How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Study sets matching "host defense mechanisms"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "host defense mechanisms"

14 terms
Specific Host Defense Mechanisms
Humoral immunity
CMI
Primary functions of the immune system
AMI
Always involves the production of antibodies.
cell-mediated immunity
Differentiate between "self" and "nonself"
antibody-mediated immunity
Humoral immunity
Always involves the production of antibodies.
CMI
cell-mediated immunity
29 terms
Nonspecific Host Defense Mechanisms
The first two lines of defense
Antibodies
Antigens
Intact skin and mucous membranes
They are directed against any foreign substances that enter o…
Produced in the body in response to the presence of foreign s…
Stimulate the production of specific antibodies; they are "an…
Physical or mechanical barriers
The first two lines of defense
They are directed against any foreign substances that enter o…
Antibodies
Produced in the body in response to the presence of foreign s…
31 terms
Host Defense Mechanisms
Host defese mechanisms play a role in...
What are 4 defense systems that exist?…
Defense #1: What are the 3 anatomical…
What does the JE lack?
disease prevention
1. anatomic barriers (include the epithelium and an ideal den…
-epithelium: inact, difficult barrier to breach (skin, intrao…
lacks keratin and is perhaps the oral site most susceptible t…
Host defese mechanisms play a role in...
disease prevention
What are 4 defense systems that exist?…
1. anatomic barriers (include the epithelium and an ideal den…
22 terms
110 Host Defense Mechanisms
The strongest evidence that oral healt…
A ___________________ relationship is…
Which is not one of the 4 listed defen…
T/F The immune system is considered on…
b) diabetes
symbiotic
e) none of the above
True
The strongest evidence that oral healt…
b) diabetes
A ___________________ relationship is…
symbiotic
11 terms
Failures of Host defense mechanisms
Infant development:
Where is the danger for babies?
Breast feeding
Complement deficiencies
Transition from maternal immunity to personal immunity.
Increased susceptibility to disease between 3 and 12 month.…
only protects intestinal tract
...
Infant development:
Transition from maternal immunity to personal immunity.
Where is the danger for babies?
Increased susceptibility to disease between 3 and 12 month.…
43 terms
Host Defense Mechanisms of the Lung
B and T cells
CD200
Top: Tight junctions... Bottom: adherens…
Claudins 3, 4, 18
adaptive immunity
prevent over-exuberant immune responses to maintain tissue in…
what are theses barriers?
what are some interecellular proteins that make up tight and…
B and T cells
adaptive immunity
CD200
prevent over-exuberant immune responses to maintain tissue in…
18 terms
Defense Mechanisms of the Host in Perspective
defenses
innate
adaptive
some defenses
physical barriers, chemical defenses, immunologically active…
present at birth
acquired after birth and exposure to antigens
interact to create a coordinated response
defenses
physical barriers, chemical defenses, immunologically active…
innate
present at birth
47 terms
Host Defense Mechanisms of the lung
How has the lungs immune system evolved?
What parts of the innate and adaptive…
What mechanisms are in place to ensure…
What immunological protection do epith…
The lung's immune system has evolved so that it can ward off…
innate immunity: respiratory epithelial cells, resident Mɸ an…
reduced PRR expression... surfactant proteins... 'don't eat me sign…
Intercellular junctions... especially tight and adherens junctio…
How has the lungs immune system evolved?
The lung's immune system has evolved so that it can ward off…
What parts of the innate and adaptive…
innate immunity: respiratory epithelial cells, resident Mɸ an…
38 terms
Specific host defense mechanisms
B cells and Ab Th2
T helper
Humoral immunity
B cells
Humoral immunity involves what cells
middle men that produce cytokines
prod of Ab in response to antigens
main antibody producers ?
