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Study sets matching "immunity mucosal"

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Study sets matching "immunity mucosal"

62 terms
Mucosal Immunity
What are 3 examples of mucosal surface…
What is the "challenge" faced by host…
What are 5 examples of benefits derive…
What is an example of non-antigen spec…
1. respiratory tract... 2. intestinal tract... 3. urogenital tract…
to protect the body and clear infection without damaging the…
1. synthesis of essential metabolites (Vit K)... 2. break down p…
stomach acid/low pH/vagina acidity/commensals
What are 3 examples of mucosal surface…
1. respiratory tract... 2. intestinal tract... 3. urogenital tract…
What is the "challenge" faced by host…
to protect the body and clear infection without damaging the…
39 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Mucosal Immunity
Mucus Secretions
Mucosal Secretions
Mucus Immunity
Mucosal Immunity
Mucus Secretions
11 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Gut
Villi
Peyer's Patches
M cell
First point of contact with microbes
Finger-like protrusions whose primary role is absorption of n…
Thin-layered mucus, dome-like lymphoid structures in the smal…
Specialized phagocytic cells whose primary function is to tra…
Gut
First point of contact with microbes
Villi
Finger-like protrusions whose primary role is absorption of n…
22 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Tolerance in Gut maintained by
Immunity in Gut
Type I mucosal surfaces
Type II mucosal surfaces
When only receive Bacterial PAMPs signal.... TH3: TGF-beta, IL-1…
When receive both Bacterial PAMPs sig and inflammatory cytoki…
MALT (mucosal associated lymphoid tissue). Simple tissue. Not…
stratified epithelium, no MALT, drainage directly to lymphnod…
Tolerance in Gut maintained by
When only receive Bacterial PAMPs signal.... TH3: TGF-beta, IL-1…
Immunity in Gut
When receive both Bacterial PAMPs sig and inflammatory cytoki…
31 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Immune Function of Turbinates
Respiratory Epithelial Function
Respiratory Epithelial Secretions
B-Defensin
create vortex and stick particles to mucosa
differentiate pathogen vs commensal, secrete cytokines, trans…
B-defensins, cathelicidins, surfactant protein A and D, and l…
bacterial lysis, chemotactic, promote phagocytosis
Immune Function of Turbinates
create vortex and stick particles to mucosa
Respiratory Epithelial Function
differentiate pathogen vs commensal, secrete cytokines, trans…
33 terms
mucosal immunity
mucociliary escalator
alveolar macrophges
vomiting and diarrhea
commensal organisms
upper respiratory tract
lower respiratory tract
GIT
ex lactobacilli... colonize intestines... protect by competition fo…
mucociliary escalator
upper respiratory tract
alveolar macrophges
lower respiratory tract
Mucosal Immunity
Non-specific/Mechanical barriers:
Non-specific immune molecules and cells:
Specific/Immunologic immune molecules…
Epithelial cells have a crucial role i…
- Skin and epithelial barriers, tight junctions, mucus, and t…
- Lysozyme, lactoferrin, defensins... • in milk, tears, mucus... -…
- Tc... - B cells... - sIgA antibodies... • Milk... • Mucosal linings
MAMPs
Non-specific/Mechanical barriers:
- Skin and epithelial barriers, tight junctions, mucus, and t…
Non-specific immune molecules and cells:
- Lysozyme, lactoferrin, defensins... • in milk, tears, mucus... -…
14 terms
Mucosal immunity
Mucosal tissues in the body
Waldeyer's ring
Architecture of Mucosal (Gut) Associat…
What is in the epithelium of the GALT?
