Study sets matching "host defense"

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Study sets matching "host defense"

124 terms
Host Defense
Bacteria found on skin
Bacteria in Intestinal Tract (minus co…
Bacteria in the colon
Bacteria in the Respiratory Tract
Staphylococci (gram positive cocci bacteria), Propionibacteri…
Streptococci is the predominate bacteria on the buccal and to…
- 90% anaerobes, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Eubacterium, and…
The nares (NOSE) contains, Staphylococcus aureus. ... - The *Nas…
Bacteria found on skin
Staphylococci (gram positive cocci bacteria), Propionibacteri…
Bacteria in Intestinal Tract (minus co…
Streptococci is the predominate bacteria on the buccal and to…
55 terms
Host Defense Lecture 36
What are the approaches to enhance the…
What is biologic therapy?
What is non-specific therapy?
What is specific (targeted) therapy?
Biologic therapy or biotherapy, non-specific therapy, and spe…
Use of biological substances to enhance the immune response.
Adjuvant therapy. Used to enhance the body's immune response,…
Cytokine therapy, antibody replacement therapy.
What are the approaches to enhance the…
Biologic therapy or biotherapy, non-specific therapy, and spe…
What is biologic therapy?
Use of biological substances to enhance the immune response.
61 terms
Host Defense Lecture 23
Give a brief overview of B cell develo…
Where are the more mature B cells loca…
Describe the common lymphoid precursor…
Describe the pre-pro B cell with respe…
Bone marrow: Stem cell --> Lymphoid progenitor --> Pro-B cell…
More mature cells are located toward the center of the bone.
Unrearranged, CD34+CD19-, RAG-.
Expression of Igalpha and Igbeta begins. Unrearranged, CD19+C…
Give a brief overview of B cell develo…
Bone marrow: Stem cell --> Lymphoid progenitor --> Pro-B cell…
Where are the more mature B cells loca…
More mature cells are located toward the center of the bone.
59 terms
Host Defense Lecture 29
What is the most common cause of secon…
What are the major causes of secondary…
What does protein/malnutrition cause?
What does irradiation cause?
HIV infection.
HIV infection.... Protein/calorie malnutrition.... Irradiation.... Met…
Lymphocyte (cellular mostly) maturation/function inhibited.
Decrease in BM precursors (all leukocytes).
What is the most common cause of secon…
HIV infection.
What are the major causes of secondary…
HIV infection.... Protein/calorie malnutrition.... Irradiation.... Met…
22 terms
Host Defense Lecture 24
What does BCR cross-linking signal?
What happens after a BCR engages an ep…
Why is it sometimes necessary for anti…
What kinds of antigens is complement-f…
Transcription factor using protein phosphorylation.
1. BCR cross-linking leads to receptor clustering.... 2. Src fam…
When C3b or C3d is bound by complement receptors (CD21) it ca…
Soluble antigens lacking multiple epitopes.
What does BCR cross-linking signal?
Transcription factor using protein phosphorylation.
What happens after a BCR engages an ep…
1. BCR cross-linking leads to receptor clustering.... 2. Src fam…
29 terms
Host Defense Lecture 26
How are naive T cells activated?
How many immunological synapse interac…
How are memory T cells activated?
What disease occurs in a failure to ex…
1. Antigen is taken up, processed, and expressed to the TCR o…
50-100.
1. Antigen is taken up, processed, and expressed on MHC.... 2. T…
Hyper IgM syndrome.
How are naive T cells activated?
1. Antigen is taken up, processed, and expressed to the TCR o…
How many immunological synapse interac…
50-100.
44 terms
Host Defense Lecture 34
In what populations is there an elevat…
What is autoimmune disease more common…
What are the typical lymphocytic respo…
What are the typical lymphocytic respo…
The elderly.... Women.
Because IFN-gamma response more strongly to estrogen. Androge…
Lymphocyte + Immunogenic Ag = proliferation, differentiation.…
Lymphocyte + Tolerogenic Ag = anergy (peripheral), apoptosis…
In what populations is there an elevat…
The elderly.... Women.
What is autoimmune disease more common…
Because IFN-gamma response more strongly to estrogen. Androge…
47 terms
Host Defense Lecture 19
What decides the pathway for a peptide…
How are intracellular infections prese…
How are extracellular infections prese…
What MHC molecules presents infections…
The location of the pathogen.
