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Study sets matching "ii ipap pharmacology"

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Study sets matching "ii ipap pharmacology"

27 terms
IPAP Pharmacology Test 2 Diuretics
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: MOA
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Treatme…
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Adverse…
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Contrai…
- increased Na+ and H2O excretion by inhibition of carbonic a…
-Chronic open angle glaucoma (reduces production of aqueous h…
-Urinary alkalosis (caused by inhibition of bicarb formation)…
-Cirrhosis... -COPD (respiratory acidosis)
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: MOA
- increased Na+ and H2O excretion by inhibition of carbonic a…
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Treatme…
-Chronic open angle glaucoma (reduces production of aqueous h…
42 terms
IPAP 2-16 Pharmacology - Admin
"Any untoward medical occurrence assoc…
Define an adverse drug reaction.
What is an allergic reaction?
What is an idiosyncratic reaction?
Adverse drug event
Any unexpected, unintended, undesired, or excessive response…
An immunologic hypersensitivity occurring as the result of un…
An abnormal susceptibility to a medicine that is peticular to…
"Any untoward medical occurrence assoc…
Adverse drug event
Define an adverse drug reaction.
Any unexpected, unintended, undesired, or excessive response…
24 terms
IPAP 2-16 Pharmacology HTN physiology
What portion of people have HTN?
Of the people with HTN, how many peopl…
Define HTN
What is essential HTN?
30%
70% know... 58% treated
SBP greater than or equal to 140... DBP greater than 90
No identifiable cause... Possibly genetic
What portion of people have HTN?
30%
Of the people with HTN, how many peopl…
70% know... 58% treated
98 terms
IPAP Pharmacology 1, Unit 2 Drugs
Aliskiren
Acetazolamide
Amiloride
Amiodarone
Direct Renin Inhibitor (DRI)... -HTN... -approved for monotherapy
CAI diuretic... -Glaucoma... -Mountain sickness... -not w/ Sulfur alle…
Potassium sparing diuretic... -Na+ channel inhibitor
K+ channel blocker... -anti-arrhythmic 3... -Cardioversion... -boosts…
Aliskiren
Direct Renin Inhibitor (DRI)... -HTN... -approved for monotherapy
Acetazolamide
CAI diuretic... -Glaucoma... -Mountain sickness... -not w/ Sulfur alle…
132 terms
IPAP Pharmacology 1 test 2 "Buzz words"
Txt of acute brain injuries
Use in-line-filter when administering IV
Txt of open angle glaucoma
DOC for HF related edema
Mannitol
Mannitol
Acetazolamide (CAI)
Loop diuretics
Txt of acute brain injuries
Mannitol
Use in-line-filter when administering IV
Mannitol
98 terms
IPAP 2-16 Pharmacology Drug list for exam II
Chlorthalidone
Hydrochlorothiazide
Indapamide
Metolazone
Class: Thiazide diuretic
Class: Thiazide diuretic
Class: Thiazide diurtetic
Class: Thiazide diuretic... *only THIAZIDE that can be used with…
Chlorthalidone
Class: Thiazide diuretic
Hydrochlorothiazide
Class: Thiazide diuretic
30 terms
IPAP 2-16 Pharmacology Exam 2 HF odds and ends
Why do ACE inhibitors cause a cough?
What do HFrEF and HFpEF stand for?
What's the formula for cardiac output?…
What causes HFpEF? (Big picture, not s…
ACE breaks down bradykinin. Bradykinin induces coughing. ACI…
Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction... Heart Failure wi…
CO=HRxSV
Restriction in ventricular filling
Why do ACE inhibitors cause a cough?
ACE breaks down bradykinin. Bradykinin induces coughing. ACI…
What do HFrEF and HFpEF stand for?
Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction... Heart Failure wi…
20 terms
IPAP 2-16 Pharmacology Exam II antiarrhythmics general info
Which antiarrhythmics pose the highest…
What is phase zero of an action potent…
What is phase one of an action potenti…
What is phase two of an action potenti…
Sotolol... Amiodarone
Rapid depolarization from influx of Sodium ions
Early rapid repolarization from potassium moving out of cell
Plateau phase mainly due to the inward movement of calcium io…
Which antiarrhythmics pose the highest…
Sotolol... Amiodarone
What is phase zero of an action potent…
Rapid depolarization from influx of Sodium ions
32 terms
IPAP 2-16 Pharmacology Exam II Diuretics general info
What part of the tubule do CAIs affect?