- GI tract... - Respiratory tract... - Urogenital tract
- Tonsils and adenoids form a ring of lymphoid tissues around…
- Intestinal lumen ... - Epithelial barrier... - Lamina propria (lo…
- goblet cells and M cells
Mucosal tissues in the body
- GI tract... - Respiratory tract... - Urogenital tract
Waldeyer's ring
- Tonsils and adenoids form a ring of lymphoid tissues around…
39 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Describe the Mucosal surfaces( 'wet' b…
Describe how the gut undergoes absorpt…
Describe how Colonised by diverse majo…
Explain how Large exposure to harmless…
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract - the gut... Respiratory tract - lu…
V. large surface area (~400m2; ~2m2 for skin)... Minimal barrier
Food proteins: ~100Kg/year... Commensal bacteria: ... The immune…
Describe the Mucosal surfaces( 'wet' b…
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract - the gut... Respiratory tract - lu…
Describe how the gut undergoes absorpt…
V. large surface area (~400m2; ~2m2 for skin)... Minimal barrier
52 terms
Mucosal Immunity
What are 3 examples of mucosal surface…
What is the "challenge" faced by host…
What are 5 examples of benefits derive…
What is an example of non-antigen spec…
1. respiratory tract... 2. intestinal tract... 3. urogenital tract…
to protect the body and clear infection without damaging the…
1. synthesis of essential metabolites (Vit K)... 2. break down f…
stomach acid/low pH
What are 3 examples of mucosal surface…
1. respiratory tract... 2. intestinal tract... 3. urogenital tract…
What is the "challenge" faced by host…
to protect the body and clear infection without damaging the…
12 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Which of the following is a true state…
What do M cells do?
what is present in the dome region of…
What occurs after intestinal dendritic…
B.They are located in the dome area of Peyer's patches.
Take up antigen from the gut lumen - move it to the basal mem…
Rich in dendritic cells, T cells, B cells and is overlaid wit…
dendritic cells travel to mesenteric lymph node to activate a…
Which of the following is a true state…
B.They are located in the dome area of Peyer's patches.
What do M cells do?
Take up antigen from the gut lumen - move it to the basal mem…
34 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Mucosal surfaces
Mucosal surfaces contain?
what are the 3 types of MALT?
Mucins
have continuous contact woth pathogens and commensal organisms
mucins, defensins, antimicrobial peptides
NALT, GALT, BALT
first barrier... large glycoproteins
Mucosal surfaces
have continuous contact woth pathogens and commensal organisms
Mucosal surfaces contain?
mucins, defensins, antimicrobial peptides
31 terms
mucosal immunity
function of secondary lymphoid tissues
how mucosal membranes act as physical…
MALT
areas of organized mucosal lymphoid ti…
- concentrate Ag and enable interaction with Ag-specific lymp…
- mucus prevents microbe attachment... - serves as a trap for mi…
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue... GALT: gut-... NALT: nasopharyn…
peyer's patches... appendix... mesenteric lymph nodes... tonsils... adeno…
function of secondary lymphoid tissues
- concentrate Ag and enable interaction with Ag-specific lymp…
how mucosal membranes act as physical…
- mucus prevents microbe attachment... - serves as a trap for mi…
37 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Mucous membrane
Mucosal surface innate immunity mechan…
Mucociliary escalator
Alveolar macrophages
Susceptible to infection as they are thin walled to allow for…
1. Mucociliary escalator ... 2. Alveolar macrophages... 3. Commensa…
1. Located in the URT... 2. Prevents particulate material from r…
1. Located in the lungs... 2. Phagocytoses any persistant partic…
Mucous membrane
Susceptible to infection as they are thin walled to allow for…
Mucosal surface innate immunity mechan…
1. Mucociliary escalator ... 2. Alveolar macrophages... 3. Commensa…
27 terms
mucosal immunity
Epithelial cells produce
IL-10 and TGF-B
TNF-a
CXCL1
Il10, tgf-b,tnf-a, cxcl1, ccl2, cxcl10
Immunisuppressive
Direct th1differentiation
For neutrophils
Epithelial cells produce
Il10, tgf-b,tnf-a, cxcl1, ccl2, cxcl10
IL-10 and TGF-B
Immunisuppressive
10 terms
Mucosal Immunity
M; minimal; antigen uptake