B cells and Ab Th2
Humoral immunity involves what cells
T helper
middle men that produce cytokines
38 terms
Host defense mechanisms
4 Main Categories of Defenses
General Barriers
Age
Nutrition
General Barriers, Physical and Mechanical Barrier, Chemical B…
Age, nutrition, genetics & fever
Infants and elderly have increased susceptibility and/or seve…
malnutrition increases susceptibility and/or severity of dise…
4 Main Categories of Defenses
General Barriers, Physical and Mechanical Barrier, Chemical B…
General Barriers
Age, nutrition, genetics & fever
22 terms
Mechanisms of Host Defense
Examples of resistance to phagocytosis…
Examples of scavenging of reactive oxy…
Examples of antigenic variation... extrac…
inhibition of phagyolysosome formation…
pneumococcus, neisseria meningitis
catalase-positive staphylcocci
neisseria gonorrhoeae, E coli, salmonell typhimurium
mycobacterium tuberculosis, legionella, pneumophila
Examples of resistance to phagocytosis…
pneumococcus, neisseria meningitis
Examples of scavenging of reactive oxy…
catalase-positive staphylcocci
10 terms
Host Defense Mechanisms
Interferons
Antibodies
Cell-mediated immunity
Control of Viruses
IFN-alpha and IFN-beta are produced in response to viral infe…
Our body forms antibodies against antigens (spikes on surface…
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognizes and kills self-cells…
Vaccinations (provokes primary immune response, formation of…
Interferons
IFN-alpha and IFN-beta are produced in response to viral infe…
Antibodies
Our body forms antibodies against antigens (spikes on surface…
15 terms
Host Defense Mechanisms (Parasitology)
First line
Second line
Third line
Skin, mucous membranes, secretions
physical barriers to ability to invade host
nonspecific defenses of host
specific, acquired host defense mechanisms
What are three examples of first line host defense mechanisms?
First line
physical barriers to ability to invade host
Second line
nonspecific defenses of host
15 terms
Mechanisms of Host Defense
Host Defense mechanism for Viruses Inn…
Host defense mechanism for viruses ada…
How do we protect ourselves from reinf…
Defense against extracellular bacteria…
Type I interferon and NK cells
CTLS-helps recover from infection
neutralizing antibodies... IgA is most important for extracellul…
IgG complement-opsonization (c3b), acute inflammation(c3A, C5…
Host Defense mechanism for Viruses Inn…
Type I interferon and NK cells
Host defense mechanism for viruses ada…
CTLS-helps recover from infection
29 terms
Specific Host Defense Mechanisms
Humoral Immunity
Cell-mediated Immunity
Where do humoral immune responses occur?
List antibody classes from most abunda…
Always involves the production of antibodies which remain in…
Involves multiple cell types, including macrophages, T helper…
Spleen, Lymph nodes, tonsils, and adenoids
G, A, M, D, E
Humoral Immunity
Always involves the production of antibodies which remain in…
Cell-mediated Immunity
Involves multiple cell types, including macrophages, T helper…
21 terms
Host Defense Mechanisms
innate
acquired
nonspecific
specific
present at birth
picked up over time
protects against many harmful substances
protects against specific pathogens
innate
present at birth
acquired
picked up over time
59 terms
Specific Host Defense Mechanisms
Antigens
Antigenic determinants or epitopes.
Classifications of Antigens
T-Dependent Antigens
-molecules that stimulate the immune system to produce antibo…
Individual molecules or portions of protein that stimulate th…
T-independent or T-dependent
requires the interaction of a macrophage, a helper T cell, an…
Antigens
-molecules that stimulate the immune system to produce antibo…
Antigenic determinants or epitopes.
Individual molecules or portions of protein that stimulate th…
102 terms
Specific Host Defense Mechanisms
What is the third line of defense?
