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Study sets matching "host defense"

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Study sets matching "host defense"

124 terms
Host Defense
Bacteria found on skin
Bacteria in Intestinal Tract (minus co…
Bacteria in the colon
Bacteria in the Respiratory Tract
Staphylococci (gram positive cocci bacteria), Propionibacteri…
Streptococci is the predominate bacteria on the buccal and to…
- 90% anaerobes, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Eubacterium, and…
The nares (NOSE) contains, Staphylococcus aureus. ... - The *Nas…
Bacteria found on skin
Staphylococci (gram positive cocci bacteria), Propionibacteri…
Bacteria in Intestinal Tract (minus co…
Streptococci is the predominate bacteria on the buccal and to…
62 terms
Host Defense Lecture 6
What are the two major phagocytic cells?
Which phagocyte is the first responder…
Which phagocyte is recruited to the si…
What is phagocytosis?
Macrophages and neutrophils.
Macrophages. They patrol tissues and identify threats. They h…
Neutrophils.
The ingestion of particles (debris and microorganisms) by cel…
What are the two major phagocytic cells?
Macrophages and neutrophils.
Which phagocyte is the first responder…
Macrophages. They patrol tissues and identify threats. They h…
61 terms
Host Defense Lecture 8
What is complement?
True/False: Complement is preformed in…
What are the three complement pathways?
What is the result of all three of the…
A factor in sera that complements antibody in bacteriolysis.…
True.... It exists in the body in an inactive form.
Alternative pathway, MBL pathway, and the Classical pathway.
Activation of C3 and C5 leading to the formation of the membr…
What is complement?
A factor in sera that complements antibody in bacteriolysis.…
True/False: Complement is preformed in…
True.... It exists in the body in an inactive form.
63 terms
Host Defense Lecture 9
What is inflammation?
If inflammation cannot contain the inf…
True/False: Inflammation can occur in…
Which cell types are important mediato…
A complex reaction of the innate immune system in vascularize…
It can trigger the adaptive immune response.
False.
Phagocytes.
What is inflammation?
A complex reaction of the innate immune system in vascularize…
If inflammation cannot contain the inf…
It can trigger the adaptive immune response.
55 terms
Host Defense Lecture 36
What are the approaches to enhance the…
What is biologic therapy?
What is non-specific therapy?
What is specific (targeted) therapy?
Biologic therapy or biotherapy, non-specific therapy, and spe…
Use of biological substances to enhance the immune response.
Adjuvant therapy. Used to enhance the body's immune response,…
Cytokine therapy, antibody replacement therapy.
What are the approaches to enhance the…
Biologic therapy or biotherapy, non-specific therapy, and spe…
What is biologic therapy?
Use of biological substances to enhance the immune response.
71 terms
Host Defense Lecture 15
What are the primary lymphoid organs?
What are the secondary lymphoid organs?
How do the primary lymphoid organs cha…
What are the sites of immune privilege?
Bone marrow and thymus.
Spleen and lymph nodes.
Yolk sac--> Fetal liver and spleen--> Bone marrow and thymus.
Eyes, brain, testis.
What are the primary lymphoid organs?
Bone marrow and thymus.
What are the secondary lymphoid organs?
Spleen and lymph nodes.
19 terms
Host Defense Lecture 16
Describe Southern Blotting.
True/False: You need to know what you…
How many DNA fragments are visualized…
How many DNA fragments are visualized…
1. Fragment unlabeled DNA using restriction endonucleases and…
True.
Two
Many rearrangements so the only visible band is the germ-line…
Describe Southern Blotting.
1. Fragment unlabeled DNA using restriction endonucleases and…
True/False: You need to know what you…
True.
22 terms
Host Defense Lecture 24
What does BCR cross-linking signal?
What happens after a BCR engages an ep…
Why is it sometimes necessary for anti…
What kinds of antigens is complement-f…
Transcription factor using protein phosphorylation.
1. BCR cross-linking leads to receptor clustering.... 2. Src fam…
When C3b or C3d is bound by complement receptors (CD21) it ca…
Soluble antigens lacking multiple epitopes.
What does BCR cross-linking signal?
Transcription factor using protein phosphorylation.