They are cytosol-derived antigen, turned into peptides, prese…
They are vesicle-derived antigen, turned into peptides, prese…
MHC Class II.
What decides the pathway for a peptide…
The location of the pathogen.
How are intracellular infections prese…
They are cytosol-derived antigen, turned into peptides, prese…
11 terms
Host Defense Lecture 27
Give an overview of lymphocyte activat…
Outline the TCR signaling cascade.
What are the co-stimulatory molecules…
How is signaling negatively regulated…
Stimulus --> Signal --> Transduce --> Amplify and Transmit --…
1. TCR engages pMHC Class II... 2. CD4 engages pMHC II to activa…
CD28:CD80/86 promote signaling via Ras-MAP pathway.
Phosphatases down-modulate signaling by dephosphorylating pro…
Give an overview of lymphocyte activat…
Stimulus --> Signal --> Transduce --> Amplify and Transmit --…
Outline the TCR signaling cascade.
1. TCR engages pMHC Class II... 2. CD4 engages pMHC II to activa…
42 terms
Host Defense Lecture 35
When is a transplant performed?
What are the types of transplant?
What is an autograft?
What is a syngeneic graft?
When there is no alternative.... Irreversibly disease process, v…
Autograft, Syngeneic (Isograft) graft, Allograft (homograft),…
A transplant from one part of the body to another. Skin or st…
Transplant from someone genetically identical.
When is a transplant performed?
When there is no alternative.... Irreversibly disease process, v…
What are the types of transplant?
Autograft, Syngeneic (Isograft) graft, Allograft (homograft),…
35 terms
Host Defense Lecture 25
Interpret the following flow cytometry…
Why is it useful to use flow cytometry…
What are most surface proteins indicat…
What can flow cytometry be useful in i…
The thymocytes on the first chart were gated and plotted on t…
Normal and malignant cells often have well-defined series of…
Cluster of differentiation based on the monoclonal antibodies…
Type and distribution of cells in blood or tissue aspirates,…
Interpret the following flow cytometry…
The thymocytes on the first chart were gated and plotted on t…
Why is it useful to use flow cytometry…
Normal and malignant cells often have well-defined series of…
75 terms
Host Defense
α and β defensins
Cathelicidins
DNases/RNases
Lysozymes
Cationic peptides, "poke holes" in microbes and attract immun…
Directly toxic to microbes, found on skin... Ex. LL-37, neutral…
On the skin they act to degrade genomic material
Enzymes on the skin that break down peptidoglycan on the micr…
α and β defensins
Cationic peptides, "poke holes" in microbes and attract immun…
Cathelicidins
Directly toxic to microbes, found on skin... Ex. LL-37, neutral…
84 terms
Host and Defense
Acid Fast Stains (Ziehl-Neelsen)
Differential Dx for Cavitary lung lesion
Nail salon skin lesions
Salt water exposure/aquarium lesions
Mycobacteria, Nocardia
Mycobacteria or Fungi
M. Chelonae, M. Fortuitum
M. Marinum
Acid Fast Stains (Ziehl-Neelsen)
Mycobacteria, Nocardia
Differential Dx for Cavitary lung lesion
Mycobacteria or Fungi
Host Defense
Major Antigen Presenting Cell
Non Specific Phagocytes
Neutrophils are a ____ shape until the…
Nuetrophils express membrane receptors…
Macrophage
Neutrophil
Spherical... Amoeba like
C3b, C5a... IL-8, Fc
Major Antigen Presenting Cell
Macrophage
Non Specific Phagocytes
Neutrophil
Host Defense
Mechanical defense
Nonspecific defenses of the host
Chemical defenses
Microbial defenses
skin and mucous membranes ... -nonspecific defenses of the host
innate immune response ... 1. mechanical ... 2. chemical... 3. microbial
lysozyme, mucin, interferons, transferrins, interleukin-1
normal flora
Mechanical defense
skin and mucous membranes ... -nonspecific defenses of the host
Nonspecific defenses of the host
innate immune response ... 1. mechanical ... 2. chemical... 3. microbial
57 terms
Host Defense
Host defense
5 types of microbes
When do microbes cause a disease?