Immunity
Is the third line of defense specific…
What are the 2 major arms of the immun…
the immune system
resistance to a particular disease in which you acquire by di…
specific
Hummoral Immunity and Cell-Mediated Immunity
What is the third line of defense?
the immune system
Immunity
resistance to a particular disease in which you acquire by di…
Nonspecific Host Defense Mechanisms
Host Defense Mecanism
Nonspecific Host Defense Mechanisms
First Line of Defense
First LoD: Skin and Mucous Membranes
-Ways in which the body protects itself from pathogens.... -Thre…
-general... -natural resistants... -can be inheritable... -and include…
-skin and mucous membranes... -Cellular & Chemical Factors... -Micr…
-Physical barriers
Host Defense Mecanism
-Ways in which the body protects itself from pathogens.... -Thre…
Nonspecific Host Defense Mechanisms
-general... -natural resistants... -can be inheritable... -and include…
Specific Host Defense Mechanisms
Immunology
Where Do Immune Responses Occur?
Immune System
Antigens
-scientific study of the immune system and immune responses... -…
-many body sites: spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils and adenoids... -…
-aka Third line of defense... -specific host defense mechanism c…
-molecules that stimulate the immune system to produce antibo…
Immunology
-scientific study of the immune system and immune responses... -…
Where Do Immune Responses Occur?
-many body sites: spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils and adenoids... -…
17 terms
Oral host defense mechanisms
Components of Innate immunity in the o…
How does saliva protect the mouth?
How does the oral epithelium protect t…
Why is the Gingival junctional epithel…
Saliva... Oral epithelium ... Gingival junctional epithelium (weak…
Flushing of bacteria and food particles.... Dissolves food ... Cont…
Tough keratin layer with high lipid content ... Tight cell-cell…
"gate in the castle"... Non-keratinized... loose junctions... Allows…
Components of Innate immunity in the o…
Saliva... Oral epithelium ... Gingival junctional epithelium (weak…
How does saliva protect the mouth?
Flushing of bacteria and food particles.... Dissolves food ... Cont…
30 terms
ID Host Defense Mechanisms
Natural Barriers
Skin
Mucous membranes
Natural Barriers Special Populations
Skin... Mucous Membranes
-physical barrier... -Dry and acidic... -keeps internal structures…
-Cilia - clears out bacteria... -Mucous - traps bacteria... -Isozym…
Burns Patients... Psoriasis patients... CF/COPD
Natural Barriers
Skin... Mucous Membranes
Skin
-physical barrier... -Dry and acidic... -keeps internal structures…
61 terms
Nonspecific Host Defense Mechanisms
What are the Nonspecific Host Defense…
Describe the First Line of Defense
What are the two other properties of t…
Describe the Physical factors
Physical barriers... Chemical factors ... Microbial antagonism... Feve…
-Skin & mucous membranes... -Physical barriers to pathogens... -Inv…
Physical factors and Chemical Factors
-dryness... -pH (acidic)... -temperature (37 *C)... -skin sloughing- "…
What are the Nonspecific Host Defense…
Physical barriers... Chemical factors ... Microbial antagonism... Feve…
Describe the First Line of Defense
-Skin & mucous membranes... -Physical barriers to pathogens... -Inv…
37 terms
Host Defense Mechanisms
What CD is the dont eat me signal mole…
What are Claudins
What are Mucins
What are Mucins rich in
CD200
Molecules that create tight and adherens junctions
Glycoproteins in mucus that form a barrier and biophysical ra…
Serine and theorine
What CD is the dont eat me signal mole…
CD200
What are Claudins
Molecules that create tight and adherens junctions
27 terms
Failures of Host Defense Mechanisms
Failures of Host Defense Mechanisms
Primary Immunodeficiencies
Secondary Immunodeficiencies
Primary Immunodeficiencies
1. Immunodeficiency diseases... - Primary (genetic; inhereted)…
Caused by inherited mutations in any of a large number of gen…
Acquired as a result of other diseases (e.g. HIV), environmen…
Patients with primary immunodeficiences are often clinically…
Failures of Host Defense Mechanisms
1. Immunodeficiency diseases... - Primary (genetic; inhereted)…
Primary Immunodeficiencies
Caused by inherited mutations in any of a large number of gen…
45 terms
Failure of Host Defense Mechanisms
pathogens have many mechanisms by whic…
genetic defects can result in failure…
immune deficiencies can be acquired by…
viral latency
e.g. resisting phagocytosis/ intracellular killing... avoiding r…
e.g. defects in B or T cells developments, phagocyte function…
HIV. HIV tagets CD4 T cells and gradually destroys them over…
allows viruses to remain dormant until a more opportune time
pathogens have many mechanisms by whic…
e.g. resisting phagocytosis/ intracellular killing... avoiding r…
genetic defects can result in failure…
e.g. defects in B or T cells developments, phagocyte function…
76 terms
Nonspecific Host Defense Mechanisms
First line nonspecific host defense me…
Second line nonspecific host defense m…
Skin as an antimicrobial barrier?