What happens after a BCR engages an ep…
1. BCR cross-linking leads to receptor clustering.... 2. Src fam…
29 terms
Host Defense Lecture 26
How are naive T cells activated?
How many immunological synapse interac…
How are memory T cells activated?
What disease occurs in a failure to ex…
1. Antigen is taken up, processed, and expressed to the TCR o…
50-100.
1. Antigen is taken up, processed, and expressed on MHC.... 2. T…
Hyper IgM syndrome.
How are naive T cells activated?
1. Antigen is taken up, processed, and expressed to the TCR o…
How many immunological synapse interac…
50-100.
44 terms
Host Defense Lecture 34
In what populations is there an elevat…
What is autoimmune disease more common…
What are the typical lymphocytic respo…
What are the typical lymphocytic respo…
The elderly.... Women.
Because IFN-gamma response more strongly to estrogen. Androge…
Lymphocyte + Immunogenic Ag = proliferation, differentiation.…
Lymphocyte + Tolerogenic Ag = anergy (peripheral), apoptosis…
In what populations is there an elevat…
The elderly.... Women.
What is autoimmune disease more common…
Because IFN-gamma response more strongly to estrogen. Androge…
42 terms
Host Defense Lecture 35
When is a transplant performed?
What are the types of transplant?
What is an autograft?
What is a syngeneic graft?
When there is no alternative.... Irreversibly disease process, v…
Autograft, Syngeneic (Isograft) graft, Allograft (homograft),…
A transplant from one part of the body to another. Skin or st…
Transplant from someone genetically identical.
When is a transplant performed?
When there is no alternative.... Irreversibly disease process, v…
What are the types of transplant?
Autograft, Syngeneic (Isograft) graft, Allograft (homograft),…
47 terms
Host Defense Lecture 19
What decides the pathway for a peptide…
How are intracellular infections prese…
How are extracellular infections prese…
What MHC molecules presents infections…
The location of the pathogen.
They are cytosol-derived antigen, turned into peptides, prese…
They are vesicle-derived antigen, turned into peptides, prese…
MHC Class II.
What decides the pathway for a peptide…
The location of the pathogen.
How are intracellular infections prese…
They are cytosol-derived antigen, turned into peptides, prese…
11 terms
Host Defense Lecture 27
Give an overview of lymphocyte activat…
Outline the TCR signaling cascade.
What are the co-stimulatory molecules…
How is signaling negatively regulated…
Stimulus --> Signal --> Transduce --> Amplify and Transmit --…
1. TCR engages pMHC Class II... 2. CD4 engages pMHC II to activa…
CD28:CD80/86 promote signaling via Ras-MAP pathway.
Phosphatases down-modulate signaling by dephosphorylating pro…
Give an overview of lymphocyte activat…
Stimulus --> Signal --> Transduce --> Amplify and Transmit --…
Outline the TCR signaling cascade.
1. TCR engages pMHC Class II... 2. CD4 engages pMHC II to activa…
61 terms
Host Defense Lecture 23
Give a brief overview of B cell develo…
Where are the more mature B cells loca…
Describe the common lymphoid precursor…
Describe the pre-pro B cell with respe…
Bone marrow: Stem cell --> Lymphoid progenitor --> Pro-B cell…
More mature cells are located toward the center of the bone.
Unrearranged, CD34+CD19-, RAG-.
Expression of Igalpha and Igbeta begins. Unrearranged, CD19+C…
Give a brief overview of B cell develo…
Bone marrow: Stem cell --> Lymphoid progenitor --> Pro-B cell…
Where are the more mature B cells loca…
More mature cells are located toward the center of the bone.
90 terms
Host Defense Lecture 10
When are B and T cells microscopically…
What are the morphological characteris…
What are the morphological characteris…
What are the morphological characteris…
When they have differentiated into effector cells.
Scant cytoplasm, absence of rough ER, condensed chromatin.
Large size, enlarged nucleus, diffuse chromatin.
More cytoplasm, prominent rough ER, abundant mitochondria.
When are B and T cells microscopically…
When they have differentiated into effector cells.
What are the morphological characteris…
Scant cytoplasm, absence of rough ER, condensed chromatin.