Why do you need adaptive AND innate im…
innate and adaptive immunity to eliminate microbes
1. extracellular bacteria... 2. intracellular bacteria ... 3. virus…
when they successfully evade host immune response
-innate= first response (quick) and no memory... -adaptive= pat…
Host defense
innate and adaptive immunity to eliminate microbes
5 types of microbes
1. extracellular bacteria... 2. intracellular bacteria ... 3. virus…
52 terms
Host Defense
Innate vs. Adaptive
Cellular vs. Humoral
Afferent vs. Efferent
Active Immunization
Innate = barriers to infection, phagocytosis, complement syst…
Cellular = T cell... Humoral = B cell
Afferent = senses the infection... Efferent = Immune response
Host will generate an immune response... Leads to life long memory
Innate vs. Adaptive
Innate = barriers to infection, phagocytosis, complement syst…
Cellular vs. Humoral
Cellular = T cell... Humoral = B cell
81 terms
Host Defense Drugs
Zidovudine
Lamivudine
Emtricitabine
Didanosine
ANTIRETROVIRAL - HIV... (ZDV, AZT, Azidothymidine)... Class: Nucle…
ANTIRETROVIRAL - HIV, HEP-B... (3TC)... Class: Nucleoside Reverse…
ANTIRETROVIRAL - HIV, HEP-B... (FTC)... Class: Nucleoside Reverse…
ANTIRETROVIRAL - HIV... (ddI)... Class: Nucleoside Reverse Transcr…
Zidovudine
ANTIRETROVIRAL - HIV... (ZDV, AZT, Azidothymidine)... Class: Nucle…
Lamivudine
ANTIRETROVIRAL - HIV, HEP-B... (3TC)... Class: Nucleoside Reverse…
85 terms
Host Defense Lecture 28
What are immunodeficiency diseases due…
What causes a primary immunodeficiency?
What causes secondary immunodeficiency?
What are the clinical features of a pe…
Due to an absence/malfunction of a part of the immune system.
Genetic mutations.
External factors such as drug treatments, infections, etc.
Increased susceptibility to infection:... Frequency - ill with…
What are immunodeficiency diseases due…
Due to an absence/malfunction of a part of the immune system.
What causes a primary immunodeficiency?
Genetic mutations.
Host Defense
Components of the Innate Immune system
Epithelial triple barrier
Macrophage at rest
Activated macrophage
Epithelial barriers, Phagocytes, NK cells, complement proteins
Physical barrier, chemical barrier (local antibiotics), and i…
Scavenging dying cells, "garbage collectors"... Little expressi…
Proliferate and act as killers and Antigen Presenting Cells (…
Components of the Innate Immune system
Epithelial barriers, Phagocytes, NK cells, complement proteins
Epithelial triple barrier
Physical barrier, chemical barrier (local antibiotics), and i…
48 terms
Host defense
antigen
epitope
cytokines
pathogen associated molecular patterns…
recognized by a specific antibody or t cell... causes an adaptiv…
specific molecular structure of an antigen that reacts with t…
chemical messengers that enable communication between immune…
molecular patterns on the surface of bacteria that are recogn…
antigen
recognized by a specific antibody or t cell... causes an adaptiv…
epitope
specific molecular structure of an antigen that reacts with t…
25 terms
Host Defense!
Protozoan cell wall
Flushing
Transient Bacteremia
Immunologic fact about prostheses
Pellicle
Normal part of immune defense. Adherence factors of some inva…
when normal flora/ other bacteria are introduced into sterile…
Focal point of infection. Invaders can grow here without bein…
Protozoan cell wall
Pellicle
Flushing
Normal part of immune defense. Adherence factors of some inva…
10 terms
Host Defense
1st line of defense
4 major components of the innate immun…
most infections are cleared by
barriers include
innate immune system
barriers... sentinel cells... inflammatory responses... physiological
innate system
skin, cilia in our nose an d ears, mucous membrane seretions
1st line of defense
innate immune system
4 major components of the innate immun…
barriers... sentinel cells... inflammatory responses... physiological
Host Defense
antigen
epitope
BCR Structure
TCR Structure
molecule or part of a molecule recognized by the immune syst.