What is SALT?
Mechanical/physical barriers (what your skin is doing for you…
Fever (protection), inflammatory response, phagocytic white b…
Very effective; physical and chemical, first line of defense,…
Skin associate lymphoid tissue
First line nonspecific host defense me…
Mechanical/physical barriers (what your skin is doing for you…
Second line nonspecific host defense m…
Fever (protection), inflammatory response, phagocytic white b…
41 terms
Host Defense Mechanisms
What category of defense does it belon…
What category of defense does it belon…
What category of defense does it belon…
What category of defense does it belon…
Category: General Barriers... Infants and elderly have increased…
Category: General Barriers ... Malnutrition increases susceptab…
Category: General Barriers... Have innate immunity: humans cann…
Category: General Barriers ... Fever increases the thermal "set…
What category of defense does it belon…
Category: General Barriers... Infants and elderly have increased…
What category of defense does it belon…
Category: General Barriers ... Malnutrition increases susceptab…
76 terms
Specific Host Defense Mechanisms
What is immunology?
What is immunity?
What is the primary function?
What is acquired immunity?
The study of the immune system and immune responses
Resistance to infection
To distinguish 'self' from 'non-self', and to destroy 'non-se…
Immunity that results from the active production or receipt o…
What is immunology?
The study of the immune system and immune responses
What is immunity?
Resistance to infection
23 terms
Failures in host defense mechanisms
no
antigenic variation
antigenic
serotypes
is immune evasion by pathogens considered an immunodeficiency?
________________ ______________ is the alteration of antigens…
some pathogens exist in a wide variety of _______________ types
different types distinguished based on antibody reactivity
no
is immune evasion by pathogens considered an immunodeficiency?
antigenic variation
________________ ______________ is the alteration of antigens…
41 terms
Host Defense Mechanisms
What category of defense does it belon…
What category of defense does it belon…
What category of defense does it belon…
What category of defense does it belon…
Category: General Barriers... Infants and elderly have increased…
Category: General Barriers ... Malnutrition increases susceptab…
Category: General Barriers... Have innate immunity: humans cann…
Category: General Barriers ... Fever increases the thermal "set…
What category of defense does it belon…
Category: General Barriers... Infants and elderly have increased…
What category of defense does it belon…
Category: General Barriers ... Malnutrition increases susceptab…
7 terms
Defense Mechanisms of the host
What are the two types of defenses?
What are innate defense?
What are acquired defenses?
Define Antigen:
Innate... Acquired
ALWAYS active
MUST BE STIMULATED to become active
foreign substances in the body that produce (activate) an imm…
What are the two types of defenses?
Innate... Acquired
What are innate defense?
ALWAYS active
35 terms
Failures in host defense mechanisms
neutrophils
no
immunodeficiency
primary
total absence of _______________ is lethal
can you survive without neutrophils?
reductions in numbers or partial loss of neutrophil function…
_______________ immunodeficiency is genetic/inherited
neutrophils
total absence of _______________ is lethal
no
can you survive without neutrophils?