59 terms
Host Defense Lecture 29
What is the most common cause of secon…
What are the major causes of secondary…
What does protein/malnutrition cause?
What does irradiation cause?
HIV infection.
HIV infection.... Protein/calorie malnutrition.... Irradiation.... Met…
Lymphocyte (cellular mostly) maturation/function inhibited.
Decrease in BM precursors (all leukocytes).
What is the most common cause of secon…
HIV infection.
What are the major causes of secondary…
HIV infection.... Protein/calorie malnutrition.... Irradiation.... Met…
70 terms
Host Defense Lecture 11
Why is shape complementarity necessary…
What would bind in a pocket antibody?
What would bind in a groove antigen?
What would bind in a complex antigen?
Because there needs to be an infinite variety of binding site…
Antigens with simple chemical structure.
Antigens with larger epitopes.
Antigens with an extended surface (3D).
Why is shape complementarity necessary…
Because there needs to be an infinite variety of binding site…
What would bind in a pocket antibody?
Antigens with simple chemical structure.
35 terms
Host Defense Lecture 25
Interpret the following flow cytometry…
Why is it useful to use flow cytometry…
What are most surface proteins indicat…
What can flow cytometry be useful in i…
The thymocytes on the first chart were gated and plotted on t…
Normal and malignant cells often have well-defined series of…
Cluster of differentiation based on the monoclonal antibodies…
Type and distribution of cells in blood or tissue aspirates,…
Interpret the following flow cytometry…
The thymocytes on the first chart were gated and plotted on t…
Why is it useful to use flow cytometry…
Normal and malignant cells often have well-defined series of…
65 terms
Host Defense Lecture 13
How can Ig genes be remodeled after B…
What is somatic hypermutation (SHM)?
What initiates somatic hypermutation?
Where does AID induce rearrangement in…
Class switch recombination to change effector function and/or…
Remodeling of the Ig gene that enables expression of mutated…
Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID).
At heavy and light chain variable exons.
How can Ig genes be remodeled after B…
Class switch recombination to change effector function and/or…
What is somatic hypermutation (SHM)?
Remodeling of the Ig gene that enables expression of mutated…
58 terms
Host Defense Lecture 14
What are TCRs?
What are the two types of TCRs?
How many variable and constant domains…
What do a/b TCRs recognize?
A heterodimeric membrane protein containing two polypeptide c…
Alpha/Beta chains (95%) and those with gamma/delta chains (5%).
One constant domain and one variable domain. (Like a light ch…
Peptides bound of MHCs. Some recognize MHC Class I-like molec…
What are TCRs?
A heterodimeric membrane protein containing two polypeptide c…
What are the two types of TCRs?
Alpha/Beta chains (95%) and those with gamma/delta chains (5%).
61 terms
Host Defense Lecture 12
What is allelic exclusion?
Which cells exhibit allelic exclusion?
Which chromosome is the H locus locate…
Which chromosome is the kappa locus lo…
When only one parental gene is expressed in a cell.
Immunoglobulin and T cell receptors. (B cells and T cells). E…
14
2
What is allelic exclusion?
When only one parental gene is expressed in a cell.
Which cells exhibit allelic exclusion?
Immunoglobulin and T cell receptors. (B cells and T cells). E…
25 terms
Host Defense Lecture 3
What is the role of the innate immune…
What is Phase 1?
What is Phase 2?
What is Phase 3?
1. Rapid response to infection (minutes).... 2. Activate the ada…
From 0-4hrs.... Non-inducible innate response. ... Non-specific.... Pr…
From 4-96hrs.... Induced innate response. ... Broadly specific.... Com…
At >96hrs.... Adaptive response.... Highly specific.... B cells, T cel…
What is the role of the innate immune…
1. Rapid response to infection (minutes).... 2. Activate the ada…
What is Phase 1?
From 0-4hrs.... Non-inducible innate response. ... Non-specific.... Pr…
64 terms
Host Defense Lecture 5
What are PRRs?
What do PRRs respond to?
What are PAMPs
Can a PRR response be produced without…
Pattern Recognition Receptors.... They are components of the in…
PAMPs and DAMPs
Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns.... These are things uni…
Yes, as long as the PAMP is present.