effector compartment; mesenteric node;…
dendritic; commensal organisms; IgA; i…
weak; regulatory; strong; effector TH
Peyer's patches and lymphoid follicles are covered in special…
the induction phase occurs in the ___; from here, ag-specific…
___ cells in subepithelial lymphoid tissue present ____ to Ag…
in the absence of Ags with inflammatory patterns, DCs give __…
M; minimal; antigen uptake
Peyer's patches and lymphoid follicles are covered in special…
effector compartment; mesenteric node;…
the induction phase occurs in the ___; from here, ag-specific…
17 terms
mucosal immunity
mucosal immunity
outer mucus layer
goblet cells
Peyer's patch
handles antigens at the first contact point between host and…
bacterial biofilm, composed of sugars, lactate, SCFAs
secrete mucins
small mass of lymphoid tissue, monitors intestinal bacteria
mucosal immunity
handles antigens at the first contact point between host and…
outer mucus layer
bacterial biofilm, composed of sugars, lactate, SCFAs
21 terms
Mucosal Immunity
mucous
nasal cavity
pro inflammatory cytokines
anti inflammatory cytokines
-composed of mucins which are glycoproteins... -contain antibodi…
-hairs filter out large particles... -nasal turbinate's create v…
IL-1... IL-6... IL-15... TNF-alpha
IL-10... TGF-betta
mucous
-composed of mucins which are glycoproteins... -contain antibodi…
nasal cavity
-hairs filter out large particles... -nasal turbinate's create v…
41 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Functions of the mucosal immune system
distinct features of mucosal immunity
Components of mucosal immune system
-line of defense against microbial pathogens.... -Tolerance: Pre…
1) intimate association with epithelial cells; ... 2) defined (I…
Integrated network of anatomic sites, immune cells and tissue…
Functions of the mucosal immune system
-line of defense against microbial pathogens.... -Tolerance: Pre…
distinct features of mucosal immunity
1) intimate association with epithelial cells; ... 2) defined (I…
39 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Mucosal Area's
Mucosal tissues of human body
Mucin
Commensal Bacteria in tissues
Small intestine = 400m2 of area... 2/3 lymphocytes serve muco…
- Respiratory tract (sinus, trachea, lungs)... - Gastrointestin…
Mucosal surface protected by the tight junction of epithelial…
Stomach: 1000 bacteria/ml content... Small intestine: 10^5-10^8…
Mucosal Area's
Small intestine = 400m2 of area... 2/3 lymphocytes serve muco…
Mucosal tissues of human body
- Respiratory tract (sinus, trachea, lungs)... - Gastrointestin…
26 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Two functionally distinct compartments…
Location of plasma cells, effector T c…
Mucosal tissue located at back of the…
Secondary lymphoid tissues of small in…
Inductive and effector
Lamina propria
Palatine tonsils, adenoids, and lingual tonsils
Peyer's patch
Two functionally distinct compartments…
Inductive and effector
Location of plasma cells, effector T c…
Lamina propria
26 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Two functionally distinct compartments…
Location of plasma cells, effector T c…
Mucosal tissue located at back of the…
Secondary lymphoid tissues of small in…
Inductive and effector
Lamina propria
Palatine tonsils, adenoids, and lingual tonsils
Peyer's patch
Two functionally distinct compartments…
Inductive and effector
Location of plasma cells, effector T c…
Lamina propria
25 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Mucins are ______
Secretory _____ are used to bind micro…
Mucins can be ______ or ______
As food passed through the GI tract, i…
glycoproteins
IgAs... defensins
membrane bound... secreted
increasing
Mucins are ______
glycoproteins
Secretory _____ are used to bind micro…
IgAs... defensins
38 terms
Mucosal Immunity
The mucosa is the first line of defens…
MAIN FUNCTION OF THE MUCOSA
Mainstays of mucosal immunity
GI Tract Mucosa
Gastrointestinal, respiratory, urogenital tracts, and the eye…
PROTECT THE UNDERLYING TISSUE FROM FOREIGN INVASION
Commensal bacteria, M cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes, fol…
-Large surface area (villi and microvilli)... -Function: absorp…
The mucosa is the first line of defens…
Gastrointestinal, respiratory, urogenital tracts, and the eye…
MAIN FUNCTION OF THE MUCOSA
PROTECT THE UNDERLYING TISSUE FROM FOREIGN INVASION