What part of the tubule do osmotic diu…
What part of the tubule do loop diuret…
What part of the tubule do thiazide di…
Early PCT
Late PCT and descending limb of LOH
thick ascending limb of LOH and early DCT
DCT
What part of the tubule do CAIs affect?
Early PCT
What part of the tubule do osmotic diu…
Late PCT and descending limb of LOH
10 terms
IPAP 2-16 Pharmacology Exam II Angina odds and ends
Criteria for unstable angina
The ABC's of Angina
Overall goal of angina treatment?
What type of anti-thrombotic meds will…
Pain occurs at rest for 20 min or more... New onset... Increasing s…
A - Aspirin and anti-anginal therapy... B - Beta blocker and blo…
Decrease cardiac load (pre and after) and increase myocardial…
Antiplatelet (Aspirin + P2Y receptor inhibitor [Clopidogrel]…
Criteria for unstable angina
Pain occurs at rest for 20 min or more... New onset... Increasing s…
The ABC's of Angina
A - Aspirin and anti-anginal therapy... B - Beta blocker and blo…
11 terms
IPAP 2-16 Pharmacology Exam II - drugs with target doses
Bisprolol
Candesartan
Captopril
Carvedilol
10mg per day
32mg per day
50mg TID
25mg BID
Bisprolol
10mg per day
Candesartan
32mg per day
21 terms
IPAP 2-16 Pharmacology Exam II B-Blocker class info
General effect of B blockers?
Goal resting heart rate for B blocker…
How are B blockers used in angina?
B blocker contraindications?
Decreased inotropy (forcefulness of contraction) and chronotr…
55-60 bpm
Long term chronic management.
Severe asthma or COPD (especially non-selective B-blockers be…
General effect of B blockers?
Decreased inotropy (forcefulness of contraction) and chronotr…
Goal resting heart rate for B blocker…
55-60 bpm
147 terms
IPAP 2-16 Pharmacology I - Exam III drug list In progress
Simvastatin (Zocor)
Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
Rosuvastatin (Crestor)
Lovastatin (Mevacor, Altoprev)
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor (Statin) ... Treatment for dyslipide…
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor (Statin) ... Treatment for dyslipide…
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor (Statin) ... Treatment for dyslipide…
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor (Statin) ... Treatment for dyslipide…
Simvastatin (Zocor)
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor (Statin) ... Treatment for dyslipide…
Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor (Statin) ... Treatment for dyslipide…
15 terms
IPAP 2-16 Pharmacology Anti-hypertensive agents up to slide 39
How do diuretics work?
How do sympatholytic agents work?
How direct vasodilators work?
Why do antihypertensives fail?
Lower BP by depleting the body of sodium and reducing blood v…
Inhibit cardiac function (inotropic/chronotropic)... Reduce PVR…
Reduce BP by relaxing vascular smooth muscle
Noncompliance... Pseudo resistance (inappropriate use - underdos…
How do diuretics work?
Lower BP by depleting the body of sodium and reducing blood v…
How do sympatholytic agents work?
Inhibit cardiac function (inotropic/chronotropic)... Reduce PVR…
40 terms
IPAP Research Eval 2
These are types of:... Observational... Expe…
variables are not under the researcher…
most of the variables are under contro…
Types of:... prospective cohort studies... c…
Analytic studies (Explanatory studies)
Observational studies (Analytical)
Experimental studies (Analytical)
Observational studies (Analytical)
These are types of:... Observational... Expe…
Analytic studies (Explanatory studies)
variables are not under the researcher…
Observational studies (Analytical)
208 terms
IPAP Pharm test 2
Tx of acute brain injuries
Use in-line-filter when administering IV
Tx,of open angle glaucoma
DOC for HF related edema
Mannitol
Mannitol
Acetazolamide (CAI)
Loop diuretics
Tx of acute brain injuries
Mannitol
Use in-line-filter when administering IV
Mannitol
120 terms
IPAP Peds 2: EENT
Partial Vision
Legal blindness
Retinopathy of prematurity
6 weeks
Visual acuity between 20/70-200
Visual acuity >20/200
What is the most common cause of severe visual impairment in…
When should an infant respond to the examiner's face?