What are PRRs?
Pattern Recognition Receptors.... They are components of the in…
What do PRRs respond to?
PAMPs and DAMPs
52 terms
Host Defense
Innate vs. Adaptive
Cellular vs. Humoral
Afferent vs. Efferent
Active Immunization
Innate = barriers to infection, phagocytosis, complement syst…
Cellular = T cell... Humoral = B cell
Afferent = senses the infection... Efferent = Immune response
Host will generate an immune response... Leads to life long memory
Innate vs. Adaptive
Innate = barriers to infection, phagocytosis, complement syst…
Cellular vs. Humoral
Cellular = T cell... Humoral = B cell
75 terms
Host Defense
α and β defensins
Cathelicidins
DNases/RNases
Lysozymes
Cationic peptides, "poke holes" in microbes and attract immun…
Directly toxic to microbes, found on skin... Ex. LL-37, neutral…
On the skin they act to degrade genomic material
Enzymes on the skin that break down peptidoglycan on the micr…
α and β defensins
Cationic peptides, "poke holes" in microbes and attract immun…
Cathelicidins
Directly toxic to microbes, found on skin... Ex. LL-37, neutral…
105 terms
Host Defense
Major Antigen Presenting Cell
Non Specific Phagocytes
Neutrophils are a ____ shape until the…
Nuetrophils express membrane receptors…
Macrophage
Neutrophil
Spherical... Amoeba like
C3b, C5a... IL-8, Fc
Major Antigen Presenting Cell
Macrophage
Non Specific Phagocytes
Neutrophil
Host Defense
Mechanical defense
Nonspecific defenses of the host
Chemical defenses
Microbial defenses
skin and mucous membranes ... -nonspecific defenses of the host
innate immune response ... 1. mechanical ... 2. chemical... 3. microbial
lysozyme, mucin, interferons, transferrins, interleukin-1
normal flora
Mechanical defense
skin and mucous membranes ... -nonspecific defenses of the host
Nonspecific defenses of the host
innate immune response ... 1. mechanical ... 2. chemical... 3. microbial
57 terms
Host Defense
Host defense
5 types of microbes
When do microbes cause a disease?
Why do you need adaptive AND innate im…
innate and adaptive immunity to eliminate microbes
1. extracellular bacteria... 2. intracellular bacteria ... 3. virus…
when they successfully evade host immune response
-innate= first response (quick) and no memory... -adaptive= pat…
Host defense
innate and adaptive immunity to eliminate microbes
5 types of microbes
1. extracellular bacteria... 2. intracellular bacteria ... 3. virus…
84 terms
Host and Defense
Acid Fast Stains (Ziehl-Neelsen)
Differential Dx for Cavitary lung lesion
Nail salon skin lesions
Salt water exposure/aquarium lesions
Mycobacteria, Nocardia
Mycobacteria or Fungi
M. Chelonae, M. Fortuitum
M. Marinum
Acid Fast Stains (Ziehl-Neelsen)
Mycobacteria, Nocardia
Differential Dx for Cavitary lung lesion
Mycobacteria or Fungi
33 terms
Host Defense
Immunity
Susceptibility
Innate immunity
Adaptive immunity
Ability to ward off disease
lack of resistance to disease
defense against ANY pathogen
immunity or resistance to a SPECIFIC pathogen, slower to resp…
Immunity
Ability to ward off disease
Susceptibility
lack of resistance to disease
48 terms
Host defense
antigen
epitope
cytokines
pathogen associated molecular patterns…
recognized by a specific antibody or t cell... causes an adaptiv…
specific molecular structure of an antigen that reacts with t…
chemical messengers that enable communication between immune…
molecular patterns on the surface of bacteria that are recogn…
antigen
recognized by a specific antibody or t cell... causes an adaptiv…
epitope
specific molecular structure of an antigen that reacts with t…
Host Defense
viruses
bacteria
fungi
parasites
intracellular parasites, DNA or RNA, most have a protein coat…
smallest living cells (0.1 to 10 um), membrane and cell wall,…
yeast or mold, multiply by budding, have hyphae, eukaryotic,…
most diverse, unicellular amoebas 10 to 12 um, multicellular…
viruses
intracellular parasites, DNA or RNA, most have a protein coat…
bacteria
smallest living cells (0.1 to 10 um), membrane and cell wall,…
10 terms
Host Defense
1st line of defense
4 major components of the innate immun…
most infections are cleared by
barriers include