smallest part of an antigen that is recognized by antigen rec…
Two heavy chains & two light chains all with variable and con…
α & β (sometimes δ𝛾) chains extracellularly, w/accessory CD4…
antigen
molecule or part of a molecule recognized by the immune syst.
epitope
smallest part of an antigen that is recognized by antigen rec…
65 terms
host defense
Is leeched out of the brined vegetable…
are a group of aerotolerant anaerobes…
Cheese production involves
Most cheeses are ripened by
soluble sugars
Lactic acid bacteria
secondary microbial transformations of milk
successive microbial metabolic transformations
Is leeched out of the brined vegetable…
soluble sugars
are a group of aerotolerant anaerobes…
Lactic acid bacteria
80 terms
Host Defense
Staphylococcus aureus
Virulence
Pathogens
Diphtheria
Microflora found in the nares of 25-30% of healthy people
degree of potency of a pathogen
microbes that cause disease (only a small portion)
bacterial toxin that blocks protein synthesis
Staphylococcus aureus
Microflora found in the nares of 25-30% of healthy people
Virulence
degree of potency of a pathogen
29 terms
Host Defense Lecture 20
What can happen if there is an absence…
What happens in an MHC Class I loss?
What happens in an MHC Class II loss?
True/False: If there is a defect in an…
Lack of CD4 or CD8 development in thymus.... Global loss of T c…
Loss of CTL killing, inappropriate NK cell killing.
Loss of cytokine production, antibody production, likely to i…
True.... This can include the proteosome, TAP, tapesin, calreti…
What can happen if there is an absence…
Lack of CD4 or CD8 development in thymus.... Global loss of T c…
What happens in an MHC Class I loss?
Loss of CTL killing, inappropriate NK cell killing.
29 terms
Host Defense
host defense
host defense
evading host immune response
innate immunity
innate + adaptive immunity to eliminate microbes
five types:... extracellular bacteria... intracellular bacteria... fun…
cause disease by?
early defense, no memory generated
host defense
innate + adaptive immunity to eliminate microbes
host defense
five types:... extracellular bacteria... intracellular bacteria... fun…
22 terms
Host Defense
innate response
adaptive response
adaptive immunity
adaptive immunity characteristics (5)
functions in normal host without prior expose to invading mic…
consists of antibody response (humoral) and lymphocyte mediat…
adaptive, specific immune responses are induced by exposure t…
days ... highly diverse ... persistent memory, faster and bigger re…
innate response
functions in normal host without prior expose to invading mic…
adaptive response
consists of antibody response (humoral) and lymphocyte mediat…
31 terms
Host Defense
Types of pathogenic microorganisms com…
Extracellular bacteria
Innate immunity against extracellular…
Adaptive immunity against extracellula…
1. Extracellular and intracellular bacteria... 2. Viruses... 3. Fun…
Multiple outside of host cells in connective tissue, blood or…
1. Phagocytosis via neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages.…
1. Humoral immunity is principal protective response, IgG ant…
Types of pathogenic microorganisms com…
1. Extracellular and intracellular bacteria... 2. Viruses... 3. Fun…
Extracellular bacteria
Multiple outside of host cells in connective tissue, blood or…
81 terms
Host Defense
What is the Innate Defense... System?
What is the Adaptive Defense system?
Primary Defense is
Secondary (acquired) defense is
Non specific that has ... 2 intrinsic systems:... 1. Primary (innat…
More specific including Antigens, cells of adaptive, Humoral,…
Skin and mucous
Phagocytes, Natural killer, Inflammation, anti microbials pro…
What is the Innate Defense... System?
Non specific that has ... 2 intrinsic systems:... 1. Primary (innat…
What is the Adaptive Defense system?