42 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Key points
Anatomy of MALT (Mucosal- Associated L…
O-MALT
-BALT
-Anatomically and functional dieting compartments... -Compartmen…
Two types ... -O-MALT -organized ... -D-MALT -diffused
-organized, has lymphoid follicle and germinal center but not…
bronchial associated (lower respiratory tract) less developed…
Key points
-Anatomically and functional dieting compartments... -Compartmen…
Anatomy of MALT (Mucosal- Associated L…
Two types ... -O-MALT -organized ... -D-MALT -diffused
26 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Two functionally distinct compartments…
Location of plasma cells, effector T c…
Mucosal tissue located at back of the…
Secondary lymphoid tissues of small in…
Inductive and effector
Lamina propria
Palatine tonsils, adenoids, and lingual tonsils
Peyer's patch
Two functionally distinct compartments…
Inductive and effector
Location of plasma cells, effector T c…
Lamina propria
13 terms
Mucosal immunity
1st line of defence
Epithelium associated tissues
Primary lymphoid organs
Secondary lymphoid organs
Epithelial cell barrier
Muscosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)... Gut associated lymp…
Bone marrow and thymus
Spleen, lymph nodes and MALT
1st line of defence
Epithelial cell barrier
Epithelium associated tissues
Muscosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)... Gut associated lymp…
16 terms
Mucosal immunity
Mucin... function... origin
a-defensins... function... origin
Peyer's patch... composition
M cells... function... location
Form mucosal layer... Goblet cells
Antimicrobial molecules... Paneth cells
Lymph node with M cell layer
Transport Ag to DC... Peyer's patch
Mucin... function... origin
Form mucosal layer... Goblet cells
a-defensins... function... origin
Antimicrobial molecules... Paneth cells
21 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Mucoscal Immunity: Chemokine
T cells activated in the gut express t…
Chemokine receptors activate
Commensal bacteria
A cytokine that stimulates the migration of cells to inflamed…
to CCL25 on gut epithelium.
integrins, leading to firm adhesion and transmigration into t…
Symbiotic bacteria that permanently reside on mucosal surface…
Mucoscal Immunity: Chemokine
A cytokine that stimulates the migration of cells to inflamed…
T cells activated in the gut express t…
to CCL25 on gut epithelium.
42 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Why we have mucosal immunity
Most deaths from
MALT
Intraepithelial lymphocytes are always
Large surface area and trillions of bacteria in the lumen. Ly…
Respiratory infections, HIV, diarrheal diseases
Mucosal associated tissue. Includes GALT (GI), BALT (bronchia…
CD8
Why we have mucosal immunity
Large surface area and trillions of bacteria in the lumen. Ly…
Most deaths from
Respiratory infections, HIV, diarrheal diseases
26 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Two functionally distinct compartments…
Location of plasma cells, effector T c…
Mucosal tissue located at back of the…
Secondary lymphoid tissues of small in…
Inductive and effector
Lamina propria
Palatine tonsils, adenoids, and lingual tonsils
Peyer's patch
Two functionally distinct compartments…
Inductive and effector
Location of plasma cells, effector T c…
Lamina propria
16 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Oral tolerance
Tolerogenic DC
MALT/GALT
Tonsils
The immune's system default to NOT respond to antigens encoun…
mediate oral tolerance, CD103 + DCs
specialized mucosal secondary lymphoid organs.... consists of t…
Secondary Lymphoid tissue. Strong producers of IgA. ... People…
Oral tolerance
The immune's system default to NOT respond to antigens encoun…
Tolerogenic DC
mediate oral tolerance, CD103 + DCs
20 terms
Mucosal Immunity
IELs
Goblet cells
Paneth cells
4 Functions of TLRs
Immune cells in mucosal epithelium and lamina propria... CD8+ T…
Secrete mucins that hold commensal bacteria, AMPs, IgA
Secrete AMPs
1. Production of epithelial repair and motility factors... 2. B…
IELs
Immune cells in mucosal epithelium and lamina propria... CD8+ T…
Goblet cells
Secrete mucins that hold commensal bacteria, AMPs, IgA
36 terms
Mucosal Immunity
___ are the first lymphoid tissue micr…
The relation between gut microbiota an…
butyrate
segmented filamentous bacteria