Partial Vision
Visual acuity between 20/70-200
Legal blindness
Visual acuity >20/200
48 terms
ipap pharm 2 diuretics
Creatinine Clearance (CrCl) formula
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) acts on
Weak acids:
Weak bases:
CrCl= (140-age) x (Wt in kg) x (0.85 if female/ 72 x Serum cr…
Collecting ducts
acetazolamide, loop and thiazide diuretics; uric acid
amiloride and triamterene
Creatinine Clearance (CrCl) formula
CrCl= (140-age) x (Wt in kg) x (0.85 if female/ 72 x Serum cr…
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) acts on
Collecting ducts
24 terms
IPAP 2-16 Pharmacology exam II ACE-I, ARBs, & CCBs general info
How do ACE inhibitors reduce blood pre…
ACE breaks down bradykinin. Other that…
When used as a monotherapy, what patie…
What effect with ACE-I have on renal f…
-Decreasing peripheral vascular resistance by causing dilatio…
Cough. That's why ACE inhibitors can cause a cough.
Caucasian and asian. No black.
ACE-I may decrease renal function. Serum creatinine may incre…
How do ACE inhibitors reduce blood pre…
-Decreasing peripheral vascular resistance by causing dilatio…
ACE breaks down bradykinin. Other that…
Cough. That's why ACE inhibitors can cause a cough.
297 terms
Ipap - pharm 2 - exam 4
Which conditions can be worsened by to…
Popular medium potency agent used for…
High potency topical corticosteroid?
Ultra-High potency topical corticoster…
- Acne vulgaris, ... - Rosacea... - Warts, fungal infections and ul…
Triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%
Flucocinonide (lidex) 0.05%
Colbetasol (Temovate) 0.05%
Which conditions can be worsened by to…
- Acne vulgaris, ... - Rosacea... - Warts, fungal infections and ul…
Popular medium potency agent used for…
Triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%
435 terms
IPAP OB-GYN 2
1) Serum markers... 2) 20 week ultrasoun…
1) Elective Termination ... 2) Elevated…
1) Eastern European Jews... 2) French Ca…
1) Mediterranean... 2) Southeast Asian…
What are the types of Prenatal Genetic Screening?
What is the definitive use of results of Prenatal Genetic Scr…
Who would get screening for Tay Sach's Disease?
Who would get screening for B-thalessemia?
1) Serum markers... 2) 20 week ultrasoun…
What are the types of Prenatal Genetic Screening?
1) Elective Termination ... 2) Elevated…
What is the definitive use of results of Prenatal Genetic Scr…
120 terms
IPAP Peds 2: EENT
Partial Vision
Legal blindness
Retinopathy of prematurity
6 weeks
Visual acuity between 20/70-200
Visual acuity >20/200
What is the most common cause of severe visual impairment in…
When should an infant respond to the examiner's face?
Partial Vision
Visual acuity between 20/70-200
Legal blindness
Visual acuity >20/200
573 terms
IPAP 15-3 Pharmacology Exam 1
1. Preclinical... 2. Phase 1... 3. Phase 2... 4…
Preclinical
Phase 1
Phase 2
What are the phases of human testing of a prospective drug?
Which stage of testing involves the following? ... Animal pha…
Which stage of testing involves the following?... Clinical test…
Which stage of testing involves the following?... This stage em…
1. Preclinical... 2. Phase 1... 3. Phase 2... 4…
What are the phases of human testing of a prospective drug?
Preclinical
Which stage of testing involves the following? ... Animal pha…
51 terms
IPAP Pharm 2: Supplements
American Ginsing
Amino-acids
Asin Ginsing
Banaba
Dietary Supplement used for Combat stress
Dietary Supplement used for Performance Enhancers
Dietary Supplement used for Adaptogens
Dietary Supplement used for Diabetes
American Ginsing
Dietary Supplement used for Combat stress
Amino-acids
Dietary Supplement used for Performance Enhancers
46 terms
IPAP 16-2 MED LAW
Dept of Defense is part of what branch
The Military court system
Law
Two types of law
Executive
A system of rules that defines socially acceptable behavior a…
Criminal... Civil
Dept of Defense is part of what branch
Executive
The Military court system
175 terms
IPAP Pharm II Test 2: Antivirals
What is a virus?