More specific including Antigens, cells of adaptive, Humoral,…
34 terms
Host Defense
physiological inflammation
immediate host defense
early host defense
late host defense
host resistance and tolerance to bacteria, viruses, fungi, pa…
existing physical and chemical barriers
existing innate immune cells and mediators
activation of the appropriate adaptive immune cells and media…
physiological inflammation
host resistance and tolerance to bacteria, viruses, fungi, pa…
immediate host defense
existing physical and chemical barriers
26 terms
Host Defense
Resistance
Susceptibility
Non- specific host defense
Specific host defense
The ability of the body to resists disease throughout our def…
Lack of resistance
Protection against pathogens in general
Protection against specific pathogens by building immunity by…
Resistance
The ability of the body to resists disease throughout our def…
Susceptibility
Lack of resistance
47 terms
Host defense
Innate defenses
Adaptive defenses
Skin
Normal microbiome
properties of the normal host, non-specific defenses... 1. Compl…
induced by the infection, specific to the pathogen
First barrier (innate defense).... Produces antimicrobial FA, ly…
competes for attachment sites and nutrients, secretes bacteri…
Innate defenses
properties of the normal host, non-specific defenses... 1. Compl…
Adaptive defenses
induced by the infection, specific to the pathogen
18 terms
Host Defense
Innate Response
adaptive response
humoral response
what induces adaptive response
functions in normal host without prior exposure to invading m…
consists humeral response and cell-mediated response... tailored…
antibody response
exposure to antigens
Innate Response
functions in normal host without prior exposure to invading m…
adaptive response
consists humeral response and cell-mediated response... tailored…
118 terms
Host Defense
Peptidoglycan
Lipopolysaccharide
Gram Staining Method
Gram Positive
hybrid of polysaccharides and peptides... contains D-sugars that…
hybrid of polysaccharides and lipids
- Primary stain of crystal violet... - fixed with Gram's iodine…
Structure: thick outer multilayer peptidoglycan wall... - Teicho…
Peptidoglycan
hybrid of polysaccharides and peptides... contains D-sugars that…
Lipopolysaccharide
hybrid of polysaccharides and lipids
16 terms
Host Defense
Innate Immunity
Adaptive (Active) Immunity
Factors that compromise host
First line defenses
-General set of barriers and responses that limit microbial g…
-A system that promotes a specific response to a give microbe…
Age (young, old)... Corticosteroid exposure (cortisol) ... Chemo th…
-Skin and mucous membranes... -Prevent entry ... -Contain antimicro…
Innate Immunity
-General set of barriers and responses that limit microbial g…
Adaptive (Active) Immunity
-A system that promotes a specific response to a give microbe…
19 terms
Host Defense
Innate Response
adaptive response
adaptive immunity
innate immunity
- functions in normal host without prior expose to invading m…
- consists of antibody response (humoral) and lymphocyte-medi…
- specific immune responses are induced by exposure to an ant…
- constitutional factors... - natural barriers & normal flora... -…
Innate Response
- functions in normal host without prior expose to invading m…
adaptive response
- consists of antibody response (humoral) and lymphocyte-medi…
24 terms
Host Defense
EC bacteria are inducters of inflammat…
kill bacteria and neutralize the toxins
phagocytosis
humoral immunity
why do extracellular bacteria cause tissue destruction
what is the goal of the host immune response for extracellula…
what is the most effective innate immune response to EXTRAcel…
what is the major ADAPTIVE immunity response to EXTRAcellular…
EC bacteria are inducters of inflammat…
why do extracellular bacteria cause tissue destruction
kill bacteria and neutralize the toxins
what is the goal of the host immune response for extracellula…
Host Defense
Name barriers that must be overcome fo…
How does bile provide a physical barri…
Name the components of innate immunity…
What is the most important first line…
skin- break in skin... GI tract- acid, enzymes, bile... resp tract-…
destroys lipid of enveloped viruses... so non-enveloped viruses…
IFN alpha... IFN beta... NK cells... macrophages... (think INTRAcellular)
NK cells lyse infected cells EARLY
Name barriers that must be overcome fo…
skin- break in skin... GI tract- acid, enzymes, bile... resp tract-…
How does bile provide a physical barri…
destroys lipid of enveloped viruses... so non-enveloped viruses…
Host Defense
Host factors that influence virus infe…
Two types of immune defenses
innate defenses
adaptive defenses
Age-newborns and elderly... General health and nutrition... Genetic…
-innate ... -adaptive
provide broad, nonspecific defense against any pathogen... -imme…
immune cells recognize and remember specific pathogens (memor…
Host factors that influence virus infe…
Age-newborns and elderly... General health and nutrition... Genetic…
Two types of immune defenses
-innate ... -adaptive
Host defense
what does the afferent immune system do?
what does the efferent immune system do?
what does clonal selection theory state?
functions of cytokines
Senses and infection
clears the pathogen
1. cells with a large range of specificities exist within the…
1. enhance innate and adaptive immunity... 2. regulate hematopoi…
what does the afferent immune system do?