tonsils
mutualistic
stimulates mucosal production, goood for immune systaem
express flaggellin that binds TLR5 on dendritic cells, promot…
___ are the first lymphoid tissue micr…
tonsils
The relation between gut microbiota an…
mutualistic
10 terms
Mucosal Immunity
M-cells
Type of T-cell in the intestinal lamin…
Type of T-cell in the intraepithelial…
B-cells in the BALT
antigen-transporting cells (from the surface of the gut to th…
alpha/beta T-cell population
gamma/delta T-cell population... These cells are interspersed b…
Make IgA:... 1)Stops adherence of pathogens to mucosal epitheli…
M-cells
antigen-transporting cells (from the surface of the gut to th…
Type of T-cell in the intestinal lamin…
alpha/beta T-cell population
32 terms
Mucosal immunity
B defensins
Catelicidins
Surfactant protein A andD
Lysosomes
Bacterial lyse via pore formation, chemotactic for many leuko…
Antimicrobial a city against Mandy organismfincluding gram po…
Type II alveolar cells. Promote phagocytosis and directly bac…
Secretion and is able to cleave cell wall of gram positive ba…
B defensins
Bacterial lyse via pore formation, chemotactic for many leuko…
Catelicidins
Antimicrobial a city against Mandy organismfincluding gram po…
29 terms
Mucosal Immunity
mucosal immunity
non-specific immune molecules and cells
Specific/Immunologic
organized peripheral lymphoid tisses l…
equiped with unique innate and acquired defense mechanisms. F…
-lysozyme, lactoferrin, defensins (milk, tears, mucus)... -phago…
-Tc... -B cells... -sIgA antibodies (milk, mucosal linings)
MALT. NALT in nasopharynx and GALT in gut
mucosal immunity
equiped with unique innate and acquired defense mechanisms. F…
non-specific immune molecules and cells
-lysozyme, lactoferrin, defensins (milk, tears, mucus)... -phago…
50 terms
Mucosal immunity
what is the first line of defense agai…
M cells stands for what? what types of…
4 APC
APC prime what?
mucosal immune system
microfold cells... APC surrounding Peyer's Patches
1. Dendrites... 2. Macrophages... 3. B cell... 4. Microfold cell
naive B and T-cells to become effector cells
what is the first line of defense agai…
mucosal immune system
M cells stands for what? what types of…
microfold cells... APC surrounding Peyer's Patches
24 terms
Mucosal immunity
What type of immunity does mucosa pose…
Mucosal surfaces that have large areas…
2 catagories of mucosal lymphoid tissue
Inductive sites
both aquired and inate
1. respitory... 2. urogenital... 3. Gastrointestinal... *Has large am…
1. inductive sites ... 2. Effector sites
Sites where Antigen is encountered, processed, and an Imm…
What type of immunity does mucosa pose…
both aquired and inate
Mucosal surfaces that have large areas…
1. respitory... 2. urogenital... 3. Gastrointestinal... *Has large am…
64 terms
Mucosal Immunity
The site of primary immune responses i…
GALT organization
The largest lymph nodes in the body th…
____ are dome like aggregates of lymph…
Peyer's patches
Peyer's patches... single lymphoid follicles... appendix... Mesenteric…
Mesenteric lymph nodes
Peyer's Patches
The site of primary immune responses i…
Peyer's patches
GALT organization
Peyer's patches... single lymphoid follicles... appendix... Mesenteric…
31 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Mucosae
Mucosal tissues of the human body
Mucosal Defenses
Mucus
Mediate most biological interactions with the environement su…
1. Lachrymal gland... 2. Salivary gland... 3. Mammary gland... 4. Kidn…
1. Mucus... 2. Soluble mediators... 3. Non-inflammatory macrophages…
glycoproteins and proteoglycans that bind/absorb pathogens... -p…
Mucosae
Mediate most biological interactions with the environement su…
Mucosal tissues of the human body
1. Lachrymal gland... 2. Salivary gland... 3. Mammary gland... 4. Kidn…
61 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Is the lactating breast apart of the m…
What is GALT
What are the biggest lymph nodes in th…
Effector lymphocytes can be found wher…
YES
-peyer's patches and isolated lymphoid follicles in gut
the mesenteric lymph nodes
in epithelial layers and lamina propria
Is the lactating breast apart of the m…
YES
What is GALT
-peyer's patches and isolated lymphoid follicles in gut
32 terms
Mucosal Immunity
The gut has a constant state of low le…
What are the two distinct areas of GALT?