32 terms
host defense and mechanisms of pathogenicity
koch's postulates
extracellular pathogens
intracellular pathognes
inflmammatory response- extracelular v…
the property under ingestiagtioon should beasosicated with pa…
toxins... capsules... rapid rowt rate... avoid phagocytosis and repl…
ivrulence factors... ability to grow in mammalian cells... viruse…
extra- acute... intra- chroinc
koch's postulates
the property under ingestiagtioon should beasosicated with pa…
extracellular pathogens
toxins... capsules... rapid rowt rate... avoid phagocytosis and repl…
52 terms
Defense Mechanisms of the Host
What is the first line of defense's job?
What is the second line of defense's j…
What is the third line of defense's job?
What are the first line defenses of th…
Act as barriers that block invasion at the portal of entry, d…
Non-specific, internalized system of protective cells, inflam…
Acquired, based on each foreign substance encountered by the…
- Epithelial cells compacted, cemented together , and impregn…
What is the first line of defense's job?
Act as barriers that block invasion at the portal of entry, d…
What is the second line of defense's j…
Non-specific, internalized system of protective cells, inflam…
22 terms
Host Defense Mechanisms of the Lungs
lmao what is the don't eat me signal m…
My life is a joke?
What are claudins
What do mucins do
CD200
Yes.
Intercellular junctional proteins that create tight and adher…
Gigantigic glycoproteins that help protect epithelial surfaces
lmao what is the don't eat me signal m…
CD200
My life is a joke?
Yes.
197 terms
Host Defense Mechanism
4 main categories of host defenses?
the 4 types of general barriers?
innate immunity
refers to the fact that humans cannot…
general (barriers), physical and mechanical (barriers), chemi…
age, nutrition, genetics, fever
refers to the fact that humans cannot get certain animal dise…
innate immunity
4 main categories of host defenses?
general (barriers), physical and mechanical (barriers), chemi…
the 4 types of general barriers?
age, nutrition, genetics, fever
40 terms
Host defense mechanism
Monocyte
Macrophage
Lymphocyte
Basophil
Young macrophage
Involves in phagocytosis (mononuclear phagocytes)
Level is high when there is viral infection
Containing histamine
Monocyte
Young macrophage
Macrophage
Involves in phagocytosis (mononuclear phagocytes)
50 terms
Host Defenses and Nonspecific Mechanism
Innate/ natural defenses
Adaptive immunities
First Line
First Line Physical barriers
Present at birth... NON SPECIFIC
Must be acquired... SPECIFIC
Physical, chemical, and genetic barriers that block portals o…
-Skin (keratin protein)... -Mucous membranes... -Ciliary escalator…
Innate/ natural defenses
Present at birth... NON SPECIFIC
Adaptive immunities
Must be acquired... SPECIFIC
47 terms
Exam 3 Host Defense Mechanisms
Age
Nutrition
Genetics
Fever
-Belongs to General Barriers... -Provides protection because if…
-Belongs to General Barriers... -Provides protection because if…
-Belongs to General Barriers... -Provides protection because we…
-Belongs to General Barriers... -Provides protection by:... -Possib…
Age
-Belongs to General Barriers... -Provides protection because if…
Nutrition
-Belongs to General Barriers... -Provides protection because if…
89 terms
16: Specific Host Defense Mechanisms
Immunology
Immune system
Nonspecific cellular and chemical resp…
Skin and mucous membrane
Scientific study of immune system
3rd line of defense
2nd line of defense
1st line of defense
Immunology
Scientific study of immune system
Immune system
3rd line of defense
40 terms
Ch.14 Defense Mechanisms of the host
Innate, natural defenses:
Adaptive immunities
First line of defense
Second line of defense
present at birth, provide nonspecific resistance to infection
specific, must be acquired
physical: skin, tears, coughing, sneezing, mucus, nasal hair,…
phagocytosis, inflammation, fever, interferon
Innate, natural defenses:
present at birth, provide nonspecific resistance to infection
Adaptive immunities
specific, must be acquired
73 terms
Exam 4- Host Defense Mechanisms
First line of defense
