substances that donate hydrogen ions
Chemical substances that accept hydrogen ions
Units of pH
3 things work together to ensure the p…
Chemical buffers, respiratory system, urinary system
Acid
Chemical substances that donate hydrogen ions
40 terms
Acid/Base Homeostasis
What three things work together to ens…
Acid
Base
How is the acidity and basicity of a s…
Chemical buffers... respiratory system... urinary system
chemical substances that donate hydrogen ion (H+)
chemical substance that accept hydrogen ion (H+)
in units of pH, measures free H+
What three things work together to ens…
Chemical buffers... respiratory system... urinary system
Acid
chemical substances that donate hydrogen ion (H+)
96 terms
acid-base homeostasis
acid characteristics:
base characteristics:
what is the pKa?
normal pH of arterial blood:
-dissociate in sol'n... -produce hydrogen ions... -more hydrogen io…
-ionize in sol'n... -produce hydroxide ions... -more hydroxide ions…
the pH at which a compound is 50% ionized
7.35-7.45
acid characteristics:
-dissociate in sol'n... -produce hydrogen ions... -more hydrogen io…
base characteristics:
-ionize in sol'n... -produce hydroxide ions... -more hydroxide ions…
Acid-Base Homeostasis
What regulates acid-base homeostasis?
Most bicarbonate is reabsorbed where?
What enzyme facilitates HCO3 reabsorpt…
Example of metabolic acids?
interactions of kidneys, pulmonary system, and buffers
Proximal tubules
carbonic anhydrase
Ammonium
What regulates acid-base homeostasis?
interactions of kidneys, pulmonary system, and buffers
Most bicarbonate is reabsorbed where?
Proximal tubules
44 terms
Acid-Base Homeostasis
What is the Arterial blood pH
What is the intracellular pH
Alkalemia
Acidemia
7.4... -ranges from 7.35-7.45... --anything outside this disrupts s…
7.0... -kept lower than blood pH due to metabolic byproducts in…
-blood pH above 7.45... ---AKA alkalsosis... -over 7.8 = death due…
-blood pH below 7.35... --acidosis... -pH below 7.0 causes central…
What is the Arterial blood pH
7.4... -ranges from 7.35-7.45... --anything outside this disrupts s…
What is the intracellular pH
7.0... -kept lower than blood pH due to metabolic byproducts in…
67 terms
MOD- acid-base homeostasis
What are used to maintain normal pH?
What are the buffering systems in the…
What is the reference range for [H+]?
What is the reference range for pH?
buffers
haemoglobin, bicarbonate, phosphate, proteins, ammonia, misc.…
35-45nmol/L
7.35-7.45
What are used to maintain normal pH?
buffers
What are the buffering systems in the…
haemoglobin, bicarbonate, phosphate, proteins, ammonia, misc.…
17 terms
16 - ACID BASE HOMEOSTASIS
look at notes
What are the compensatory mechanisms f…
What is normal [H+]
What is the acid-base equation
1st page
Respiratory, renal bicarbonate regeneration, hepatic shift be…
40nmol/L (range 36-44)
H+ + HCO3- --> H2CO3 --> CO2 + H2O
look at notes
1st page
What are the compensatory mechanisms f…
Respiratory, renal bicarbonate regeneration, hepatic shift be…
22 terms
Acid base balance and homeostasis
what is PH ?
what is PH measured in ?
what is considered acidic ?
what is considered neutral ?
a measure of acidity and alkalinity in a solution. Measures c…
runs from 1-14
1-6.9
7
what is PH ?
a measure of acidity and alkalinity in a solution. Measures c…
what is PH measured in ?
runs from 1-14
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