GALT is in the form of ____ and tends…
What isotype switching is going to be…
inflammation
T cell rich... B cell rich
peyer patches; mucosal layer; M cells
IgA
The gut has a constant state of low le…
inflammation
What are the two distinct areas of GALT?
T cell rich... B cell rich
26 terms
Mucosal immunity
Payer's patches
What features allow M cells to take up…
What two strategies of mucosal immunit…
What is proactive mucosal immune respo…
located in the walls of the small intestines and contain B ce…
lack of digestive enzymes, mucus, protective glycocalyx, and…
Proactive mucosal immune response and suppressed inflammatory…
it constantly makes adaptive immune responses against gut mic…
Payer's patches
located in the walls of the small intestines and contain B ce…
What features allow M cells to take up…
lack of digestive enzymes, mucus, protective glycocalyx, and…
29 terms
Mucosal Immunity
list effector immune cells at mucosal…
major antibody in mucosal secretions i…
major antibody in mucosal secretions i…
3 major intestinal lymphoid compartments
IgA-secreting plasma cells, macrophages, mast cells, eosinoph…
IgA
IgG1
Peyer's patches, lamina propria, intraepithelial lymphocytes
list effector immune cells at mucosal…
IgA-secreting plasma cells, macrophages, mast cells, eosinoph…
major antibody in mucosal secretions i…
IgA
19 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Systemic immunity
Mucosal Immunity
Mucins
Peyer's patches
Few immune cells present normally in tissues, and inflammatio…
Activated immune cells normally present and inflammation is b…
Huge glycoproteins composed of repeating subunits disulfide-b…
Sits on the epithelium surface, attached to lymphatic vessels…
Systemic immunity
Few immune cells present normally in tissues, and inflammatio…
Mucosal Immunity
Activated immune cells normally present and inflammation is b…
11 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Main 3 functions of mucosal immunity
MALT is present in:
what are peyer's patches? where are th…
importance of the intestinal mucosa an…
1) protect mucus membranes from infection... 2) prevent the upta…
(mucosa associated lymphoid tissue)... >GI (GALT)... > respiratory…
large oval lymph collections in the SI mucosa, forming a stro…
>must be able absorb food protein and not activate an immune…
Main 3 functions of mucosal immunity
1) protect mucus membranes from infection... 2) prevent the upta…
MALT is present in:
(mucosa associated lymphoid tissue)... >GI (GALT)... > respiratory…
10 terms
Mucosal immunity
Inflammatory Bowel diseases
Crohn's disease
Ulcerative Colitis
Genetics of IBD
group of chronic immune mediated diseases such as Crohn's dis…
Whole Gi tract... Patchy inflammation (waves)... Appearance of thic…
Colon... Continuos inflammation... Thinned wall... Bleeding
Many polymorphism associated with adaptive T cell responses... t…
Inflammatory Bowel diseases
group of chronic immune mediated diseases such as Crohn's dis…
Crohn's disease
Whole Gi tract... Patchy inflammation (waves)... Appearance of thic…
52 terms
Mucosal Immunity
What are 3 examples of mucosal surface…
What is the "challenge" faced by host…
What are 5 examples of benefits derive…
What is an example of non-antigen spec…
1. respiratory tract... 2. intestinal tract... 3. urogenital tract…
to protect the body and clear infection without damaging the…
1. synthesis of essential metabolites (Vit K)... 2. break down f…
stomach acid/low pH
What are 3 examples of mucosal surface…
1. respiratory tract... 2. intestinal tract... 3. urogenital tract…
What is the "challenge" faced by host…
to protect the body and clear infection without damaging the…
34 terms
Mucosal Immunity
Why are mucous membranes particularly…
In milk fed animals what bacteria exis…
Why does treatment of rabbits with pen…
What are gamma delta T cells
they are thin walled for their physiological function
lactobacilli that produce lactic acid and butyric acid, antim…
enterotoxaemia, Clostridium difficle gain a foothold and prod…
found beneath mucosal epithelial surfaces, invariant receptor…
Why are mucous membranes particularly…
they are thin walled for their physiological function
In milk fed animals what bacteria exis…
lactobacilli that produce lactic acid and butyric acid, antim…
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