What are the 3 types of influenza viru…
What are the subtypes of Influenza Typ…
What are the 2 lineages of Influenza B?
Obligate Intracellular parasites... No cell wall or cell memb…
A, B, C... Human influenza A and B ... Type C
Subtypes based on two surface proteins: *Hemagluttin (H) and…
Influenza B viruses are not divided into subtypes, but can be…
What is a virus?
Obligate Intracellular parasites... No cell wall or cell memb…
What are the 3 types of influenza viru…
A, B, C... Human influenza A and B ... Type C
435 terms
IPAP OB-GYN 2
1) Serum markers at 20 week ultrasound…
1) Elective Termination ... 2) Elevated…
1) Eastern European Jews... 2) French Ca…
1) Mediterranean... 2) Southeast Asian
What are the types of Prenatal Genetic Screening?
What is the definitive use of results of Prenatal Genetic Scr…
Who would get screening for Tay Sach's Disease?
Who would get screening for B-thalessemia?
1) Serum markers at 20 week ultrasound…
What are the types of Prenatal Genetic Screening?
1) Elective Termination ... 2) Elevated…
What is the definitive use of results of Prenatal Genetic Scr…
255 terms
IPAP Pathology Exam #2
patient leans forward, holds breath af…
patient bears down, systolic murmur at…
Patient on L side, exhales, diastolic…
Patient on L side, systolic murmur at…
aortic regurgitation
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
mitral stenosis
mitral regurgitation
patient leans forward, holds breath af…
aortic regurgitation
patient bears down, systolic murmur at…
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
67 terms
IPAP Endocrinology Diabetes Prt 2
Acute DM complications
Chronic DM complications
Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia etiologies
-hypoglycemia... -Diabetic ketoacidosis... -hyperglycemic hyperosmo…
Microvascular -retina, kidney, nerves... Macrovascular- coronary…
BG <54 mg/dl
-behavioral : too much insulin, ETOH... -counterregulatory: impa…
Acute DM complications
-hypoglycemia... -Diabetic ketoacidosis... -hyperglycemic hyperosmo…
Chronic DM complications
Microvascular -retina, kidney, nerves... Macrovascular- coronary…
73 terms
IPAP PE 2 borrowed
What is considered an abnormal PMI, an…
Where is PMI normally found?
Cardiac abnormality common in Marfan's?
Cardiac abnormality common in Down's s…
diameter > 2.5cm or displaced laterally... can indicate LVH or…
5th ICS 7-9cm lateral to MSL... < 2.5cm and < one ICS
aortic regurgitation
ASD, VSD
What is considered an abnormal PMI, an…
diameter > 2.5cm or displaced laterally... can indicate LVH or…
Where is PMI normally found?
5th ICS 7-9cm lateral to MSL... < 2.5cm and < one ICS
188 terms
IPAP Derm 2
- Persistent localized *rough, scaly*…
If pt presents with a cutaneous horn (…
If there are only a few AK lesions, ho…
If there are multiple AK lesions, how…
actinic keratosis (AK)
SCC
liquid nitrogen
5-FU or Aldara cream
- Persistent localized *rough, scaly*…
actinic keratosis (AK)
If pt presents with a cutaneous horn (…
SCC
235 terms
IPAP Surgery 2 Review
Cutting
Taper or round
Braided
Hemostat is curved
Which type of suture needle is preferred for skin?
Which type is preferred for tissues inside the body?
Which type of suture holds a knot better but may allow for mo…
What's the difference between a hemostat and needle-holder?
Cutting
Which type of suture needle is preferred for skin?
Taper or round
Which type is preferred for tissues inside the body?