What are some examples of body compone…
Natural killer cells are involved in__…
Natural killer cell function
Intact skin
Wax, oil, tear drops, cilia, sweat, any mucous membranes, dei…
Second line of defense
1. Look for self makers/cells... 2. If foreign--- WILL kill... 3. *…
First line of defense
Intact skin
What are some examples of body compone…
Wax, oil, tear drops, cilia, sweat, any mucous membranes, dei…
26 terms
Chapter 12- Defense mechanisms of the host
first line of defense
immunology
reticuloendothelial system (RES)
lymphatic system
any physical, chemical, and genetic barrier that block microb…
involves the reticuloendothelial system, extracellular fluid,…
a support network of connective tissue fibers that interconne…
acts as a "drain-off" system for the inflammatory response, a…
first line of defense
any physical, chemical, and genetic barrier that block microb…
immunology
involves the reticuloendothelial system, extracellular fluid,…
53 terms
DH 110 host defense mechanism
microbes
infection
proliferation
1.Anatomic barriers (Epithelium and an…
The entire body is vastly populated by billions of tiny _____…
What is the failure of the host's protective mechanisms
What is is the multiplication of bacteria
What are the defense mechanisms of the mouth
microbes
The entire body is vastly populated by billions of tiny _____…
infection
What is the failure of the host's protective mechanisms
32 terms
Ch 14 defense mechanisms in the host
First line of defense
Second line of defense
Third line of defense
Lysozyme
Barriers that block imvasion at portal of entry. Does not inv…
Non specific, internalized system of protective cells. Inflam…
Acquired on an individual basis as each foreign substance is…
Found in tears and saliva. Hydrolyzes peptidoglycan in the ce…
First line of defense
Barriers that block imvasion at portal of entry. Does not inv…
Second line of defense
Non specific, internalized system of protective cells. Inflam…
17 terms
3. Host Defense & Mechanisms of Pathogenicity (Eisenstein)
what is virulence?
how is virulence measured?
what factors affect host resistance?
what factors affect microbe virulence?
the relative degree of pathogenicity
by the LD50 of a microbe, the dose that kills 50% of animals…
1. genetics: species, strain, familial traits, race/ethnic gr…
1. growth conditions: fresh isolate vs. in vitro, growth temp…
what is virulence?
the relative degree of pathogenicity
how is virulence measured?
by the LD50 of a microbe, the dose that kills 50% of animals…
31 terms
E1: Host Defense Mechanisms
What natural barriers help with non-sp…
How does the skin act as a natural bar…
How do the mucous membranes act as nat…
What are some special populations we n…
Skin... Mucous membranes
Physical barrier ... Dry and Acidic hostile environment
Mucous traps bacteria... Cilia clears out bacteria ... Lysozymes at…
Burn patients ... Psoriasis patients
What natural barriers help with non-sp…
Skin... Mucous membranes
How does the skin act as a natural bar…
Physical barrier ... Dry and Acidic hostile environment
9 terms
Mechanisms of Host Defense Against Infections
Lack of innate immune system
Lack of adaptive immune system
Primary Extracellular Bacterial Infect…
Dendritic cells and Primary Extracellu…
very quick expansion of the pathogen
infection is initially controlled by innate immunity, however…
1) Break in epithelial surface allows bacterial entry and pro…
1) engulf and internalize bacteria... 2) enters local lymph node…
Lack of innate immune system
very quick expansion of the pathogen
Lack of adaptive immune system
infection is initially controlled by innate immunity, however…
66 terms
Mod 2 - Host-Defense Mechanisms
What composes GCF?
What type of electrolytes are in GCF?
What are GCF metabolic breakdown produ…
What is the primary carbohydrate in GCF?
tissue fluids and a wide variety of host and bacterial derive…
Potassium, sodium, calcium
Urea, lactic acid, bacterial endotoxin, hydrogen sulfide
glucose
What composes GCF?
tissue fluids and a wide variety of host and bacterial derive…
What type of electrolytes are in GCF?
Potassium, sodium, calcium
1 of 10