innate immune system
barriers... sentinel cells... inflammatory responses... physiological
innate system
skin, cilia in our nose an d ears, mucous membrane seretions
1st line of defense
innate immune system
4 major components of the innate immun…
barriers... sentinel cells... inflammatory responses... physiological
65 terms
host defense
Is leeched out of the brined vegetable…
are a group of aerotolerant anaerobes…
Cheese production involves
Most cheeses are ripened by
soluble sugars
Lactic acid bacteria
secondary microbial transformations of milk
successive microbial metabolic transformations
Is leeched out of the brined vegetable…
soluble sugars
are a group of aerotolerant anaerobes…
Lactic acid bacteria
80 terms
Host Defense
Staphylococcus aureus
Virulence
Pathogens
Diphtheria
Microflora found in the nares of 25-30% of healthy people
degree of potency of a pathogen
microbes that cause disease (only a small portion)
bacterial toxin that blocks protein synthesis
Staphylococcus aureus
Microflora found in the nares of 25-30% of healthy people
Virulence
degree of potency of a pathogen
17 terms
Host Defense
innate response
adaptive response
exposure; specific; memory
constitutional factors
functions in normal host without prior exposure to invading m…
consists of antibody response any lymphocyte mediated tailore…
An adaptive response is induced by ______________ to an anitg…
making one species innately susceptible and another resistant…
innate response
functions in normal host without prior exposure to invading m…
adaptive response
consists of antibody response any lymphocyte mediated tailore…
29 terms
Host Defense
host defense
host defense
evading host immune response
innate immunity
innate + adaptive immunity to eliminate microbes
five types:... extracellular bacteria... intracellular bacteria... fun…
cause disease by?
early defense, no memory generated
host defense
innate + adaptive immunity to eliminate microbes
host defense
five types:... extracellular bacteria... intracellular bacteria... fun…
55 terms
Host Defense
Primary Defense (First Line)
Secondary Defense (Second Line)
Skin:
Mucous membranes:
• Skin... • Mucous... +Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, rectum, urethra
• Phagocytes... • Natural Killer Cells... • Inflammation... • Antimicr…
- Squamous epithelium, sweat &... sebaceous glands (sebum)
- IgA* secretion... - Variable epithelial layers covered with mu…
Primary Defense (First Line)
• Skin... • Mucous... +Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, rectum, urethra
Secondary Defense (Second Line)
• Phagocytes... • Natural Killer Cells... • Inflammation... • Antimicr…
22 terms
Host Defense
innate response
adaptive response
adaptive immunity
adaptive immunity characteristics (5)
functions in normal host without prior expose to invading mic…
consists of antibody response (humoral) and lymphocyte mediat…
adaptive, specific immune responses are induced by exposure t…
days ... highly diverse ... persistent memory, faster and bigger re…
innate response
functions in normal host without prior expose to invading mic…
adaptive response
consists of antibody response (humoral) and lymphocyte mediat…
24 terms
Host Defense
the mechanism of generating diversity…
the cellular elements of adaptive immu…
can cause allergies, autoimmunity, and…
mechanisms are evolutionarily ancients…
the rearrangements of receptor gene segments
T and B lymphocytes
acquired immunity
innate immunity
the mechanism of generating diversity…
the rearrangements of receptor gene segments
the cellular elements of adaptive immu…
T and B lymphocytes
25 terms
Host Defense!
Protozoan cell wall
Flushing
Transient Bacteremia
Immunologic fact about prostheses
Pellicle
Normal part of immune defense. Adherence factors of some inva…
when normal flora/ other bacteria are introduced into sterile…
Focal point of infection. Invaders can grow here without bein…
Protozoan cell wall
Pellicle
Flushing
Normal part of immune defense. Adherence factors of some inva…
81 terms
Host Defense
What is the Innate Defense... System?
What is the Adaptive Defense system?