162 terms
IPAP - Biochemistry Exam 2 Review
Majority of membrane lipids; usually w…
Characteristics and functions of cardi…
Important function of cardiolipin rega…
Diseases which show changes in cardiol…
Phospholipids
- Negatively charged phospholipid with 4 FA chains... - Found es…
Stabilizes the electron transport system of mitochondria, int…
- Heart failure... - Diabetes... - Alzheimer's disease... - Parkinson'…
Majority of membrane lipids; usually w…
Phospholipids
Characteristics and functions of cardi…
- Negatively charged phospholipid with 4 FA chains... - Found es…
115 terms
IPAP Pharm II Test 2: Antifungals
What are fungi?
What are the targets of antifungal dru…
What occurs in a fungal infection?
Where can a fungal infection occur?
Mycoses- fungal infections.... Fungal cell membrane contains:... -…
Increasing in number and frequency due to:... -Increased Broad…
What are fungi?
Mycoses- fungal infections.... Fungal cell membrane contains:... -…
What are the targets of antifungal dru…
98 terms
IPAP Psych Phase 2
general term that describes several me…
what are the positive symptoms of schi…
what are the negative symptoms of schi…
all neuroleptic drugs work in part by…
psychosis
hallucination, delusions (persecution, guilt and mind control…
Social and emotional withdrawal, apathy, poor eye contact, po…
dopamine
general term that describes several me…
psychosis
what are the positive symptoms of schi…
hallucination, delusions (persecution, guilt and mind control…
105 terms
IPAP Derm 2 Pics only
herpes zoster
herpes zoster
herpes zoster
herpes zoster
herpes zoster
herpes zoster
82 terms
IPAP Phase 2 IM
Firm thyroid nodule with hypothyroidis…
3mm thyroid nodule or bump on neck. In…
Male, slurred speech, HTN, alcoholic.…
Chest cancer, orange on cytology, hype…
FNA
Thyroid US
L sided emboli
Hilar
Firm thyroid nodule with hypothyroidis…
FNA
3mm thyroid nodule or bump on neck. In…
Thyroid US
355 terms
IPAP Biochem Module 2
Arrangement of lipid bilayer
What are the majority of lipids in the…
Common phospholipids
Cardiolipin (diphosphatidylglycerol) c…
hydrophobic glycerol and phosphate head groups face towar…
phospholipids (16-18 carbon tails)
-Cardiolipin (diphosphatidylglycerol)... -Phosphatidylserine (PS…
negatively charged with 4 unsaturated FA chains
Arrangement of lipid bilayer
hydrophobic glycerol and phosphate head groups face towar…
What are the majority of lipids in the…
phospholipids (16-18 carbon tails)
120 terms
IPAP - PHARM 2 - ANTI-EPILEPTIC
Carbamazepine (Tegretol®):... Monitoring
Carbamazepine (Tegretol®): ... drug-drug…
Carbamazepine (Tegretol®): ... Recommende…
Carbamazepine (Tegretol®): ... HLA-a*3101…
LFTs and hematologic CBC status at *baseline then for 2-3 mon…
Lamotrigine may also increase carbamazepine epoxide levels... C…
Patients with HLA-B*1502 allele 10 times increased risk of St…
hypersensitivity syndrome and a 3 time risk of maculopapular…
Carbamazepine (Tegretol®):... Monitoring
LFTs and hematologic CBC status at *baseline then for 2-3 mon…
Carbamazepine (Tegretol®): ... drug-drug…
Lamotrigine may also increase carbamazepine epoxide levels... C…
49 terms
IPAP EKG Basics (2)
amyloidosis
I, II, F, V3-V6
R
5, 10
a disorder characterized by deposit of amyloid in organs or t…
in which leads is the T wave normally upright?
The T wave is normally inverted in which lead?
Normal amplitude of T wave in limb leads is < __ mm and < __…
amyloidosis
a disorder characterized by deposit of amyloid in organs or t…
I, II, F, V3-V6
in which leads is the T wave normally upright?
203 terms
IPAP 2-14 - ortho shoulder
What are the 3 standard views of radio…
What view of the shoulder must you ord…
What is a Bankart lesion?