Senses and infection
what does the efferent immune system do?
clears the pathogen
37 terms
Host Defense
What are general principles of Host De…
What are examples of useless mechanism…
What are some general characteristics…
How does innate immunity react to extr…
Host defense = innate + adaptive immunity to eliminate microb…
Antibody against intracellular bacteria would be ineffective…
Tissue destruction induces inflammation and some release toxi…
Phagocytosis- 1st line of defense against extracellular bac…
What are general principles of Host De…
Host defense = innate + adaptive immunity to eliminate microb…
What are examples of useless mechanism…
Antibody against intracellular bacteria would be ineffective…
Host defense
what causes tissue destruction?
best way to neutralize extracellular b…
best way to neutralize extracellular b…
how can pathogens be very successful?
inflammation and toxin release from pathogen
Innate immune response... phagocytosis (neutrophil, macrophages)…
antibody production - humoral immunity
evade the human immune reponse
what causes tissue destruction?
inflammation and toxin release from pathogen
best way to neutralize extracellular b…
Innate immune response... phagocytosis (neutrophil, macrophages)…
49 terms
The Host Defense
Innate Defense... Natural
Adaptive Immunities
First line of Defense
Skin
Present at birth... Provide non-specific resistance to infection
Specific and acquired
Skin... Eyes... Mouth... Respiratory
Made up of keratin, impervious
Innate Defense... Natural
Present at birth... Provide non-specific resistance to infection
Adaptive Immunities
Specific and acquired
427 terms
Host Defense Full Set
Neoplasm
Cancer
Benign Tumors
Carcinoma
Growth of cells or tumor which is autonomous/uncontrolled, of…
Generic name for malignant neoplasms or tumors, which are agg…
Neoplasias that don't spread/are not malignant
Epithelial malignant neoplasm
Neoplasm
Growth of cells or tumor which is autonomous/uncontrolled, of…
Cancer
Generic name for malignant neoplasms or tumors, which are agg…
Host Defense
Immunity
Susceptibility
Innate immunity
Adaptive immunity
Ability to ward off disease
lack of resistance to disease
defense against ANY pathogen
immunity or resistance to a SPECIFIC pathogen, slower to resp…
Immunity
Ability to ward off disease
Susceptibility
lack of resistance to disease
60 terms
Bacteriology MUSM: Host Defense
S. aureus Toxins
S. aureus cytotoxin: alpha
S. aureus cytotoxin: beta
S. aureus cytotoxins: delta
Alpha toxin... Beta toxin (Sphingomyelinase C) ... Delta toxin... G…
1. Encoded in genome and on plasmids... 2. Disrupts smooth muscl…
1. Causes hydrolysis of spingomyelin and lysophosphatidylchol…
1. Acts as a nonspecific detergent against RBCs, intracellula…
S. aureus Toxins
Alpha toxin... Beta toxin (Sphingomyelinase C) ... Delta toxin... G…
S. aureus cytotoxin: alpha
1. Encoded in genome and on plasmids... 2. Disrupts smooth muscl…
Host Defense
viruses
bacteria
fungi
parasites
intracellular parasites, DNA or RNA, most have a protein coat…
smallest living cells (0.1 to 10 um), membrane and cell wall,…
yeast or mold, multiply by budding, have hyphae, eukaryotic,…
most diverse, unicellular amoebas 10 to 12 um, multicellular…
viruses
intracellular parasites, DNA or RNA, most have a protein coat…
bacteria
smallest living cells (0.1 to 10 um), membrane and cell wall,…
24 terms
Host Defense
the mechanism of generating diversity…
the cellular elements of adaptive immu…
can cause allergies, autoimmunity, and…
mechanisms are evolutionarily ancients…
the rearrangements of receptor gene segments
T and B lymphocytes
acquired immunity
innate immunity
the mechanism of generating diversity…
the rearrangements of receptor gene segments
the cellular elements of adaptive immu…
T and B lymphocytes
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