Primary Defense is
Secondary (acquired) defense is
Non specific that has ... 2 intrinsic systems:... 1. Primary (innat…
More specific including Antigens, cells of adaptive, Humoral,…
Skin and mucous
Phagocytes, Natural killer, Inflammation, anti microbials pro…
What is the Innate Defense... System?
Non specific that has ... 2 intrinsic systems:... 1. Primary (innat…
What is the Adaptive Defense system?
More specific including Antigens, cells of adaptive, Humoral,…
26 terms
Host Defense
Resistance
Susceptibility
Non- specific host defense
Specific host defense
The ability of the body to resists disease throughout our def…
Lack of resistance
Protection against pathogens in general
Protection against specific pathogens by building immunity by…
Resistance
The ability of the body to resists disease throughout our def…
Susceptibility
Lack of resistance
31 terms
Host Defense
Types of pathogenic microorganisms com…
Extracellular bacteria
Innate immunity against extracellular…
Adaptive immunity against extracellula…
1. Extracellular and intracellular bacteria... 2. Viruses... 3. Fun…
Multiple outside of host cells in connective tissue, blood or…
1. Phagocytosis via neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages.…
1. Humoral immunity is principal protective response, IgG ant…
Types of pathogenic microorganisms com…
1. Extracellular and intracellular bacteria... 2. Viruses... 3. Fun…
Extracellular bacteria
Multiple outside of host cells in connective tissue, blood or…
47 terms
Host defense
Innate defenses
Adaptive defenses
Skin
Normal microbiome
properties of the normal host, non-specific defenses... 1. Compl…
induced by the infection, specific to the pathogen
First barrier (innate defense).... Produces antimicrobial FA, ly…
competes for attachment sites and nutrients, secretes bacteri…
Innate defenses
properties of the normal host, non-specific defenses... 1. Compl…
Adaptive defenses
induced by the infection, specific to the pathogen
18 terms
Host Defense
Innate Response
adaptive response
humoral response
what induces adaptive response
functions in normal host without prior exposure to invading m…
consists humeral response and cell-mediated response... tailored…
antibody response
exposure to antigens
Innate Response
functions in normal host without prior exposure to invading m…
adaptive response
consists humeral response and cell-mediated response... tailored…
118 terms
Host Defense
Peptidoglycan
Lipopolysaccharide
Gram Staining Method
Gram Positive
hybrid of polysaccharides and peptides... contains D-sugars that…
hybrid of polysaccharides and lipids
- Primary stain of crystal violet... - fixed with Gram's iodine…
Structure: thick outer multilayer peptidoglycan wall... - Teicho…
Peptidoglycan
hybrid of polysaccharides and peptides... contains D-sugars that…
Lipopolysaccharide
hybrid of polysaccharides and lipids
16 terms
Host Defense
Innate Immunity
Adaptive (Active) Immunity
Factors that compromise host
First line defenses
-General set of barriers and responses that limit microbial g…
-A system that promotes a specific response to a give microbe…
Age (young, old)... Corticosteroid exposure (cortisol) ... Chemo th…
-Skin and mucous membranes... -Prevent entry ... -Contain antimicro…
Innate Immunity
-General set of barriers and responses that limit microbial g…
Adaptive (Active) Immunity
-A system that promotes a specific response to a give microbe…
19 terms
Host Defense
Innate Response
adaptive response
adaptive immunity
innate immunity
- functions in normal host without prior expose to invading m…
- consists of antibody response (humoral) and lymphocyte-medi…
- specific immune responses are induced by exposure to an ant…
- constitutional factors... - natural barriers & normal flora... -…
Innate Response
- functions in normal host without prior expose to invading m…
adaptive response
- consists of antibody response (humoral) and lymphocyte-medi…
31 terms
Host Defense
Host factors that influence virus infe…
Two types of immune defenses
innate defenses
adaptive defenses
Age-newborns and elderly... General health and nutrition... Genetic…
-innate ... -adaptive
provide broad, nonspecific defense against any pathogen... -imme…
immune cells recognize and remember specific pathogens (memor…
Host factors that influence virus infe…
Age-newborns and elderly... General health and nutrition... Genetic…
Two types of immune defenses
-innate ... -adaptive
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