What is a Hill-Sachs defect?
routine AP or true AP, scapular Y view, Axillary Lateral/Modi…
axillary lateral
fracture at the anterior inferior aspect of the glenoid that…
(bony defect in the posterolateral aspect of the humeral head…
What are the 3 standard views of radio…
routine AP or true AP, scapular Y view, Axillary Lateral/Modi…
What view of the shoulder must you ord…
axillary lateral
10 terms
IPAP Lecture 2
Founding Fathers
CASPA Launched in
NCCPA
Pance debuted in
Eugene Stead -... Duke University... Richard Smith - Medex, Univer…
2001
first "board" exam was administered by NBME in 1973
1981
Founding Fathers
Eugene Stead -... Duke University... Richard Smith - Medex, Univer…
CASPA Launched in
2001
152 terms
IPAP 2-14 - PE Exam -
What are ligaments?
What are tendons?
When is crepitus significant?
Bogginess or doughiness can indicate ?
bone to bone
muscle to bone
if associated with pain
synovitis
What are ligaments?
bone to bone
What are tendons?
muscle to bone
380 terms
IPAP 2-14 - Pharm II Exam 1
"-rane" or -"thane" drugs are what cla…
Isoflurane Class?
Desflurane Class?
Sevoflurane Class?
Inhaled general anesthetics
Inhaled general anesthetics
Inhaled general anesthetics
Inhaled general anesthetics
"-rane" or -"thane" drugs are what cla…
Inhaled general anesthetics
Isoflurane Class?
Inhaled general anesthetics
29 terms
IPAP EKG 2 visual cards
BAE
BAE
BFB
BFB
BAE
BAE
175 terms
IPAP Derm Exam 2: Pics
Actinic keratosis
Actinic cheilitis (AK on lip)
Chondrodermatitis Nodularis Helicis (C…
Actinic keratosis... Tx: 5-FU
Dx? ... How would you treat?
Actinic keratosis
Actinic cheilitis (AK on lip)
47 terms
IPAP Rad Exam 2 Review
"Nonspecific bowel gas pattern"... Not…
1. Scoliosis... 2. Older person... 3. Yes... 4.…
A: supine... B: upright
Bowel gas in colon (normal)... Calcifica…
What is the finding?
What are the findings?... 1. What about bone? ... 2. Can you guess…
Which is flat (supine), and which upright?
Describe bowel gas & calcification
"Nonspecific bowel gas pattern"... Not…
What is the finding?
1. Scoliosis... 2. Older person... 3. Yes... 4.…
What are the findings?... 1. What about bone? ... 2. Can you guess…
185 terms
IPAP Pharm II Test 2: Antibiotics Part 2
How do Antibiotics that inhibit Bacter…
Tetracyclines and Glycylcyclines - MOA
Tetracyclines and Glycylcyclines - Spe…
Are Tetracyclines and Glycylcyclines b…
Target the bacterial ribosome which are smaller than mammalia…
Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis at the 30S subunit of t…
(tetracycline, doxycycline/minocycline)... Good: atypicals,…
Bacteriostatic
How do Antibiotics that inhibit Bacter…
Target the bacterial ribosome which are smaller than mammalia…
Tetracyclines and Glycylcyclines - MOA
Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis at the 30S subunit of t…
20 terms
IPAP Psych E2
1. Restlessness or feeling keyed up or…
abrupt surge of intense fear or intens…
A Panic attack followed by at least on…
Inappropriate Tx for what?... Buspirone…
Diagnostic Criteria ... Generalized Anxiety Disorder... 3+ Sxs…
Panic attack
Panic Disorder
Panic Disorder
1. Restlessness or feeling keyed up or…
Diagnostic Criteria ... Generalized Anxiety Disorder... 3+ Sxs…
abrupt surge of intense fear or intens…
Panic attack
213 terms
IPAP Pathology Test 2 - Cardio
6 principle mechanisms of heart diseas…
_____- any cardiac abnormality present…
Heart is fully function by ___ weeks o…
ALL heart defects will develop before…
1. Pump failure... 2. Flow obstruction... 3. Regurgitant flow... 4. Sh…
Congenital Heart Dz
10 weeks
10th week
6 principle mechanisms of heart diseas…
1. Pump failure... 2. Flow obstruction... 3. Regurgitant flow... 4. Sh…
_____- any cardiac abnormality present…
Congenital Heart Dz
1 of 10